James R. Clapper

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James R. Clapper
James R. Clapper official portrait.jpg
4th Director of National Intelligence
Incumbent
Assumed office
August 9, 2010
PresidentBarack Obama
DeputyStephanie O'Sullivan
Preceded byDavid Gompert (Acting)
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
In office
April 15, 2007 – June 5, 2010
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Barack Obama
Preceded byStephen Cambone
Succeeded byMichael Vickers
Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
In office
September 2001 – June 2006
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byJames C. King
Succeeded byRobert Murrett
Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
In office
November 1991 – August 1995
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Bill Clinton
Preceded byDennis Nagy (Acting)
Succeeded byKenneth Minihan
Personal details
BornJames Robert Clapper, Jr.[1]
(1941-03-14) March 14, 1941 (age 73)
Fort Wayne, Indiana, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of Maryland, College Park
St. Mary's University, Texas
National Defense University
Air University
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Air Force
Years of service1963–1995
RankUS-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
Battles/warsVietnam War
AwardsLegion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star (2)
Air Medal (2)
 
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James R. Clapper
James R. Clapper official portrait.jpg
4th Director of National Intelligence
Incumbent
Assumed office
August 9, 2010
PresidentBarack Obama
DeputyStephanie O'Sullivan
Preceded byDavid Gompert (Acting)
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
In office
April 15, 2007 – June 5, 2010
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Barack Obama
Preceded byStephen Cambone
Succeeded byMichael Vickers
Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
In office
September 2001 – June 2006
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byJames C. King
Succeeded byRobert Murrett
Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
In office
November 1991 – August 1995
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
Bill Clinton
Preceded byDennis Nagy (Acting)
Succeeded byKenneth Minihan
Personal details
BornJames Robert Clapper, Jr.[1]
(1941-03-14) March 14, 1941 (age 73)
Fort Wayne, Indiana, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of Maryland, College Park
St. Mary's University, Texas
National Defense University
Air University
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Air Force
Years of service1963–1995
RankUS-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
Battles/warsVietnam War
AwardsLegion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star (2)
Air Medal (2)

James Robert Clapper, Jr. (born March 14, 1941)[2][3] is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is currently the Director of National Intelligence. He was previously the first Director of Defense Intelligence within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and simultaneously the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence.[4] Clapper has held several key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as the director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) from September 2001 until June 2006. Previously, he served as director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) from 1992 until 1995.

On June 5, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Clapper to replace Dennis C. Blair as United States Director of National Intelligence. Clapper was unanimously confirmed by the Senate for the position on August 5, 2010.[5][6]

Two U.S. representatives accused Clapper of perjury for telling a Congressional committee in March 2013, that the NSA does not collect any type of data at all on millions of Americans. One senator asked for his resignation, and a group of 26 senators complained about Clapper's responses under questioning. Media observers have described Clapper as having lied under oath, having obstructed justice, and having given false testimony.

Early life[edit]

Clapper was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Anne Elizabeth (née Wheatley) and First Lieutenant James Robert Clapper.[7][8] His maternal grandfather, James McNeal Wheatley, was an Episcopalian minister.[9]

Military career[edit]

Lieutenant General James R. Clapper, USAF circa 1985

After a brief enlistment in the United States Marine Corps Reserve, General Clapper transferred to the US Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps program. He was commissioned in 1963 as a distinguished military graduate from the University of Maryland. He commanded a signals intelligence detachment based at a listening post in Thailand's Udon Thani Province where he flew 73 combat support missions in EC-47s; a signals intelligence SIGINT wing at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, and the Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida.

Clapper retired from active duty 1995, even though he preferred the use of his military rank he became the first civilian Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency for the U.S. Forces Korea, U.S. Pacific Command, Strategic Air Command and senior intelligence officer for the air force.[10] From 1995-September 2001 he worked in the industry for six years in three successive intelligence service companies. From 2001-6/2006 he was Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency as member of the Defense Intelligence Senior Executive Service (DISES).

Private sector career[edit]

From 2006-2007 Clapper worked for GeoEye (satellite company) and was an executive on the boards of three government contractors, two of which were doing business with the NGA while he was there: In October 2006 as chief operating officer for the British military intelligence company Detica, now DFI and US-based subsidiary of BAE Systems, also SRA International and Booz Allen Hamilton subsidiary of the Carlyle Group.[11] Clapper defended the private sector's role in his 2010 confirmation hearings: "I worked as a contractor for six years myself, so I think I have a good understanding of the contribution that they have made and will continue to make."[12]

Appointment as Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I))[edit]

For the 2006-2007 academic year, Clapper held the position of Georgetown University’s Intelligence and National Security Alliance Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Intelligence.[13] While teaching at Georgetown, he was officially nominated by President George W. Bush to be Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I)) on January 29, 2007 and confirmed by the United States Senate on 11 April 2007.[14] He was the second person ever to hold this position, which oversees the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and works closely with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).

