John Burr Gould (1792-1866) Mary More Gould (1798-1841)
Jason "Jay" Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was a leading American railroad developer and speculator. He has long been vilified as an archetypal robber baron, whose successes made him the ninth richest American in history.Condé Nast Portfolio ranked Gould as the 8th worst American CEO of all time. Some modern historians working from primary sources have discounted various myths about him.
Jason Gould was born in Roxbury, New York, the son of Mary More (1798–1841) and John Burr Gould (1792–1866). Both his parents were of British ancestry. Gould's maternal grandfather Alexander T. More was a businessman, and his great-grandfather John More was a Scottish immigrant who founded the town of Moresville, New York. Jay Gould studied at local schools and the Hobart Academy in Hobart, New York.
His principal was credited as getting him a job working as a bookkeeper for a blacksmith. A year later the blacksmith offered him half interest in the blacksmith shop, which he sold to his father during the early part of 1854. Gould devoted himself to private study, emphasizing surveying and mathematics. In 1854, Gould surveyed and created maps of the Ulster County, New York area. In 1856 he published History of Delaware County, and Border Wars of New York, which he had spent several years writing.
In 1856, Gould entered another partnership with Charles Mortimer Leupp, a son-in-law of Gideon Lee, and one of the leading leather merchants in the United States at the time. Leupp and Gould was a successful partnership until the Panic of 1857. Leupp lost all his money, while Gould took advantage of the opportunity of the depreciation of property value and bought up former partnership properties for himself. After the death of Charles Leupp, the Gouldsboro Tannery became a disputed property . Charles Leupp's brother-in-law, David W. Lee, who was also a partner in Leupp and Gould, took armed control of the tannery. He believed that Gould had cheated the Leupp and Lee families in the collapse of the business. Eventually, Gould took physical possession, but was later forced to sell his share of the company to Lee's brother.
He married Helen Day Miller (1838–1889) in 1863. They had six children:
Gould's father-in-law Daniel S. Miller was credited with introducing the younger man to the railroad industry, when he suggested that Gould help him save his investment in the Rutland and Washington Railroad.
The Tweed Ring
It was during the same period that Gould and James Fisk became involved with Tammany Hall, the New York City political ring. They made Boss Tweed a director of the Erie Railroad, and Tweed, in return, arranged favorable legislation for them. Tweed and Gould became the subjects of political cartoons by Thomas Nast in 1869. In October 1871, when Tweed was held on $1 million bail, Gould was the chief bondsman.
In August 1869, Gould and Fisk began to buy gold in an attempt to corner the market, hoping that the increase in the price of gold would increase the price of wheat such that western farmers would sell, causing a great amount of shipping of bread stuffs eastward, increasing freight business for the Erie railroad. During this time, Gould used contacts with President Ulysses S. Grant's brother-in-law, Abel Corbin, to try to influence the president and his Secretary General Horace Porter. These speculations in gold culminated in the panic of Black Friday, on September 24, 1869, when the premium over face value on a gold Double Eagle fell from 62% to 35%. Gould made a nominal profit from this operation, but lost it in the subsequent lawsuits.
The gold corner established Gould's reputation in the press as an all-powerful figure who could drive the market up and down at will.
In 1873 Gould attempted to take control of the Erie Railroad by recruiting foreign investments from Lord Gordon-Gordon, whom he believed was a cousin of the wealthy Campbells looking to buy land for immigrants. Gould bribed Gordon-Gordon with $1 million in stock. But, Gordon-Gordon was an impostor; he cashed the stock immediately. Gould sued Gordon-Gordon, and the latter went to trial in March 1873. In court, Gordon-Gordon gave the names of the Europeans whom he claimed to represent, and was granted bail while the references were checked. He fled to Canada, where he convinced authorities that the charges against him were false.
