Jenny McCarthy

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Jenny McCarthy
McCarthy smiling and wearing a headset microphone
McCarthy in May 2006
BornJennifer Ann McCarthy
(1972-11-01) November 1, 1972 (age 41)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.[1]
OccupationActress, comedian, model, author, activist, talk show host
Years active1993–present
Spouse(s)John Mallory Asher (m. 1999–2005)
Partner(s)Jim Carrey (2005–10)
Donnie Wahlberg (2013–present; engaged)
ChildrenEvan Asher
RelativesMelissa McCarthy
 
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Not to be confused with Jenna McCarthy.
Jenny McCarthy
McCarthy smiling and wearing a headset microphone
McCarthy in May 2006
BornJennifer Ann McCarthy
(1972-11-01) November 1, 1972 (age 41)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.[1]
OccupationActress, comedian, model, author, activist, talk show host
Years active1993–present
Spouse(s)John Mallory Asher (m. 1999–2005)
Partner(s)Jim Carrey (2005–10)
Donnie Wahlberg (2013–present; engaged)
ChildrenEvan Asher
RelativesMelissa McCarthy

Jennifer Ann "Jenny" McCarthy (born November 1, 1972)[1][2] is an American model, television host, comedic actress, author, and anti-vaccine activist. She began her career in 1993 as a nude model for Playboy magazine and was later named their Playmate of the Year. McCarthy then parlayed her Playboy fame into a television and film acting career. She was formerly a co-host on the ABC talk show The View.

McCarthy has written books about parenting, and has become an activist promoting research into environmental causes and alternative medical treatments for autism. She has claimed that vaccines cause autism[3] and that chelation therapy helped cure her son of autism.[4][5] Both claims are unsupported by medical consensus, and her son's autism diagnosis has been questioned.[5][6]

Early life[edit]

McCarthy was born in Evergreen Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, to a working-class Catholic family, and has Irish, German, and Polish ancestry.[7] She lived in the West Elsdon neighborhood of Chicago.[8][9] She is the second of four daughters; her sisters are named Lynette, Joanne and Amy. Melissa McCarthy is her cousin.[10][11] McCarthy's mother, Linda, was a housewife and courtroom custodian, and her father, Dan McCarthy, was a steel mill foreman.[12][13]

As a teenager, McCarthy attended Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School (whose school sweater she donned in the pages of Playboy) and was a cheerleader at both Brother Rice High School and St. Laurence High Schools,[14] although she has referred to herself as an "outcast" at her school[15] and has described how she was repeatedly bullied by classmates.[16]

Career[edit]

Modeling and acting[edit]

Jenny McCarthy
Playboy centerfold appearance
October 1993
Preceded byCarrie Westcott
Succeeded byJulianna Young
Playmate of the Year
1994
Preceded byAnna Nicole Smith
Succeeded byJulie Lynn Cialini
Personal details
Born1 November 1972
Height5 ft 7 in (1.70 m)[1]
Weight120 lb (54 kg)[1]

In 1993, Playboy magazine offered McCarthy $20,000 ($32,651 in 2014 currency) to pose for its October issue. McCarthy became the Playmate of the Month for October 1993. Playboy publisher Hugh Hefner cites McCarthy's "wholesome Catholic girl" persona as the unique quality for which she was selected out of 10,000 applicants.[17][18] Her layout emphasized her Catholic upbringing with a schoolgirl theme. According to McCarthy, the pictorial caused an uproar in her Catholic neighborhood, and resulted in her house being pelted with eggs, her sisters being taunted at school, and McCarthy, who counted Catholic nuns among her aunts, being lectured about her future damnation by those close to her.[17] McCarthy was later made the Playmate of the Year, and was paid a $100,000 salary.[17][18] In 1994, because of her newfound public attention, McCarthy moved to Los Angeles and, for a time, hosted Hot Rocks, a Playboy TV show featuring uncensored music videos.