Director of National Intelligence[edit]

Nomination[edit]

On June 4, 2010, multiple news agencies reported that United States President Barack Obama was planning to nominate Clapper as the next Director of National Intelligence.[6][15] Despite the report that Clapper was suggested to President Obama by Defense Secretary Robert Gates, both Chairwoman Dianne Feinstein and Vice-Chairman Kit Bond of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence had offered reservations regarding his appointment.[6]

President Obama made the official announcement on YouTube on June 5, 2010 saying Clapper "possesses a quality that I value in all my advisers: a willingness to tell leaders what we need to know even if it's not what we want to hear."[16]

On August 5, 2010, Clapper was confirmed by the Senate in a unanimous vote.[5] Lawmakers approved his nomination after the Senate Intelligence Committee backed him with a 15-0 vote. During his testimony for the position, Director Clapper pledged to advance the DNI's authorities, exert tighter control over programming and budgeting, and provide oversight over the CIA's use of predator drones in Pakistan.[17]

Creating position of deputy director for intelligence integration[edit]

In August 2010, Clapper announced a new position at the DNI, designed to integrate the former posts of Deputy Director for Analysis and Deputy Director for Collections, now called the "deputy director for intelligence integration". Robert Cardillo, the deputy director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, was tapped as the first person to fill this new post.[18][19][20]

Budget authority over US Intelligence community[edit]

In an agreement reached between Defense Secretary Robert Gates and Clapper, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence assumed administrative control over the National Intelligence Program (NIP). Previously the NIP was itemized within the Defense Department budget to keep the line item and dollar amount from public view. Clapper's office disclosed the top line budget as $53.1 billion late October 2010, which is below the $75 billion figure circulated in 2010.[21] in the belief the budget change will strengthen the DNI's authority.[22][23][24][25]

Iran[edit]

Giving evidence to the Senate in February 2012 Clapper told Congress that if Iran is attacked over its alleged nuclear weapons program, it could respond by closing the Strait of Hormuz to ships and launch missiles at regional U.S. forces and allies. Former Defense Intelligence Agency chief Lt. Gen. Ronald Burgess told senators Iran is unlikely to initiate or intentionally provoke a conflict. Clapper said it’s “technically feasible” that Tehran could produce a nuclear weapon in one or two years, if its leaders decide to build one, “but practically not likely”. Both men said they do not believe Israel has decided to strike Iran.[26]

Common information technology enterprise and desktop[edit]

Clapper has made "intelligence integration" across the Intelligence Community the primary mission of the ODNI.[27] In 2012, the office announced an initiative to create a common information technology desktop for the entire Intelligence Community, moving away from unconnected agency networks to a common enterprise model. The shared IT infrastructure reached operating capability in late fiscal 2013, with plans to bring on all intelligence agencies over the next few years.[28]

False testimony to Congress on NSA surveillance programs[edit]

Excerpt of James Clapper's testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence

On March 12, 2013, during a United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence hearing, Senator Ron Wyden quoted the keynote speech at the 2012 DEF CON by the director of the NSA, Keith B. Alexander. Alexander had stated that "Our job is foreign intelligence" and that "Those who would want to weave the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people, is absolutely false…From my perspective, this is absolute nonsense." Senator Wyden then asked Clapper, "Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?" He responded, "No, sir." Wyden asked "It does not?" and Clapper said "Not wittingly. There are cases where they could inadvertently, perhaps, collect, but not wittingly."[29]

When Edward Snowden was asked during his January 26, 2014 TV interview in Moscow what the decisive moment was or why he blew the whistle, he replied: "Sort of the breaking point was seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress. … Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back."[30]

Admission and responses[edit]

On June 6, 2013 Director Clapper released a statement admitting the NSA collects telephony metadata on millions of Americans telephone calls.[31] This metadata information included originating and terminating telephone number, telephone calling card number, International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, time, and duration of phone calls, but did not include the name, address or financial information of any subscriber.[32]

On June 7, 2013, Clapper was interviewed by Andrea Mitchell on NBC. Clapper said that "I responded in what I thought was the most truthful, or least untruthful manner by saying no" when he testified.[33]

