Jean Simmons

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Jean Simmons
Studio publicity Jean Simmons.jpg
Jean Simmons in a 1955 studio publicity shot
BornJean Merilyn Simmons
(1929-01-31)31 January 1929
Lower Holloway, London, England, UK
Died22 January 2010(2010-01-22) (aged 80)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Lung cancer
NationalityBritish-American
Alma materAida Foster School of Dance
OccupationActress, singer, dancer
Years active1944–2009
Spouse(s)Stewart Granger (1950–60; divorced); 1 child
Richard Brooks (1960–77; divorced); 1 child
ChildrenTracy Granger (b.1956)
Kate Brooks (b. 1961)
ParentsCharles Simmons
Winifred Loveland Simmons
 
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For the musician, see Gene Simmons.
Jean Simmons
Studio publicity Jean Simmons.jpg
Jean Simmons in a 1955 studio publicity shot
BornJean Merilyn Simmons
(1929-01-31)31 January 1929
Lower Holloway, London, England, UK
Died22 January 2010(2010-01-22) (aged 80)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Lung cancer
NationalityBritish-American
Alma materAida Foster School of Dance
OccupationActress, singer, dancer
Years active1944–2009
Spouse(s)Stewart Granger (1950–60; divorced); 1 child
Richard Brooks (1960–77; divorced); 1 child
ChildrenTracy Granger (b.1956)
Kate Brooks (b. 1961)
ParentsCharles Simmons
Winifred Loveland Simmons

Jean Merilyn Simmons, OBE (January 31, 1929 – January 22, 2010) was a British actress.[1][2] One of J. Arthur Rank's "well-spoken young starlets," she appeared predominantly in films, beginning with those made in Great Britain during and after the Second World War, followed mainly by Hollywood films from 1950 onwards.[3]

Early life and career[edit]

Simmons was born in Lower Holloway, London, to Charles Simmons and his wife, Winifred (née Loveland) Simmons. Jean was the youngest of four children with siblings Edna, Harold and Lorna. She began acting at the age of 14. During the Second World War, the Simmons family was evacuated to Winscombe, Somerset.[4] Her father, a physical education teacher (who had represented Great Britain in the 1912 Summer Olympics),[5] taught briefly at Sidcot School, and sometime during this period Simmons followed her elder sister on to the village stage and sang songs such as "Daddy Wouldn't Buy Me a Bow Wow". Returning to London and just enrolled at the Aida Foster School of Dance, she was spotted by the director Val Guest, who cast her in the Margaret Lockwood vehicle Give Us the Moon.[6]

Small roles in several other films followed including the high profile Caesar and Cleopatra, produced by Gabriel Pascal. Pascal saw potential in Simmons and in 1945 he signed her to a seven-year contract. Prior to moving to Hollywood, she played the young Estella in David Lean's version of Great Expectations (1946) and Ophelia in Laurence Olivier's Hamlet (1948), for which she received her first Oscar nomination. She played an Indian girl in the Powell-Pressburger film Black Narcissus (1947).[7]

It was the experience of working on Great Expectations that caused her to pursue an acting career more seriously:

I thought acting was just a lark, meeting all those exciting movie stars, and getting £5 a day which was lovely because we needed the money. But I figured I'd just go off and get married and have children like my mother. It was working with David Lean that convinced me to go on.[8]

Playing Ophelia to Olivier's Hamlet made her a star while still in her teens, although she was already well known for her work in other British films, including her first starring role in the film adaptation of Uncle Silas, and Black Narcissus (both 1947). Olivier offered her the chance to work and study at the Bristol Old Vic, advising her to play anything they threw at her to get experience; she was under contract to the Rank Organisation who vetoed the idea.[9] In 1949 Simmons starred with Stewart Granger in Adam and Evelyne. In 1950 she was voted the fourth most popular star in Britain.[10] In 1951 Rank sold her contract to Howard Hughes,[11] who then owned the RKO Pictures.[12]