In 1995, when MTV chose McCarthy to be the host of a new dating show called Singled Out, she left Hot Rocks. Her job as a host was a success, and Playboy wanted her to do more modeling. That same year, she also appeared at World Wrestling Federation (WWF) pay-per-view event WrestleMania XI as a guest valet for villain Shawn Michaels, who faced heroic WWF Champion, Diesel. She left after the match with the victor, Diesel. McCarthy returned to World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE, formerly the WWF) on the August 2, 2008 edition of Saturday Night's Main Event to thank the fans for supporting Generation Rescue, an autism advocacy organization. In 1996, she landed a small part in the comedy The Stupids. In 1997, McCarthy launched two shows. The first one was an MTV sketch comedy show The Jenny McCarthy Show, which was sufficiently popular for NBC to sign her for an eponymous sitcom later that year, Jenny. Also in 1997, she appeared on one of two covers for the September issue of Playboy (the other cover featured Pamela Anderson). McCarthy also released an autobiography: Jen-X: Jenny McCarthy's Open Book.[19]

In 1998, McCarthy's first major movie role was alongside Trey Parker and Matt Stone in the comedy BASEketball. The following year, she starred in Diamonds, a movie which was directed by her then-husband John Mallory Asher. In 2000, she had a role in the horror movie Scream 3, and three years later she parodied that role in horror film spoof Scary Movie 3 along with fellow Playmate and actress Pamela Anderson. In 2005, McCarthy produced, wrote, and starred in the movie Dirty Love, where she was again directed by her husband at the time, John Asher. In March 2006, she was given Razzie Awards for "Worst Actress", "Worst Screenplay", and "Worst Picture" for her work on Dirty Love, which also earned Asher a Razzie for "Worst Director."[20]

In addition to her early TV fame on MTV and her short-lived, self-titled NBC sitcom, McCarthy has guest starred in a variety of other television shows including Stacked, Charmed, The Drew Carey Show, Wings, Fastlane, Two and a Half Men and Just Shoot Me!.[citation needed] She was the voice of Six in the third season of Canadian computer-animated science fiction cartoon Tripping the Rift. In 2005, McCarthy hosted a show on E! called Party at the Palms. The reality show, which was filmed at The Palms Hotel in Las Vegas, featured hotel guests, party goers, and celebrities.[21]

McCarthy has continued her work with Playboy over the years, both as a model and in other capacities. She appeared on the cover of the magazine's January 2005 issue wearing a leopard skin version of the company's iconic "bunny suit" and was featured in a pictorial shot at Elvis Presley's Graceland mansion in that same issue. She was the second woman (following Carmen Electra) and first former Playmate to become a celebrity photographer for the Playboy Cyber Club, where she photographed model Jennifer Madden.[citation needed]

Jenny's younger sister Amy has also posed for Playboy. She was Cyber Girl of the Week for September 27, 2004, and Cyber Girl of the Month for January, 2005.[22]

In 2007, McCarthy starred in a five-episode online series, called In the Motherhood, along with Chelsea Handler and Leah Remini.[23] The show aired on MSN and was based on being a mother where users could submit their stories to have it made into real webisodes.

She has also appeared in two video games: playing the role of Agent Tanya in the video game Command and Conquer: Red Alert 3, replacing Kari Wührer, and the fitness video game Your Shape Featuring Jenny McCarthy.[24]

On December 31, 2010, McCarthy was a correspondent in Times Square for ABC's Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve.[25] She also appeared in the 40th anniversary of ABC's New Year celebration where she kissed a nearby New York City cop.[26] She appeared in the December 31, 2012 edition of New Year's Rockin' Eve and kissed a midshipman of the United States Merchant Marine Academy.[27]

She was the host of season 2 of Love in the Wild, which aired in the summer of 2012.[28]

She appeared again in Playboy in the August 2012 issue, and on the cover, after saying she wanted to pose for it again before her 40th birthday.[29]

After 17 guest appearances, in July 2013 McCarthy was announced as a new co-host on ABC's The View, replacing former co-host Joy Behar. Barbara Walters praised McCarthy's intelligence, warmth, humor and fresh point of view, and calling her a great addition to the show.[30][31] She debuted as a co-host on September 9, 2013. In late June of 2014, The View fired McCarthy, along with co-hostess Sherri Shepherd.[32][33]

Public persona[edit]

McCarthy in April 2005

McCarthy once modeled for Candie's, a shoe company. In one magazine ad, McCarthy posed on a toilet seat with her underwear near her ankles. Cultural scholar Collin Gifford Brooke wrote that the ad's "taboo nature" brought it attention, while noting that the ad itself helped to weaken that taboo.[34] Another Candie's ad depicted McCarthy passing wind in a crowded elevator.[35][36]