On June 12, 2013, United States House of Representatives member Justin Amash became the first Congressman to openly accuse Director Clapper of criminal perjury, and calling for his resignation. In a series of tweets he stated: "It now appears clear that the director of national intelligence, James Clapper, lied under oath to Congress and the American people," and "Perjury is a serious crime ... [and] Clapper should resign immediately,"[34] Senator Rand Paul said "The director of national intelligence, in March, did directly lie to Congress, which is against the law."[35]

On June 27, 2013 a group of 26 senators sent him a complaint letter opposing the use of a "body of secret law".[36][37] On July 1, 2013, Clapper issued an apology, saying that "My response was clearly erroneous – for which I apologize."[38] On July 2, Clapper said that he had forgotten about the Patriot Act and therefore had given an "erroneous" answer.[39]

The journalist Glenn Greenwald accused the media in the U.S. of focusing on Edward Snowden instead of focusing on wrongdoing by Clapper and other U.S. officials.[40] Jody Westby of Forbes argued that due to the revelations, the American public should ask Clapper to resign from office, arguing that "Not only did Mr. Clapper give false testimony to Congress, even his June 6 statement was false. We now know — since the companies identified by the Washington Post have started fessing up — that lots more than telephony metadata has been collected and searched."[41] Fred Kaplan of Slate also advocated having Clapper fired, arguing "if President Obama really welcomes an open debate on this subject, James Clapper has disqualified himself from participation in it. He has to go."[42] Andy Greenberg of Forbes said that NSA officials along with Clapper, in the years 2012 and 2013 "publicly denied–often with carefully hedged words–participating in the kind of snooping on Americans that has since become nearly undeniable."[29] John Dean, former White House Counsel for President Nixon, has claimed that it is unlikely Clapper would be charged with the three principal criminal statutes that address false statements to Congress: perjury, obstruction of Congress, and making false statements.[43] David Sirota of Salon said that if the U.S. government fails to treat Clapper and Alexander in the same way as it did Roger Clemens, "the message from the government would be that lying to Congress about baseball is more of a felony than lying to Congress about Americans’ Fourth Amendment rights" and that the "message would declare that when it comes to brazen law-breaking, as long as you are personally connected to the president, you get protection rather than the prosecution you deserve."[44]

On December 19, 2013 seven Republican members of the House Judiciary Committee called on attorney general Eric Holder to investigate Clapper, saying that "witnesses cannot be allowed to lie to Congress."[45] In January 2014, Robert Litt, the general counsel to the Office of the DNI, stated that Clapper did not lie to Congress.[46] Republican Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky suggested on the ABC News program “This Week” that Clapper might deserve prison time for his testimony.[47]

In January 2014, six members of the House of Representatives wrote[48] to President Obama urging him to dismiss Clapper for lying to Congress,[49][50] but were rebuffed by the White House.[51] Caitlin Hayden, a White House spokesperson, said in an e-mailed statement that Obama has "full faith in Director Clapper’s leadership of the intelligence community. The Director has provided an explanation for his answers to Senator Wyden and made clear that he did not intend to mislead the Congress."[51]

Ban on employee contacts with the media[edit]

In March 2014 Clapper banned employees of the intelligence community from unauthorized contact with reporters.[52] The next month he implemented a new pre-publication review policy for the ODNI's current and former employees that prohibits them from citing news reports based on leaks in their unofficial writings.[53]

In the media[edit]

In 2003, Clapper, then head of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, attempted to explain the absence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq by asserting that the weapons materials were "unquestionably" shipped out of Iraq to Syria and other countries just before the American invasion, a "personal assessment" which Clapper's own agency head at the time, David Burpee, "could not provide further evidence to support".[54]

In an interview on December 20, 2010 with Diane Sawyer of ABC News, Clapper indicated he was completely unaware that twelve alleged would-be terrorists had been arrested in Great Britain earlier that day.[55][56]

In February, 2011, when mass demonstrations were bringing down Mubarak's presidency in Egypt, Clapper told a House Intelligence Committee hearing that:

"The term 'Muslim Brotherhood'...is an umbrella term for a variety of movements, in the case of Egypt, a very heterogeneous group, largely secular, which has eschewed violence and has decried Al Qaeda as a perversion of Islam," ... "They have pursued social ends, a betterment of the political order in Egypt, et cetera.....In other countries, there are also chapters or franchises of the Muslim Brotherhood, but there is no overarching agenda, particularly in pursuit of violence, at least internationally."[57]

The Obama administration took the rare step later that day of correcting its own intelligence chief after the statement drew scrutiny among members of Congress.[58]

In March 2011, Clapper was heard at the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services commenting on the 2011 Libyan civil war that "over the longer term" Gaddafi "will prevail." This position was loudly questioned by the White House, when National Security Advisor Thomas E. Donilon qualified his statement as a "static and one-dimensional assessment" and argued that "The lost legitimacy [of Gaddafi] matters."[59] During the same hearing he was also questioned when he neglected to list Iran and North Korea among the nuclear powers that might pose a threat to the United States.

