Job's Daughters International is a Masonic-sponsored youth organization for girls and young women aged 10 to 20. The organization is commonly referred to as simply Job's Daughters, and sometimes abbreviated as JDI (or IOJD, referring to its longtime former name, International Order of Job's Daughters). Job's Daughters welcomes many religions and cultures.
The organization was founded as The Order of Job's Daughters by Ethel T. Wead Mick in Omaha, Nebraska, on October 20, 1920. The purpose of the organization is to band together young girls who are related to a Master Mason, and strives to build character through moral and spiritual development. Goals include a greater reverence for God and the Holy Scriptures, as stated in the Job's Daughters Constitution, loyalty to one's country and that country's flag; and respect for parents, guardians, and elders. Job's Daughters is not a religion or a creed, and its members are not required to practice a particular religion. Members are required, however, to believe in a supreme being. Job's Daughters is not a secret society.
"Mother Mick" was fond of the Book of Job, and took the name of the organization as a reference to the three daughters of Job. The Book of Job, 42nd chapter, 15th verse says, "In all the land were no women found so fair as the Daughters of Job, and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren". She founded the Order with the assistance of her husband, Dr. William H. Mick, and several Freemasons and members of Eastern Star of Nebraska. She dedicated the organization to the memory of her mother, Elizabeth D. Wead.
By June 1923 the Job's Daughters had been endorsed by the Grand Chapters of the Order of the Eastern Star in Indiana, Maryland, Minnesota and Washington, DC. The order spread rapidly in the early 1920s. At the third annual meeting of the "Supreme Guardian Council" in Chicago on Oct. 12, 1923, delegates were present from twenty-three states, the Territory of Alaska and Manitoba.
The individual chapter is called a Bethel (as is the meeting location), and each is numbered sequentially, according to when they were instituted in their jurisdiction. They usually meet at a Masonic Lodge building but may meet at a church hall, or other fraternal hall.
The original age for membership was 13-18, as stated in "The Official History of the International Order of Job's Daughters", but has been changed several times over the years, most recently to age 10-20 in 2004.
Once a member turns 18, she was originally made an honorary member for life.
Members who reach the age of 20 or marry while members in good standing become Majority Members. Majority Members may still be active in the organization but are no longer allowed to hold an office or vote on business matters in the Bethel. Some jurisdictions allow Majority Members up to age 25 to hold an office in the Grand Bethel or Jurisdictional Bethel, which is composed of members from all over the jurisdiction. Young women who wish to remain active in Masonic activities may join Order of the Eastern Star or Order of the Amaranth upon reaching the age of 18.
A Grand Bethel Honored Queen or Jurisdictional Bethel Honored Queen is the head of the Grand or Jurisdictional Bethel for each jurisdiction. To serve as either Grand Bethel Honored Queen or Jurisdictional Bethel Honored Queen, a girl must be a Past Honored Queen, or in some jurisdictions, a PHQ or a Majority Member. A Grand Bethel is unique in each jurisdiction, so rules may vary vastly. The Supreme Bethel Honored Queen is the head of the Supreme Bethel, which is at the international level of the organization. To be selected as Supreme Bethel Honored Queen, a girl must be a Past Honored Queen of a Bethel, at least 16 years of age, and receive a 75% or higher on her SBHQ test prior to the drawing.
A Miss Jurisdictional Job's Daughter serves as the head and voice of the youth organization on the Grand or Jurisdictional level. She speaks on behalf of Job's Daughters to other Masonic Bodies to promote the organization. The selection of the Jurisdictional Miss Job's Daughter is by a pageant held once a year that has competitions for ritual, interviews by a panel of judges, and a written test. The Miss International Job's Daughter serves on the international level and travels all over the world to speak on behalf of the organization. To be selected as Miss International Job's Daughter, a girl must be at least 16 years of age and compete at a pageant held during the Supreme Session. She is only eligible to compete once.
The Grand/Jurisdictional Honored Queen and the Miss Jurisdictional Job's Daughter are considered to be co-leaders of the jurisdiction. They are equal in everything that they do.