Personal life[edit]

McCarthy dated manager Ray Manzella from 1994 until 1998. McCarthy began dating actor/director John Mallory Asher late in 1998.[37] The couple became engaged in January 1999, and married on September 11 of that year. They have a son, Evan Joseph, born on May 18, 2002, who was diagnosed with autism on May 10, 2005.[5][38] McCarthy and Asher divorced in September 2005.[39]

In December 2005, McCarthy began dating actor Jim Carrey. They did not make their relationship public until June 2006. She announced on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on April 2, 2008 that she and Carrey were living together, but had no plans to marry, as they did not need a "piece of paper."[40] Carrey almost made a mock proposal to McCarthy as a promotion to the film Yes Man for Ellen's Twelve Days of Holidays. McCarthy and Carrey announced that they had split up in April 2010.[41]

As of July 2013, she is currently dating Donnie Wahlberg.[42] On April 16, 2014 McCarthy announced live on The View that she and Wahlberg are engaged.[43]

Autism activism[edit]

Jenny McCarthy speaking at the 2008 Ante Up For Autism benefit

In May 2007, McCarthy announced that her son Evan was diagnosed with autism in 2005. Before claiming that her son's autism was caused by vaccination, McCarthy wrote that he was gifted, a "crystal child", and she an "indigo mom".[44] Evan's disorder began with seizures and his improvement occurred after the seizures were treated, symptoms experts have noted are more consistent with Landau–Kleffner syndrome, often misdiagnosed as autism.[5][6] She has denied that her son was misdiagnosed.[45] McCarthy served as a spokesperson for Talk About Curing Autism (TACA) from June 2007 until October 2008.[46] She participated in fundraisers, online chats, and other activities for the non-profit organization to help families affected by autism spectrum disorders. Her first fundraiser for TACA, Ante Up for Autism,[47] was held on October 20, 2007, in Irvine, California. She is a prominent spokesperson and activist for the Generation Rescue foundation,[48] and serves on its Board of Directors as of January 2011.[49]

McCarthy's book on the subject, Louder than Words: A Mother's Journey in Healing Autism, was published September 17, 2007. She stated both in her book and during her appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show that her husband was unable to deal with their son's autism, which led to their divorce. In 2008, she appeared on a Larry King Live special dedicated to the subject, and argued that vaccines can trigger autism.[50][51] In an April 27, 2010 PBS Frontline documentary, she was interviewed about the controversy between vaccine opponents and public health experts.[52][53]

In addition to conventional, intensive Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy, McCarthy tried a gluten-free and casein-free diet, hyperbaric oxygen chambers, chelation, aromatherapies, electromagnetics, spoons rubbed on his body, multivitamin therapy, B-12 shots and numerous prescription drugs. "Try everything," she advises parents, "It was amazing to watch, over the course of doing this, how certain therapies work for certain kids and they completely don't work for others ... When something didn't work for Evan, I didn't stop. I stopped that treatment, but I didn't stop."[5] McCarthy has stated on talk shows and at rallies that chelation therapy helped her son recover from autism.[4] The underlying rationale for chelation, the speculation that mercury in vaccines causes autism, has been roundly rejected by scientific studies, with the National Institute of Mental Health concluding that children with autism are unlikely to receive any benefit to balance the risks of heart attack, stroke and cardiac arrest posed by the chelating agents used in the treatment.[54]

McCarthy's public presence, and vocal activism on the vaccination-autism controversy, led, in 2008, to her being awarded The James Randi Educational Foundation's Pigasus Award, which is a tongue-in-cheek award granted for contributions to pseudoscience, for the 'Performer Who Has Fooled The Greatest Number of People with The Least Amount of Effort'. Randi stated in a video on the JREF's website that he did sympathize with the plight of McCarthy and her child, but admonished her for using her public presence in a way that may discourage parents from having their own children vaccinated.[55]