After failing to convince or force Canadian authorities to hand over Gordon-Gordon, Gould and his associates, which included two future governors of Minnesota and three future members of Congress, attempted to kidnap him. The group snatched him successfully, but they were stopped and arrested by the North-West Mounted Police before they could return to the United States. The kidnappers were put in prison and refused bail. This led to an international incident between the United States and Canada. Upon learning that the kidnappers were not given bail, Governor Horace Austin of Minnesota demanded their return; he put the local militia on a state of full readiness. Thousands of Minnesotans volunteered for a full military invasion of Canada. After negotiations, the Canadian authorities released the kidnappers on bail. The incident resulted in Gould losing any possibility of taking control of Erie Railroad.
After being forced out of the Erie Railroad, in his 40s Gould started to build up a system of railroads in the Midwest and West. Beginning in 1879, he gained control of four western railroads, including the Union Pacific, which completed part of the transcontinental railroad, and the Missouri Pacific Railroad. By 1880, he controlled 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of railway, about one-ninth of the length of rail in the United States at that time, and, by 1882, he had controlling interest in 15% of the country's tracks. Because the railroads were making enormous profits and had control of rate setting, his wealth increased dramatically.
When Gould withdrew from management of the Union Pacific in 1883 amidst political controversy over its debts to the federal government, he realized a large profit for himself.
Gould obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union telegraph company, and, after 1881, in the elevated railways in New York City. From 1868-1888, he was connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States. During the Great Southwest Railroad Strike of 1886, he hired strikebreakers. According to labor unionists, he said at the time, "I can hire one-half of the working class to kill the other half."
Frank Miller Gould (c1895-1945). He graduated from Yale in 1920, married Florence Amelia Bacon on November 17, 1924, she was from Dallas, Texas. Frank died on January 13, 1945. They had two children:
Marianne Gould (1926 - January 21, 1957)
Edwin Jay Gould (1932-1993).
Helen Gould (1868–1938), married Finlay Johnson Shepard (1867–1942) They adopted three children, Finley Jay, named for Finley Johnson Shepard and Jay Gould, and Olivia, named for Helen's dear friend Mrs. Russell Sage, and Helen Anna, named for Helen and her sister, Anna and had one foster child, Louis Seton. The first of the adopted children, Finley Jay Shepard, was a three-year-old abandoned child who was found on the steps of Manhattan's St Patrick's Cathedral in 1914. They later adopted two daughters, Margaret and Dorothy, of her brother Frank Gould.
Antoine Boniface, Marquis de Castellane (1896–1946), married Yvonne Patenôtre (daughter of Jules Patenôtre and wife Eleanor Elverson, sister of James Elverson, Jr. (?–1929) and daughter of publisher James Elverson (1838 – 1911) by wife Sallie Duvall, the three of them owners of The Philadelphia Inquirer). He had daughter Elisabeth de Castellane (Paris, July 9, 1928 – Paris, November 13, 1991), wife (married in Paris, December 7, 1948) of Jean Bertrand Jacques Adrien Nompar Comte de Caumont La Force (Paris, February 4, 1920 – Fontaine Française, June 8, 1986).
Georges Paul Ernest Boniface de Castellane (1897 or 1899–1944), married Florinda Fernández y Anchorena (1901-?). They had daughter:
Diane Rose Anne Marie de Castellane (born in Paris, February 19, 1927). She married Philippe François Armand Marie Duc de Mouchy Prince-Duc de Poix (born in Paris, April 17, 1922) in Paris in a civil ceremony on April 14, 1948; and a church ceremony on April 20, 1948. They divorced on March 13, 1974.
Georges Gustave Boniface de Castellane (circa 1898-1946)
Jay Boniface de Castellane (1902-?)
With Talleyrand, Anna had the following two children:
Howard de Talleyrand, duc de Sagan (1909–1929), he took his own life when told he could not marry.
Helen Violette de Talleyrand-Périgord (1915–2003), she married James Robert de Pourtales on March 29, 1937, in Val Saint-Germain, she then divorced in 1969, and married Gaston Palewski (1901–1984), he was the Minister of Scientific Research and Atomic and Space Questions from 1962 to 1966. They married on March 20, 1969, in Paris.