The Bethel Guardian and Council is the group of adults that helps advise and supervise the girls of the Bethel. It is led by the Bethel Guardian, an adult female with a proper Masonic relationship, and the Associate Bethel Guardian, who must be a Master Mason. They are joined by other adults filling the offices of Guardian Secretary, Guardian Treasurer, and either Guardian Director of Epochs or Guardian Director of Music. At the jurisdictional level a group of adults called the Grand Guardian Council or Jurisdictional Guardian Council oversees all of the Bethels in their state.
The "Job's Daughter to Bee" or "JD2B" program gives Bethels a way to involve eight- and nine-year-old girls in the Bethels' public and social activities before the girls become full members at 10.
Current and former members of Job's Daughters sometimes refer to each other as "Jobies," and it is not uncommon to see communications between two members of the organization closed with the statement "Jobie Love" in place of a statement as "Sincerely".
Today, Bethels and Grand Bethels are active in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Philippines and the United States. Within the United States, there are currently Bethels in 31 states. Most states and provinces have a Grand Guardian Council but a few are under the direct supervision of the Supreme Guardian Council.
The presiding officer of the Bethel is the Honored Queen or in Canada & Australia "Honoured Queen" and in Brazil "Honorável Rainha", elected by the members of her Bethel. This position is roughly analogous to Worshipful Master in a Masonic Lodge, and to the President of an association of any kind. The Honored Queen is assisted in her duties by a Senior Princess and a Junior Princess. The Senior Princess is usually considered to be next in line as Honored Queen. Girls who finish a term as Honored Queen use the title Past Honored Queen (abbreviated PHQ) within Job's Daughters, and usually receive a pin commemorating their service. The elected officers are referred to as the "line officers", or in some Bethels the "Elect Five" or "Top Five", of the Bethel, meaning that in general, a Daughter is elected sequentially from the lowest position (Marshal) to the highest position (Honored Queen).
The ritual of the Order was drawn up by Le Roy T. Wilcox, a scholar of Masonic law, and the group came "under the general management of the Masonic order".
Stations (Officers) of the Bethel and their respective duties
Honored Queen - leads meetings, initiations, installations, events, etc. Presides over Third Epoch of initiation.
Senior Princess - assists the Honored Queen in her duties. Presides over Second Epoch of initiation.
Junior Princess - assists the Honored Queen in her duties. Presides over First Epoch of initiation.
Guide - guides pilgrims through initiation.
Marshal - assists the Guide in her duties. In charge of paraphernalia and escorts National Emblem during meetings.
Senior Custodian - assists the Marshal with paraphernalia, assists the Senior Princess during initiation, and performs any duties assigned by the Honored Queen.
Junior Custodian - assists the Marshal with paraphernalia, assists the Junior Princess during initiation, and performs any duties assigned by the Honored Queen.
Recorder - record notes during meetings, receive bethel funds, and turn them over to the Treasurer.
Librarian - gives a report on literature, the arts, and/or sciences at each meeting.
Chaplain - leads prayers during meetings.
Treasurer - receive bethel funds, keep an accurate record, and turn them over to the Guardian Treasurer.
First Messenger - assists the Junior Princess during initiation.
Second Messenger - assists the Junior Princess during initiation.
Third Messenger - assists the Senior Princess during initiation.
Fourth Messenger - assists the Senior Princess during initiation.
Fifth Messenger - assists the Honored Queen during initiation.
Inner Guard - responds to Outer Guard's warnings from outside and gives the Honored Queen's instructions to the Outer Guard.
Outer Guard - prevents interruptions during meetings.
Musician - leads songs and music, usually plays organ or piano
Bethel Guardian Council
Associate Bethel Guardian
Guardian Director of Epochs
Director of Music
Director of Promotion
Promoter of Sociability
Director of Epochs
Director of Hospitality
Promoter of Good Will
Promoter of Production
Promoter of Fraternal Relations
Custodian of Paraphernalia
^ abc"Youth Order Trains Girls". Los Angeles Times. April 24, 1938. "...the Order of Job's Daughters was founded by Mrs. Ethel T. Wead Mick in the city of Omaha on October 20, 1920.... Constant supervision of all Bethel activities is a strict duty of the Bethel Guardian Council.... A petitioner must have reached her thirteenth birthday..."