McCarthy's claims that vaccines cause autism are not supported by any medical evidence, and the original paper by Andrew Wakefield that formed the basis for the claims (and for whose book McCarthy wrote a foreword)[56] has been shown to be based on manipulated data and fraudulent research.[57][58][59][60] The BMJ published a 2011 article by journalist Brian Deer, based on information uncovered by Freedom of Information legislation after the British General Medical Council (GMC) inquiry into allegations of misconduct against Wakefield that led to him being struck-off from the medical register (unable to practice medicine in the UK) and his articles retracted, stating that Wakefield had planned a venture to profit from the MMR vaccine scare.[61][62][63][64]

Generation Rescue issued a statement that the "media circus" following the revelation of fraud and manipulation of data was "much ado about nothing",[65] which led USA Today to report that McCarthy had "taken a beating on Twitter".[66] Salon.com responded to Generation Rescue's statement with this:[67]

"It's high time the woman who once said that 'I do believe sadly it's going to take some diseases coming back to realize that we need to change and develop vaccines that are safe' took a step back and reconsidered the merits of that increasingly crackpot stance. And it's time she acknowledged that clinging to research that's been deemed patently fraudulent does not make one a 'mother warrior.' It makes her a menace."

In January 2011, McCarthy defended Wakefield, saying that he had listened to parents, reported what they said, and recommended further investigation. "Since when is repeating the words of parents and recommending further investigation a crime? As I've learned, the answer is whenever someone questions the safety of any vaccines. For some reason, parents aren't being told that this "new" information about Dr. Wakefield isn't a medical report, but merely the allegations of a single British journalist named Brian Deer", she said of the controversy.[68]

In early 2013, the Ottawa Regional Cancer Foundation dropped their plans to have McCarthy headline[69] their "Bust a Move" charity fundraiser[70] because of criticisms[71][72] of her using her celebrity status to promote views "considered dangerous by most of the medical establishment".[73] While McCarthy posted on Twitter that she had to "pull out" due to a "taping conflict", the event organiser Linda Eagen stated in an interview[73] that they had to "negotiate a financial settlement with her [McCarthy's] representatives to get out of the deal".

In an October 2013 interview for TV Guide, McCarthy is quoted as saying:

"It's been three years now since I've even talked about autism or vaccines — I was taken aback when people freaked out that I was going to come on The View and preach.... I will clarify my stance, which is still the same: That parents are in charge. Space it out, slow it down and do your homework. But I am not at all against vaccines."[74]

Objections to appointment on The View[edit]

McCarthy's appointment to The View called forth many protests. Amy Pisani of Every Child By Two stated of McCarthy's anti-vaccination stance in a letter to The View's Barbara Walters and Bill Geddie, that McCarthy's "unfounded claims that vaccines cause autism have been one of the greatest impediments to public health in recent decades," and that McCarthy's assertions "[have] spread fear among young parents, which has led to an increased number of children who have not received life-saving vaccines."[75]

James Poniewozik, a television critic for Time magazine, criticized McCarthy's addition to the series, and Walters' endorsement of McCarthy, arguing that The View is largely aimed at parents, on whom the public health system is dependent, and that the credibility that McCarthy's hiring will give her will endanger the public. Poniewozik argued that McCarthy's views, which might be brought up in discussions with the other hosts, would have the effect of framing the issue of whether vaccines cause autism as a matter of opinion, rather than a firmly refuted idea.[76] David Freeman, senior science editor for The Huffington Post, wrote about the concerns of Bill Nye, who stated: "I believe Ms. McCarthy's views will be discredited."[77] Alex Pareene also protested and published a letter to ABC in Salon Magazine entitled "Anti-vaccine conspiracist and "View" co-host Jenny McCarthy isn't just quirky—she spreads lies that hurt people."[78]

Michael Specter, writing in The New Yorker, stated that:

"Jenny McCarthy...will be the show’s first co-host whose dangerous views on childhood vaccination may—if only indirectly—have contributed to the sickness and death of people throughout the Western world. McCarthy, who is savvy, telegenic, and pulchritudinous, is also the person most visibly associated with the deadly and authoritatively discredited anti-vaccine movement in the United States."[79]

Brendan Nyhan, writing in Columbia Journalism Review, commented that:

