James Hoban

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Wax Bas-relief on glass of Hoban circa 1800

James Hoban (c. 1758 – December 8, 1831) was an Irish architect, best known for designing the White House in Washington, D.C.

Life[edit]

James Hoban was raised on an estate belonging to the Earl of Desart in Cuffesgrange, near Callan, County Kilkenny. He worked there as a wheelwright and carpenter until his early twenties, when he was given an 'advanced student' place in the Dublin Society's Drawing School on Lower Grafton Street.

He excelled in his studies and received the prestigious Duke of Leinster's medal for drawings of "Brackets, Stairs, and Roofs." from the Dublin Society in 1780. Later Hoban found a position as an apprentice to the headmaster of the Dublin Society School the Cork-born architect Thomas Ivory from 1779 to 1785.

Following the American Revolutionary War, Hoban emigrated to the United States, and established himself as an architect in Philadelphia in 1785.[1]

Charleston County Courthouse, Charleston, SC (1790-92), James Hoban, architect.
Hoban's amended elevation of the White House (late-1793 or early-1794).

Hoban was in South Carolina by April 1787, where he designed numerous buildings including the Charleston County Courthouse (1790–92), built on the ruins of the former South Carolina Statehouse (1753, burned 1788).[2] President Washington admired Hoban's work on his Southern Tour, may have met with him in Charleston in May 1791, and summoned the architect to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (the temporary national capital) in June 1792.[3]

In July 1792, Hoban was named winner of the design competition for the White House.[4] His initial design seems to have had a 3-story facade, 9 bays across (like the Charleston courthouse). Under Washington's influence, Hoban amended this to a 2-story facade, 11 bays across, and, at Washington's insistence, the whole presidential mansion was faced with stone. It is unclear whether any of Hoban's surviving drawings are actually from the competition.[5]

Hoban was also one of the supervising architects who served on the Capitol, carrying out the design of Dr. William Thornton.

Hoban lived the rest of his life in Washington, D.C., where he worked on other public buildings and government projects, including roads and bridges.[6] He also designed Rossenarra House near the village of Kilmoganny in Kilkenny, Ireland in 1824.

Hoban's wife Susanna Sewall was the daughter of the prominent Georgetown "City Tavern" proprietor.[7][8]

Hoban was also involved in the development of Catholic institutions in the city, including Georgetown University (where his son was a member of the Jesuit community), St. Patrick's Parish, and the Visitation Convent founded by another Kilkenny native, Teresa Lalor of Ballyragget.

Hoban died in Washington, D.C. on December 8, 1831. He is buried at the historic Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

Selected Work[edit]

Little has been published to catalogue Hoban's architectural work. Considering his stature as the architect of the White House, the number of his landmark buildings that have been lost is surprising.

Attributed Buildings[edit]

Demolished Buildings[edit]

Commemorations[edit]

Numerous events were held around 2008 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of his birth.

In 2008, a memorial arbor to honor James Hoban was completed near his birthplace, and a major exhibition on his life took take place at the White House Visitor Center.[23]

Dublin Made Him..., a one day colloquium in honour of Hoban, took place on October 3, 2008, at the (RDS) in Dublin, Ireland.[24] It was presented by the RDS in association with the White House Historical Association, the U.S. Embassy in Ireland, and the James Hoban Societies of the U.S. and Ireland.

The Irish-American group Solas have a song "John Riordan's Heels/The Bath Jig/Hoban's White House" on their album For Love and Laughter. Group member Mick McAuley, like Hoban, is from Kilkenny, and named the song in Hoban's honor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frary, page 27
  2. ^ History of the Charleston County Courthouse from HMdb.org
  3. ^ William Seale, "James Hoban: Builder of the White House" in White House History no. 22 (Spring 2008), pp. 8-12.
  4. ^ Bryan, page 194–195.
  5. ^ Commissioners of the District of Columbia, Record Group 42, National Archives, cited in Seale, pp. 10-16.
  6. ^ Frary, page 28.
  7. ^ "City Tavern Club V2's Tenant Handbook:History of the Club". 72.32.212.225. 17 January 1981. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "Playing with knives and fire - Biography of Mrs. James Hoban - Susanna Sewell". Ren-flora.livejournal.com. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Charleston County Courthouse from HABS.
  10. ^ National Register Form
  11. ^ Edisto Island 1663 to 1860: Wild Eden to Cotton Aristocracy, Charles Spencer; p. 159
  12. ^ “ James Hoban and the First Bank of the United States”, Matthew Baigell, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 28, No. 2 (May, 1969), pp. 135-136.
  13. ^ American architecture 1607-1976, Marcus Whiffen, Frederick Koeper, p. 125
  14. ^ McCleery House from Historic American Buildings Survey
  15. ^ Edisto: A Guide to Life on the Island, Cantey Wright; p. 35-37 (with photographs)
  16. ^ TR and Will; A Friendship that Split the Republican Party, by William Manners; p. 335
  17. ^ "Oak Hill". Nps.gov. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  18. ^ Keim's Illustrated Hand-book: Washington and Its Environs, De Benneville Randolph Keim, p. 153
  19. ^ Maryland: A Guide to the Old Line State, Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Maryland. p. 418
  20. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana: The International Reference Work, Volume 7; p. 336
  21. ^ Columbia: History of a Southern Capital, Lynn Salsi, Margaret Sims; p, 27
  22. ^ The Buildings of Charleston: A Guide to the City's Architecture, Jonathan H. Poston, p. 321
  23. ^ "The James Hoban Colloquium and Official Opening of the James Hoban Memorial Arbor, October 3–5, 2008". The James Hoban Commemoration. 
  24. ^ Royal Dublin Society

Further reading[edit]