Japanese holdout

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Japanese holdouts (残留日本兵 Zanryū nipponhei?, "remaining Japanese soldiers") or stragglers were Japanese soldiers in the Pacific Theatre who, after the August 1945 surrender of Japan ending World War II, either adamantly doubted the veracity of the formal surrender due to strong dogmatic or militaristic principles, or simply were not aware of it because communications had been cut off by the United States island hopping campaign.

They continued to fight the enemy forces, and later local police, for years after the war was over. Some Japanese holdouts volunteered during the First Indochina War and Indonesian War of Independence, to free Asian colonies from Western control despite these having once been colonial ambitions of Imperial Japan during World War II.

Intelligence officer Hiroo Onoda, who was relieved of duty by his former commanding officer on Lubang Island in the Philippines in March 1974, and Teruo Nakamura, who was stationed on Morotai Island in Indonesia and surrendered in December 1974, were the last confirmed holdouts, though rumors persisted of others.

1945–1949[edit]

Second lieutenant Sakae Ōba in 1937

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda in 1944

1980s[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ベトナム独立戦争参加日本人の事跡に基づく日越のあり方に関する研究 (PDF). 井川 一久 (in Japanese). Tokyo foundation. October 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  2. ^ 日越関係発展の方途を探る研究 ヴェトナム独立戦争参加日本人―その実態と日越両国にとっての歴史的意味― (PDF). 井川 一久 (in Japanese). Tokyo foundation. May 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  3. ^ "Lt Ei Yamaguchi, Surrendered – April 1947", Profiles of Known Japanese Holdouts, Wanpela 
  4. ^ "Hirohito Photo with MP's Induces Japs to Give Up". Albuquerque Journal. May 12, 1948. p. 6. 
  5. ^ "Japanese Surrender After Four Year Hiding". Pacific Stars and Stripes. Jan 10, 1949. p. 5. 
  6. ^ "Yamakage Kufuku". "Profiles of Known Japanese Holdouts". Wanpela. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  7. ^ "ベトナム独立戦争参加日本人の事跡に基づく日越のあり方に関する研究" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. October 2005. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  8. ^ "日越関係発展の方途を探る研究 ヴェトナム独立戦争参加日本人―その実態と日越両国にとっての歴史的意味―" (PDF). 井川 一久. Tokyo foundation. May 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  9. ^ "Pacific War Finally Ends for 19 Die-Hard Japanese". Pacific Stars and Stripes. Jun 27, 1951. p. 1. 
  10. ^ Three Jap Stragglers Hold Out on Tiny Isle, The Lima (O.) News, April 8, 1952: 5 
  11. ^ a b Onoda Home; 'It Was 30 Years on Duty', Pacific Stars and Stripes, March 14, 1974: 7 
  12. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=u1EmAAAAIBAJ&sjid=L_8FAAAAIBAJ&dq=indian-trail-inn&pg=1826%2C3265324
  13. ^ Japanese Soldier Finds War's Over, Oakland Tribune, May 21, 1960: 1 
  14. ^ Straggler Reports to Emperor, Pacific Stars and Stripes, June 8, 1960: 1 
  15. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D (September 26, 1997), Shoichi Yokoi, 82, Is Dead; Japan Soldier Hid 27 Years, The New York Times 
  16. ^ The Last PCS for Lieutenant Onoda, Pacific Stars and Stripes, March 13, 1974: 6 
  17. ^ The Last Last Soldier?, Time, January 13, 1975 
  18. ^ Asahi Shimbun, January 18, 1980
  19. ^ Still fighting, 35 years after V-J day (PDF), Finger Lakes Times (Fulton History), April 10, 1980: 1 
  20. ^ Soldier's hut found in Philippines, Milwaukee Sentinel (Google News), April 5, 1980, part 1: 3  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ 宮沢, 功 (1957). "連載 サラリーマン男のロマン ミンドロ島戦友捜索奮戦記". 実業之日本 (Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha) 83 (6): 102–105. 
  22. ^ "第094回国会 社会労働委員会 第7号 昭和五十六年四月十四日(火曜日)". Kokkai.ndl.go.jp. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 

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