"ABC’s announcement yesterday that actress/comedian Jenny McCarthy will become a co-host of The View brought forth a torrent of condemnation from doctors, science journalists, opinion writers, and even entertainment commentators who oppose giving the anti-vaccine activist a high-profile platform to spread misinformation." After an extensive review of news coverage of the hiring, he concluded that "[t]here is no perfect way to cover McCarthy’s hiring, of course, but giving “balanced” coverage to fringe beliefs is the worst approach to covering misinformation."[80]

Toronto Public Health officially denounced the appointment and "launched a Twitter campaign to get model and actress Jenny McCarthy fired from the ABC show The View":

"'Jenny McCarthy’s anti-vaccine views = misinformation. Please ask The View to change their mind,' the department wrote on Twitter. 'Jenny McCarthy cites fraudulent research on vaccines & it's irresponsible to provide her with The View platform.'"[81]

Katrina vanden Heuvel, member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Editor of The Nation, objected to the appointment and wrote about "Jenny McCarthy's Vaccination Fear-Mongering and the Cult of False Equivalence":

"One of the most prominent promoters of this falsehood ["Wakefield’s falsified claims"] is actress Jenny McCarthy, who was recently named as Elisabeth Hasselbeck’s replacement on ABC’s hit daytime talk-show, The View. Once she’s on air, it will be difficult to prevent her from advocating for the anti-vaccine movement. And the mere act of hiring her would seem to credit her as a reliable source....By giving science deniers a public forum, media outlets implicitly condone their claims as legitimate....False equivalency is one of journalism’s great pitfalls, and in an effort to achieve “balance,” reporters often obscure the truth. What’s the merit in “he said, she said” reporting when he says the world is round and she insists it is flat. Indeed, there is an enormous cost to society when the truth could save lives."[82]

McCarthy responded to the criticism during her media tour to promote "The View". Appearing on The Howard Stern Show where she was praised by Stern for landing such a legitimate job, McCarthy explained that she is not anti-vaccine, but rather she opposes too many vaccines in one sitting because that, she said, causes immune disregulation, which she said can cause autism.[83]

Publications[edit]

Filmography[edit]

YearTitleRoleNotes
1995Things to Do in Denver When You're DeadBlonde Nurse
1996The StupidsGlamorous Actress
1998BASEketballYvette Denslow
1999DiamondsSugar
2000Scream 3Sarah DarlingCandy Brooks
PythonFrancesca Garibaldimade for TV
2001Thank HeavenJulia
2002Crazy Little ThingWhitney Ann Barnsley
2003Scary Movie 3Katie Embry
2005Dirty LoveRebecca Sommers
2006Lingerie Bowlmade for TV
John Tucker Must DieLori Spencer
Santa BabyMary Class/ Mary Clausmade for TV
2008WienersMs. Isaac
Witless ProtectionConnie
2009Santa Baby 2: Christmas MaybeMary Class/Mary Clausmade for TV

Television work[edit]

YearTitleNotes
1995Mr. Show
1995–1997Singled OutHost
1996Wings
1997The Jenny McCarthy Show
1997–1998JennyLead role
1998The Big Breakfast
1999Home ImprovementGuest star in episode "Young at Heart"
2000Just Shoot Me!
2001Honey VicarroUnsold pilot
2003Untitled Jenny McCarthy ProjectUnsold pilot
Charmed
Less Than Perfect
2003–2004One on One
2004Hope & Faith
2005Stacked
What I Like About You
The Bad Girl's GuideCanceled after 6 episodes
2005–2006Party @ the Palms
2006My Name Is Earl
2006–2007Tripping the RiftVoice of Six
2007–2008, 2010, 2011Two and a Half MenCourtney, Charlie's On-and-Off Girlfriend
2008Saturday Night's Main EventSaturday Night's Main Event XXXVI
2009ChuckEpisode "Chuck vs. the Suburbs"
2010–presentDick Clark's New Year's Rockin' EveTimes Square correspondent
2012The Price Is Right
Windy City Live
Love in the Wild
Extreme Makeover: Home Edition
Surprise With Jenny McCarthy
2013The Jenny McCarthy ShowTalk show
The ViewTalk show