In 1950 she married Stewart Granger, with whom she appeared in several films, and the transition to an American career began. She made four films for Hughes, including Angel Face, directed by Otto Preminger. According to David Thomson "if she had made only one film – Angel Face – she might now be spoken of with the awe given to Louise Brooks."[13] A court case freed her from the contract with Hughes in 1952.[13]

In 1953 she starred alongside Spencer Tracy in The Actress, a film that was one of her personal favourites. Among the many films she appeared in during this period were The Robe (1953), Young Bess (1953), Désirée (1954), The Egyptian (1954), Guys and Dolls (1955), The Big Country (1958), Elmer Gantry (1960), (directed by her second husband, Richard Brooks), Spartacus (1960), All the Way Home (1963) and The Happy Ending (1969), for which she received her second Oscar nomination. In the opinion of film critic Philip French, Home Before Dark (1958) saw her give "perhaps her finest performance as a housewife driven into a breakdown in Mervyn LeRoy's psychodrama".[14]

By the 1970s Simmons turned her focus to stage and television acting. She toured the United States in Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music, then took the show to London, and thus originated the role of Desirée Armfeldt in the West End. Performing in the show for three years, she said she never tired of Sondheim's music; "No matter how tired or off you felt, the music would just pick you up."[15]

She portrayed Fiona "Fee" Cleary, the Cleary family matriarch, in the 1983 mini-series, The Thorn Birds; she won an Emmy Award for her role. In 1985-86 she appeared in North & South, again playing the role of the family matriarch as Clarissa Main. In 1988 she starred in The Dawning with Anthony Hopkins and Hugh Grant, and in 1989 she appeared in a remake of Great Expectations, in which she played the role of Miss Havisham, Estella's adoptive mother.[7]

She made a late career appearance in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Drumhead" as a retired Starfleet admiral and hardened legal investigator who conducts a witch-hunt. In 1991 she appeared in the short-lived revival of the 1960s daytime series Dark Shadows, in roles originally played by Joan Bennett. From 1994 until 1998 Simmons narrated the A&E documentary television series, Mysteries of the Bible. In 2004 Simmons voiced the lead-role of Sophie in the English dub of Howl's Moving Castle.[7]

Personal life[edit]

Jean Simmons was married and divorced twice. She married Stewart Granger in Tucson, Arizona, on December 20, 1950. In 1956 she and Granger became U.S. citizens;[16] they divorced in 1960.[17]

On November 1, 1960, she married director Richard Brooks; they divorced in 1977. Although both men were significantly older than Simmons, she denied she was looking for a father figure. Her father had died when she was just 16 but she said: "They were really nothing like my father at all. My father was a gentle, softly-spoken man. My husbands were much noisier and much more opinionated ... it's really nothing to do with age ... it's to do with what's there – the twinkle and sense of humour."[8] And in a 1984 interview, given in Copenhagen at the time she was shooting the film Yellow Pages, she elaborated slightly on her marriages, stating,

It may be simplistic, but you could sum up my two marriages by saying that, when I wanted to be a wife, Jimmy (Stewart Granger) would say: "I just want you to be pretty." And when I wanted to cook, Richard would say: "Forget the cooking. You've been trained to act – so act!" Most people thought I was helpless – a clinger and a butterfly – during my first marriage. It was Richard Brooks who saw what was wrong and tried to make me stand on my own two feet. I'd whine: 'I'm afraid.' And he'd say: 'Never be afraid to fail. Every time you get up in the morning, you are ahead.'

She had two daughters, Tracy Granger and Kate Brooks, one by each marriage – their names bearing witness to Simmons' friendship with Spencer Tracy[18] and Katharine Hepburn. Simmons moved to the East Coast in the late 1970s, briefly owning a home in New Milford, Connecticut. Later she returned to California, settling in Santa Monica, where she lived until her death.