Frank Jay Gould (1877–1956), married Helen Kelley; then Edith Kelly; and then Florence La Caze (1895–1983)
Jay Gould timeline
Jay Gould appears to the far right of this cartoon by Thomas Nast from Harper's Weekly of February 10, 1872
^Foner, Philip Sheldon (1998). History of the Labor Movement in the United States Vol. 2: From the Founding of the A. F. of L. to the Emergence of American Imperialism (2nd ed.). International Publishers, Co., Inc. p. 51. ISBN978-0-7178-0388-0.
^New York Times; February 26, 1917, Monday; Edwin Gould, Jr., Killed on Hunt with Own Gun; Was Clubbing 'Coon Caught in Trap When Trigger Caught, Firing the Weapon. Shot Severed Artery. Young Hunter Died Before His Sole Companion on Lonely Island Could Give Aid. Father is Bringing Body. Mother Prostrated at News of Tragedy, Which Occurred Near Jekyl Island. Left the Body and Called Help. Followed a Local Custom. Mother Prostrated by the News. Edwin Gould, Jr., Killed on Hunt. Had Chosen a Business Career. Brunswick, Georgia, February 25, 1917. Edwin Gould, Jr., 23 years old, who was staying at his father's Winter home on Jekyl Island, was killed last night by the discharge of a shotgun in his hands while he was trying to kill a raccoon found in a trap he had set.
^New York Times; January 14, 1945; Frank M. Gould, 45 Dies at Oyster Bay; Son of Edwin and Grandson of Jay Was Rail Executive. Owned Prize Horses. Oyster Bay, Long Island; January 13, 1945. Frank Miller Gould, only surviving son of the late Edwin Gould and a grandson of Jay Gould, financier and railroad builder, died at his home here today after a long illness. He would have been 46 years old on February 6.
^"Son of Ann Gould succumbs in Paris.". New York Times. February 8, 1946. "Marquis De Castellane Held French Embassy Posts in London During 1940. Paris, Feb. 7, 1946. The death of Marquis de Castellane, son of the late Count Boni de Castellane and the former Anna Gould of New York, who eventually became the Duchess de Talleyrand-Périgord, was announced today."|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
^"Talleyrand Motel". Time (magazine). June 3, 1929. Retrieved 2007-07-21. "Prince of Sagan, son of the Duchess de Talleyrand, who was Anna, the daughter of the late wealthy Jay Gould, shot himself on purpose in his mother's Paris home. The press did not get wind of the story until last week. When the press came, the Duchess was ready with a frank, detailed and—most important of all—entirely literate statement; one that prevented garbling by scandal-monging journals. The statement said: "The Duke and Duchess de Talleyrand regret keenly to announce the critical illness of their son, Howard. ... He shot himself because we refused him permission to marry until he was 21. ... The shooting took place in our home and our son was taken to a hospital in the Rue Puccini. ... Our son is now in an extremely grave condition. We wish to emphasize that we had no objection to the girl, but only opposed the marriage because of our son's age.""
^"Anna Gould's son, self-wounded, dies. Howard de Talleyrand, Prince de Sagan, 19, Succumbs in Paris After 11 Days. Parent's at his Bedside.". New York Times. May 29, 1929. "Paris, May 28, 1929. Howard de Talleyrand, Prince de Sagan, 19-year old son of the Duc de Talleyrand and the former Anna Gould, died early this morning following a self-inflicted wound on May 17 after his parents had refused him immediate permission to marry."|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
Klein, Maury. The Life and Legend of Jay Gould.
Grodinsky, Julius. (1981). Jay Gould, His Business Career, 1867-1892. Arno Press. p. 627.
Josephson, Matthew. (1962). The Robber Barons: The Great American Capitalists, 1861-1901. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Hilferding, Rudolf (1981). Finance Capital: A Study of the Latest Phase of Capitalist Development. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Renehan, Edward J. (2005). The Dark Genius of Wall Street: The Misunderstood Life of Jay Gould, King of the Robber Barons. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN0-465-06885-5.
Morris, Charles R. (2005). The Tycoons: How Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Jay Gould, and J.P. Morgan Invented the American Supereconomy. New York: Holt. ISBN0-8050-7599-2.