Video game work[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Playmate listing". Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Jenny McCarthy Profile" E! Online. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  3. ^ Fallik D (2008). "After vaccine–autism case settlement, MDs urged to continue recommending vaccines". Neurol Today 8 (11): 1, 8. doi:10.1097/01.NT.0000324682.98661.5c. 
  4. ^ a b Rochman, Bonnie (26 April 2011). "Jenny McCarthy, Vaccine Expert? A Quarter of Parents Trust Celebrities". Time. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Greenfeld KT (February 25, 2010). "The autism debate: who's afraid of Jenny McCarthy?". Time.  Archived copy
  6. ^ a b Rubin DB (2008). "Fanning the vaccine–autism link". Neurol Today 8 (15): 3. doi:10.1097/01.NT.0000335577.64245.34. 
  7. ^ Sweeney, Meghan. Irish-American actors (dis)honored with a Razzie, IrishCentral, March 10, 2009
  8. ^ "''The Joy Behar Show'' interview - aired October 7, 2010". Livedash.com. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  9. ^ "Jenny McCarthy's Genitals Compared To 'Roadkill' - Starpulse.com". www.starpulse.com. September 28, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2010. "I see them talk to the make-up artist and the make-up artist comes walking over and she goes, 'They said they'd never saw anyone as hairy as you their entire life.' I said, 'Well, I'm half Polish!'" 
  10. ^ Serpe, Gina (2011-09-19). "So True? So False? Is New Emmy Winner Melissa McCarthy Really Related to Jenny McCarthy?!". ca.eonline.com. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  11. ^ "Melissa McCarthy Biography". TVGuide.com. Retrieved April 29, 2008. 
  12. ^ "The McCarthy Era". The New York Times. [dead link]
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  14. ^ Austin, Michael and Jennifer Wehunt, "Before They Were Famous," Chicago, pg. 76, February 2007, Volume 56, number 2.
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  16. ^ Pinksy, Drew. "Jenny McCarthy: I was bullied". Dr. Drew (TV series). HLN. CNN/YouTube. October 10, 2011
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  18. ^ a b "Heroine Worship: The McCarthy Era". The New York Times Magazine
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  21. ^ Las Vegas Review-Journal, "SHOOTING STARS: 'Party at the Palms' begins filming with host Jenny McCarthy," June 06, 2005
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  23. ^ "ABC.com - Television Shows & Programming". Inthemotherhood.com. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  24. ^ "Playmate News". Playboy (Playboy Inc.) 56: 166–167. December 2009. 
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  26. ^ "Jenny McCarthy locked lips with mystery cop on New Year's Eve". NBC News Online. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  27. ^ Kirby, Iona (January 1, 2013). "Sealed with a kiss! Jenny McCarthy re-enacts famous VJ Day smooch with one lucky man as she parties in Times Square". London: Mail Online. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  28. ^ Margaret, Mary (2012-04-19). "Jenny McCarthy: 'I'm Taking Baby Steps' with New Romance". Parade. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 
  29. ^ Shira, Dahvi (2012-06-25). "Jenny McCarthy Playboy: Photo of Cover - Jenny McCarthy Naked Picture". People.com. Retrieved 2014-02-03. 
  30. ^ "Jenny McCarthy to replace Elisabeth Hasselbeck on The View". ABC News. 15 July 2013. 
  31. ^ Hibberd, James (15 July 2013). "Jenny McCarthy officially named 'The View' co-host". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  32. ^ "Jenny McCarthy: Being Fired From ‘The View’ Was A ‘Blessing’". 27 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "The View Shakeup: Jenny McCarthy's Firing "Not a Shock" to Insiders; Show's Future "Up in the Air"". 27 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  34. ^ Collin Gifford Brooke (2003). "Sex(haustion) Sells: Marketing in a Saturated Mediascape". In Tom Reichert and Jacqueline Lambiase. Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4118-0. 
  35. ^ "So Bad It’s Good: Why Really Awful Ad Campaigns Work So Well". BNET. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  36. ^ Boehning, Julie C. Footwear News. July 28, 1997. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-19632413.html. retrieved July 17, 2011.
  37. ^ Orecklin, Michele (February 1, 1999). "Jenny Cme Back". Time (Time Inc.). Retrieved October 5, 2008. 
  38. ^ McCarthy, Jenny (28 March 2008). "Jenny McCarthy: The day I heard my son had autism". CNN. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  39. ^ "The John Asher and Jenny McCarthy Divorce". recordssitereview.com. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  40. ^ Dreben, Jeb (November 3, 2008). "Jenny McCarthy Doesn't 'Need Piece of Paper to Prove My Love'". People Magazine (people.com). Retrieved December 29, 2010. 