Death[edit]

She died from lung cancer at her home on January 22, 2010, nine days before her 81st birthday, surrounded by her family.[19] [20][21]

Release[edit]

Throughout her life Simmons spoke out publicly about her struggle with addiction, and in 2003 became the patron of the British drugs and human rights charity Release. She was an active supporter of their campaigns for just, humane and effective drug policies, recognising that many of those with drug problems cannot afford the luxurious facilities available to celebrities. In 2005 she signed a petition to the British Prime Minister Tony Blair asking him not to upgrade cannabis from a class C drug to a class B.[22]

Filmography[edit]

YearFilmRoleNotes
1944Sports DayPeggy[23]
Give Us the MoonHeidi[24]
Mr. EmmanuelSally Cooper[25]Billed as Jean Simmonds
1945Kiss the Bride GoodbyeMolly Dodd[26]
Meet Sexton BlakeEva Watkins[27]
The Way to the StarsA singer
Caesar and Cleopatraharpist
1946Great ExpectationsEstella as a girl
1947The Woman in the HallJay
Uncle SilasCaroline Ruthyn[28]
Black NarcissusKanchi
Hungry HillJane Brodrick
1948HamletOpheliaVolpi Cup
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
1949The Blue LagoonEmmeline Foster
Adam and EvelyneEvelyne Kirby
1950So Long at the FairVicky BartonBambi Award for Best Actress – International (2nd place)
Cage of GoldJudith Moray[29]
Trio: "Sanatorium"Evie BishopBambi Award for Best Actress – International (2nd place)
1951The Clouded YellowSophie Malraux
1952Angel FaceDiane Tremayne
Androcles and the LionLavinia
1953Young BessPrincess ElizabethNational Board of Review Award for Best Actress (also for The Robe (film) and The Actress)
Affair with a StrangerCarolyn Parker[30]
The RobeDianaNational Board of Review Award for Best Actress (also for Young Bess and The Actress)
The ActressRuth Gordon JonesNational Board of Review Award for Best Actress (also for Young Bess and The Robe (film))
1954She Couldn't Say No
(AKA Beautiful but Dangerous )
Corby Lane
Demetrius and the GladiatorsDianaAppeared in a clip from The Robe
The EgyptianMeryt
A Bullet Is WaitingCally Canham[31]
DésiréeDésirée Clary
1955Footsteps in the FogLily Watkins
Guys and DollsSergeant Sarah BrownGolden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated-BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress
1956Hilda CraneHilda Crane
1957This Could Be the NightAnne LeedsNominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Until They Sail (1957)Barbara Leslie Forbes
1958The Big CountryJulie Maragon
Home Before DarkCharlotte Bronn[32]Laurel Award for Top Female Dramatic Performance (4th place)
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
1959This Earth Is MineElizabeth Rambeau[33]
1960Elmer GantrySharon FalconerLaurel Award for Top Female Dramatic Performance (3rd place)
Nominated-BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
SpartacusVarinia
The Grass Is GreenerHattie DurantLaurel Award for Top Female Comedy Performance (5th place)
1963All the Way HomeMary Follett
1965Life at the TopSusan Lampton[34]
1966Mister Buddwing (1966)The Blonde
1967Divorce American StyleNancy Downes
Rough Night in JerichoMolly Lang
1968HeidiFräulein Rottenmeier
1969The Happy EndingMary SpencerNominated-Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
1971Say Hello to YesterdayWoman
1975Mr. SycamoreEstelle Benbow
The Easter Promise (TV)Constance Payne [35]
1978The Dain Curse (TV)Aaronia Haldorn
DominiqueDominique Ballard
1979Beggarman, Thief (TV)Gretchen Jordache Burke[36]
1981A Small Killing (TV)Margaret Lawrence[37]
1983The Thorn Birds (TV)Fee ClearyPrimetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress - Series, Miniseries or Television Film
1984December Flower (TV)Etta Marsh[38]
1985Midas Valley (TV)Molly Hammond[39]
North and SouthClarissa Gault Main
1986North and South Book IIClarissa Gault Main
1987Perry Mason: The Case of the Lost LoveLaura Robertson [40]
1988Yellow PagesMaxine de la Hunt[41]
The DawningAunt Mary
1989Great ExpectationsMiss Havisham
Murder She Wrote
Episode: "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall"
Nominated-Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series
1991Star Trek: The Next Generation
Episode: "The Drumhead"
Rear Admiral Norah Satie
Dark ShadowsElizabeth Collins Stoddard/Naomi Collins
They Do It with MirrorsCarrie-Louise Serrocold
1994In The Heat of the Night (1994 TV Series) Episode:"Chez and the Grand Lady"Miss Cordelia
1995How to Make an American QuiltEm ReedNominated-Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
Daisies in DecemberKatherine Palmer[42]
2001Final Fantasy: The Spirits WithinCouncil Member 2 (voice)
2003Winter SolsticeCountess Lucinda Rhives[43]Released in Germany as Wintersonne
2004Jean Simmons: Rose of EnglandHerself
Howl's Moving CastleGrandma Sophie (voice)
2005Thru the Moebius StripShepway (voice)[44]
2009Shadows in the SunHannah [45]