Personal life[edit]

In 1965 Clapper married his wife Sue, who herself was an NSA employee. They have a daughter Jennifer, principal of an elementary school in Fairfax County, married to Jay, a high school teacher. He has a brother Mike Clapper from Illinois, and a sister, Chris. He introduced them at the Senate confirmation hearings July 20, 2010.[60]

Education[edit]

Clapper also holds an honorary doctorate in strategic intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College, Washington, D.C., where he taught as an adjunct professor.

Major awards and decorations[edit]

Effective dates of promotion[edit]

Military Assignments[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nominations before the Senate Armed Services Committee, first session, 110th ... - United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  2. ^ "Will Attend Christening". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. 1941-03-23. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  3. ^ "General Clapper Nominated DNI Chief". Rttnews.com. 2010-06-06. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  4. ^ ""Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence to be Dual-hatted as Director of Defense Intelligence," ''DNI News Release'', May 24, 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  5. ^ a b "James Clapper Confirmed as Director of National Intelligence". Wall Street Journal. 2010-08-05. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Montopoli, Brian (2010-06-04). ""James Clapper to be Tapped as New National Intelligence Director," ''CBS News'', June 04, 2010". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  7. ^ "Obituaries". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. 1998-05-09. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  8. ^ B and O Magazine - Google Books. Books.google.ca. 2001-08-01. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  9. ^ "Rites For Father Wheatley, 1st St. George's Rector, Set". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. 1969-01-30. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  10. ^ a b "United States Air Force Biography". Af.mil. Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  11. ^ "Intelligence nominee's contractor ties draw scrutiny". LA Times. 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  12. ^ "Booz Allen Hamilton: Edward Snowden's US contracting firm". The Guardian. 2013-06-09. 
  13. ^ ""Professor in Practice of Intelligence Established", ''Georgetown University''". Explore.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  14. ^ ""DoD Announces Clapper as the New Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence", ''M2 Presswire''". Goliath.ecnext.com. 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  15. ^ "AP source: Pentagon official tapped as intel chief," Washington Post, June 04, 2010[dead link]
  16. ^ "Obama nominates Clapper to head spy agencies, ''MSNBC'', June 05, 2010". MSNBC. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  17. ^ Washington Post, DNI nominee vows tighter reins on intel programs, 20 July 2010
  18. ^ CNN, Director of national intelligence names deputy to boost collaboration, 20 August 2010
  19. ^ "Clapper's people". The Washington Post. 2010-08-23. 
  20. ^ Got GEOINT?, Monday Morning News Kick Off: Robert Cardillo to Boost Collaboration for ODNI; Clapper Brings Sense of Humor to Job; SAIC Wins TASER Contract, 23 August 2010
  21. ^ "DNI Releases Budget Figure for 2010 National Intelligence Program". 2010-10-28. 
  22. ^ "Control of intelligence budget will shift". Washington Post. 2010-11-03. 
  23. ^ WIRED, One Spy to Rule Them All: Top Spook Launches Push for Real Power November 3, 2010
  24. ^ Federal Times, Intelligence director says he will get control of funds, November 3, 2010
  25. ^ Executive Gov, Clapper Seeks Authority over Intel Budget, November 3, 2010
  26. ^ "U.S. remains optimistic on Iran sanctions". CBS News. 2012-02-21. 
  27. ^ "Intelligence Integration". U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved 2014-02-14. 
  28. ^ Federal News Radio, Intelligence community cloud coming online in early 2013, October 10, 2012
  29. ^ a b Greenberg, Andy. "Watch Top U.S. Intelligence Officials Repeatedly Deny NSA Spying On Americans Over The Last Year (Videos)." Forbes. June 6, 2013. Retrieved on June 11, 2013. "Eight months later, Senator Ron Wyden quoted[...]"
  30. ^ "Snowden Interview Transcript". NDR. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  31. ^ "DNI Statement on Recent Unauthorized Disclosures of Classified Information". June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  32. ^ In Re: Application of the FBI For an Order Requiring the Production of Tangible Things From Verizon Business Network Services "Verizon forced to hand over telephone data – full court ruling." The Guardian. June 6, 2013. Retrieved on June 12, 2013.
