James Lawrence Orr

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James Orr
James Lawrence Orr - Brady-Handy.jpg
United States Ambassador to Russia
In office
December 12, 1872 – May 5, 1873
PresidentUlysses Grant
Preceded byAndrew Curtin
Succeeded byMarshall Jewell
73rd Governor of South Carolina
In office
November 29, 1865 – July 6, 1868
LieutenantW.D. Porter
Preceded byBenjamin Perry
Succeeded byRobert Scott
Confederate States Senator
from South Carolina
In office
February 18, 1862 – May 10, 1865
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byConstituency abolished
26th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
In office
December 7, 1857 – March 4, 1859
PresidentJames Buchanan
Preceded byNathaniel Banks
Succeeded byWilliam Pennington
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 5th district
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1859
Preceded byArmistead Burt
Succeeded byJohn Ashmore
Chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1855
Preceded byRobert Ward Johnson
Succeeded byBenjamin Pringle
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1849 – March 4, 1853
Preceded byRichard Simpson
Succeeded byWilliam Aiken
Member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from Pendleton District
In office
November 25, 1844 – November 27, 1848
Personal details
Born(1822-05-12)May 12, 1822
Craytonville, South Carolina
DiedMay 5, 1873(1873-05-05) (aged 50)
St. Petersburg, Russia
Political partyDemocratic
Alma materUniversity of Virginia
Military service
AllegianceConfederate States of America
Service/branchConfederate States Army
Years of service1861 – 1862
Unit1st South Carolina Rifle Regiment (Orr's Rifles)
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
 
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James Orr
James Lawrence Orr - Brady-Handy.jpg
United States Ambassador to Russia
In office
December 12, 1872 – May 5, 1873
PresidentUlysses Grant
Preceded byAndrew Curtin
Succeeded byMarshall Jewell
73rd Governor of South Carolina
In office
November 29, 1865 – July 6, 1868
LieutenantW.D. Porter
Preceded byBenjamin Perry
Succeeded byRobert Scott
Confederate States Senator
from South Carolina
In office
February 18, 1862 – May 10, 1865
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byConstituency abolished
26th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
In office
December 7, 1857 – March 4, 1859
PresidentJames Buchanan
Preceded byNathaniel Banks
Succeeded byWilliam Pennington
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 5th district
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1859
Preceded byArmistead Burt
Succeeded byJohn Ashmore
Chairman of the House Committee on Indian Affairs
In office
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1855
Preceded byRobert Ward Johnson
Succeeded byBenjamin Pringle
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1849 – March 4, 1853
Preceded byRichard Simpson
Succeeded byWilliam Aiken
Member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from Pendleton District
In office
November 25, 1844 – November 27, 1848
Personal details
Born(1822-05-12)May 12, 1822
Craytonville, South Carolina
DiedMay 5, 1873(1873-05-05) (aged 50)
St. Petersburg, Russia
Political partyDemocratic
Alma materUniversity of Virginia
Military service
AllegianceConfederate States of America
Service/branchConfederate States Army
Years of service1861 – 1862
Unit1st South Carolina Rifle Regiment (Orr's Rifles)
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

James Lawrence Orr (May 12, 1822 – May 5, 1873) was an American politician who served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in the United States Congress.[1] He later served in the Confederate Congress during the American Civil War and was the 73rd Governor of South Carolina.

Biography[edit]

Orr was born at Craytonville, South Carolina located in Anderson County, South Carolina. He graduated at the University of Virginia in 1841 and became an attorney. He served as a Democratic Congressman from South Carolina from 1849 to 1859, serving as the Speaker of the House from 1857 to 1859. Congressman Orr was an advocate of states' rights who used his position of power to assist those persons who promoted the continuation of slavery. He foresaw the consequences of the decision by South Carolina to attempt to secede from the Union, but he remained loyal to that State. He was one of the three commissioners sent to Washington, D.C. to negotiate the transfer of federal property to the State of South Carolina; the failure of these negotiations led directly to the bombardment of one of the highest-profile federal assets within South Carolina, Fort Sumter.

After Fort Sumter and the outbreak of the American Civil War, the former congressman organized and commanded Orr's Regiment of South Carolina Rifles, which saw little action before he resigned in 1862 and entered the Confederate Senate. Ironically, the regiment continued to bear his name throughout the war and fought in some of the most prominent battles of the Army of Northern Virginia. In the Senate, he remained a strong proponent of states' rights.

At the end of the war, Orr was elected governor in 1865 of the state of South Carolina and served until 1868 with the passage of a new state constitution. He died in St. Petersburg, Russia shortly after being named Minister to Russia by President Ulysses S. Grant. He is interred in the First Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Anderson, South Carolina.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ORR, James Lawrence, (1822 - 1873) , bioguide.congress.gov, accessed 4 August 2010
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Richard Simpson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 2nd congressional district

1849–1853
Succeeded by
William Aiken
Preceded by
Armistead Burt
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 5th congressional district

1853–1859
Succeeded by
John Ashmore
Political offices
Preceded by
Nathaniel Banks
Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
1857–1859
Succeeded by
William Pennington
Preceded by
Benjamin Perry
Governor of South Carolina
1865–1868
Succeeded by
Robert Scott
Confederate States Senate
New constituencyConfederate States Senator (Class 3) from South Carolina
1862–1865
Served alongside: Robert Barnwell
Constituency abolished
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Andrew Curtin
United States Ambassador to Russia
1872–1873
Succeeded by
Marshall Jewell