  41. ^ Levin, Gary (April 6, 2010). "Jim Carrey, Jenny McCarthy announce split". USA Today. Retrieved April 6, 2010. 
  42. ^ Kornowski, Liat (July 13, 2013). "Jenny McCarthy, Donnie Wahlberg Dating: New Couple Reportedly Spent July 4th Together". Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  43. ^ Tan, Michelle. "Jenny McCarthy Engaged to Donnie Wahlberg". People Magazine. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  44. ^ McCarthy J (2006). "Insights of an indigo mom: a mother's awakening". Retrieved April 2, 2009. 
  45. ^ Jenny McCarthy (4 January 2014). "Stories circulating online, claiming that I said my son Evan may not have autism after all, are blatantly (cont)". Twitter. 
  46. ^ Ackerman L (October 5, 2008). "TACA & Jenny McCarthy". Retrieved November 4, 2008. [dead link]
  47. ^ zekedesign.com. "Taca". Ante Up For Autism. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  48. ^ Coombes R (2009). "Vaccine disputes" (PDF). BMJ 338: b2435. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2435. PMID 19546136. 
  49. ^ "Leadership:Board of Directors". Generation Rescue. 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  50. ^ Gross L (2009). "A broken trust: lessons from the vaccine–autism wars". PLoS Biol 7 (5): e1000114. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000114. PMC 2682483. PMID 19478850. 
  51. ^ "CNN Larry King Live: Jenny McCarthy's Autism Fight, Aired April 2, 2008". Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  52. ^ Aucoin, Don (April 27, 2010). "Measured doses of fact, friction in ‘Vaccine War'". The Boston Globe. 
  53. ^ "The Vaccine War", PBS FRONTLINE documentary, April 27, 2010
  54. ^ Stokstad E (2008). "Stalled trial for autism highlights dilemma of alternative treatments". Science 321 (5887): 326. doi:10.1126/science.321.5887.326. PMID 18635766. 
  55. ^ "Pigasus Awards for 2008 Announced". James Randi Educational Foundation. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Study linking vaccines to autism is 'fraudulent'". Time. January 6, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  57. ^ Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". BMJ. 342:c7452: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060. 
  58. ^ Deer B (2011). "How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed". BMJ 342: c5347. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5347. PMID 21209059. 
  59. ^ "Study linking vaccine to autism was fraud". NPR. Associated Press. January 5, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-01-07. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  60. ^ "Retracted autism study an 'elaborate fraud,' British journal finds". Atlanta: CNN. January 6, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  61. ^ Deer B (January 11, 2011). "How the vaccine crisis was meant to make money". BMJ. 342:c5258: c5258. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5258. 
  62. ^ Stein, Rob (January 11, 2011). "Wakefield tried to capitalize on autism-vaccine link, report says". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  63. ^ "Vaccine study's author held related patent, medical journal reports". CNN. January 11, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  64. ^ Russell, Peter (January 11, 2011). "MMR Doctor 'Planned to Make Millions,' Journal Claims". WebMD. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Jenny McCarthy's Generation Rescue". Generation Rescue. Retrieved January 6, 2011. 
  66. ^ Levin, Gary (January 6, 2011). "Jenny McCarthy under fire on Twitter". USA Today. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  67. ^ Williams, Mary Elizabeth (January 6, 2011). "Jenny McCarthy's autism fight grows more misguided". Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  68. ^ McCarthy, Jenny (January 10, 2011). "Jenny McCarthy: In the Vaccine-Autism Debate, What Can Parents Believe?". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Anti-vaccine crusader Jenny McCarthy to headline Bust a Move Ottawa". Retrieved 2013-02-06. 
  70. ^ Belluz, Julia. "How did Jenny McCarthy earn a platform at a cancer fundraiser?". Macleans. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
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  83. ^ The Howard Stern Show, Sept 23, 2013

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Ronan Keating
MTV Europe Music Awards host
1998
Succeeded by
Ronan Keating
Preceded by
Joy Behar
The View second co-host
2013-present
Succeeded by
incumbent