  33. ^ "TRANSCRIPT OF ANDREA MITCHELL’S INTERVIEW WITH DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE JAMES CLAPPER". NBC NEWS EXCLUSIVE. 2013-06-09. 
  34. ^ Muñoz, Carlos. "GOP's Amash: Clapper should resign." The Hill. June 12, 2013. Retrieved on June 14, 2013.
  35. ^ Ackerman, Spencer. "Rand Paul accuses James Clapper of lying to Congress over NSA suveillance." The Guardian. Tuesday June 18, 2013. Retrieved on June 20, 2013.
  36. ^ "Senators' letter to US director of national intelligence James Clapper." The Guardian. Friday June 28, 2013. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  37. ^ Roberts, Dan. "Senators accuse government of using 'secret law' to collect Americans' data." The Guardian. June 28, 2013. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  38. ^ Roberts, Dan and Spencer Ackerman. "Clapper under pressure despite apology for 'erroneous' statements to Congress." The Guardian. Monday July 1, 2013. Retrieved on July 2, 2013.
  39. ^ Ackermann, Spencer (2 July 2013). "Clapper: I gave 'erroneous' answer because I forgot about Patriot Act". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Greenwald, Glenn. "James Clapper, EU play-acting, and political priorities." The Guardian. Wednesday July 3, 2013. Retrieved on July 3, 2013.
  41. ^ Westby, Jody. "Americans Must Call for Independent Counsel and Ouster of Clapper." Forbes. June 10, 2013. Retrieved on June 12, 2013.
  42. ^ Kaplan, Fred. "Fire James Clapper." Slate. Tuesday June 11, 2013. Retrieved on June 14, 2013.
  43. ^ Dean, John (28 June 2013). "Will Director of National Intelligence James Clapper Be Prosecuted for Lying to Congress Regarding the NSA’s Surveillance?". Justia. 
  44. ^ Sirota, David. "James Clapper is still lying to America." Salon. Monday July 1, 2013. Retrieved on July 5, 2013.
  45. ^ Republicans demand consequences for 'willful lie' by intelligence chief
  46. ^ Pengelly, Martin. "Clapper did not lie to Congress on NSA, says national intelligence counsel." The Guardian. January 4, 2014. Retrieved on January 5, 2014.
  47. ^ Knowlton, Brian. "[1]." New York Times. January 5, 2014. Retrieved on January 5, 2014.
  48. ^ Darrell Issa, Ted Poe, Paul Broun, Doug Collins, Walter Jones and Alan Grayson. "Congressman Darrell Issa letter to U.S. President Barack Obama". Darrell Issa. Darrell Issa. 
  49. ^ "Lawmakers to Obama: Fire your intelligence chief for lying". MSNBC News. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  50. ^ Ackermann, Spencer (29 January 2014). "James Clapper calls for Snowden and 'accomplices' to return NSA documents". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  51. ^ a b Fung, Brian (27 January 2014). "Darrell Issa: James Clapper lied to Congress about NSA and should be fired". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  52. ^ "US spy chief James Clapper prohibits employees from speaking with media, memo says". Foxnews. 21 April 2014. 
  53. ^ Intelligence Policy Bans Citation of Leaked Material
  54. ^ ""THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ: WEAPONS SEARCH; Iraqis Removed Arms Material, U.S. Aide Says," ''New York Times'', October 29, 2003". Nytimes.com. 2003-10-29. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  55. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/video/national-security-leaders-discuss-ongoing-terror-janet-napolitano-dhs-homeland-politics-12453917,retrieved 12/21/2010
  56. ^ Stein, Jeff (2010-12-21). "SpyTalk - Clapper flunks ABC's quiz on London terror case". Voices.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  57. ^ Gerstein, Josh (2011-02-10). "DNI Clapper retreats from 'secular' claim on Muslim Brotherhood - Josh Gerstein". Politico.Com. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  58. ^ Obama Administration Corrects Clapper's Claim That Muslim Brotherhood Is 'Secular'
  59. ^ NY Times: U.S. Escalates Pressure on Libya Amid Mixed Signals
  60. ^ "S. HRG. 111–857, July 20, 2010". U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 2011. p. 7. Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  61. ^ King has honoured surveillance chiefs

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Dennis Nagy
Acting
Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
1991–1995
Succeeded by
Kenneth Minihan
Political offices
Preceded by
James C. King
Director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
2001–2006
Succeeded by
Robert Murrett
Preceded by
Stephen Cambone
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
2007–2010
Succeeded by
Michael Vickers
Preceded by
David Gompert
Acting
Director of National Intelligence
2010–present
Incumbent
United States order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Michael Froman
as Trade Representative
Order of Precedence of the United States
as Director of National Intelligence
Succeeded by
Samantha Power
as Ambassador to the United Nations