Box office ranking[edit]

For a number of years, British film exhibitors voted her among the top ten British stars at the box office via an annual poll in the Motion Picture Herald.

Awards and nominations[edit]

YearAssociationCategoryNominated workResult
1949Academy AwardsBest Supporting ActressHamletNominated
1953National Board of ReviewBest ActressThe ActressWon
1953National Board of ReviewBest ActressThe RobeWon
1953National Board of ReviewBest ActressYoung BessWon
1956Golden Globe AwardsBest Actress – Motion Picture Musical or ComedyGuys and DollsWon
1957BAFTA AwardsBest Foreign ActressGuys and DollsNominated
1958Golden Globe AwardsBest Actress – Motion Picture Musical or ComedyThis Could Be the NightNominated
1959Golden Globe AwardsBest Actress – Motion Picture DramaHome Before DarkNominated
1961BAFTA AwardsBest Foreign ActressElmer GantryNominated
1961Golden Globe AwardsBest Actress – Motion Picture DramaElmer GantryNominated
1970Academy AwardsBest ActressThe Happy EndingNominated
1970Golden Globe AwardsBest Actress – Motion Picture DramaThe Happy EndingNominated
1983Primetime Emmy AwardsOutstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a MovieThe Thorn BirdsWon
1984Golden Globe AwardsBest Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or TelevisionThe Thorn BirdsNominated
1989Primetime Emmy AwardsOutstanding Guest Actress in a Drama SeriesMurder, She WroteNominated
1996Screen Actors Guild AwardsOutstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion PictureHow to Make an American QuiltNominated

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jean Simmons obituary, Los Angeles Times, January 23, 2010 [1].
  2. ^ Obituary London Independent, January 26, 2010 jean simmons actress who dazzled
  3. ^ Aljean Harmetz (January 23, 2010). "Jean Simmons, Actress, Dies at 80". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2010. "Jean Simmons, the English actress who made the covers of Time and Life magazines by the time she was 20 and became a major mid-century star alongside strong leading men like Laurence Olivier, Richard Burton and Marlon Brando, often playing their demure helpmates, died on Friday at her home in Santa Monica, California. She was 80. The cause was lung cancer, according to Judy Page, her agent. ..." 
  4. ^ "Are They Being Fair To Jean Simmons?", Picturegoer, August 2, 1947.
  5. ^ Per Gloria Hunniford in Sunday, Sunday television interview LWT, Autumn 1985
  6. ^ So You Want to be in Pictures? by Val Guest, p. 58; ISBN 1-90311-115-3
  7. ^ a b c Biography, reelclassics.com; accessed April 24, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Woman's Weekly, Christmas 1989
  9. ^ French, Philip (January 24, 2010). "Jean Simmons: an unforgettable English rose". The Observer. 
  10. ^ "Critics Praise Drama: Comedians Win Profits.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: National Library of Australia). December 29, 1950. p. 3. Retrieved April 24, 2012. 
  11. ^ Howard Hughes, The Untold story, Peter Brown, Pat Broeske, p.241 Sphere 2005
  12. ^ The Guardian, interview with Peter Lennon, November 1999 [2]
  13. ^ a b Thomson, David (January 25, 2010). "Jean Simmons obituary". The Guardian. 
  14. ^ French, Philip (April 6, 2008). "Philip French's screen legends – No 11: Jean Simmons profile". The Observer. 
  15. ^ Sondheim Guide – A Little Night Music; accessed April 24, 2014.
  16. ^ The Stewart Grangers become citizens of US
  17. ^ Jean Simmons files to divorce Stewart Granger, google.com; accessed April 24, 2014.
  18. ^ Picture Show and TV Mirror, July 2, 1960, p. 7. Simmons says her daughter was named after Spencer Tracy in interview, but adds, "Jimmy (Stewart Granger) says he got the name from the role Katharine Hepburn played in The Philadelphia Story."
  19. ^ "British-born Hollywood actress Jean Simmons dies at 80". BBC. 2010-01-23. Retrieved January 23, 2010. 
  20. ^ Jean Simmons obituary, BBC.co.uk; accessed April 24, 2014.
  21. ^ Jean Simmons obituary, The Telegraph; accessed April 24, 2014.
  22. ^ Goodchild, Sophie (2005-12-18). "Sting leads campaign against Blair's plan to reclassify cannabis". The Independent (London, UK). Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Sports Day (1944)". IMDb. 
  24. ^ "Give Us the Moon (1944)". IMDb. 
  25. ^ "Mr. Emmanuel (1944)". IMDb. 
  26. ^ "Kiss the Bride Goodbye (1945)". IMDb. 
  27. ^ "Meet Sexton Blake (1945)". IMDb. 
  28. ^ "Uncle Silas (1947)". IMDb. 
  29. ^ "Cage of Gold (1950))". IMDb. 
  30. ^ "Affair with a Stranger (1953)". IMDb. 
  31. ^ "A Bullet Is Waiting (1954)". IMDb. 
  32. ^ "Home Before Dark (1958)". IMDb. 
  33. ^ "This Earth is Mine (1959)". IMDb. 
  34. ^ "Life at the Top (1965)". IMDb. 
  35. ^ "The Easter Promise (1975)". IMDb. 
  36. ^ "Beggarman, Thief (1979)". IMDb. 
  37. ^ "A Small Killing (1981)". IMDb. 
  38. ^ "December Flower (1984)". IMDb. 
  39. ^ "Midas Valley (1985)". IMDb. 
  40. ^ "Perry Mason: The Case of the Lost Love (1987)". IMDb. 
  41. ^ "Yellow Pages (1988)". IMDb. 
  42. ^ "Katherine Palmer (1995)". IMDb. 
  43. ^ "Winter Solstice (2003)". IMDb. 
  44. ^ "Through the Moebius Stip (2005)". IMDb. 
  45. ^ "Shadows in the Sun (2009)". IMDb. 
  46. ^ "Bob Hope Takes Lead from Bing In Popularity.". The Canberra Times (ACT: 1926–1954) (ACT: National Library of Australia). December 31, 1949. p. 2. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 
  47. ^ "TOPS AT HOME.". The Courier-Mail (1933-1954) (Brisbane, Qld.: National Library of Australia). December 31, 1949. p. 4. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 
  48. ^ "BOB HOPE BEST DRAW IN BRITISH THEATRES.". The Mercury (1860–1954) (Hobart, Tasmania: National Library of Australia). December 29, 1950. p. 4. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Vivien Leigh Actress Of The Year.". Townsville Daily Bulletin (1885–1954) (Queensland, Australia: National Library of Australia). December 29, 1951. p. 1. Retrieved April 27, 2012. 

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