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James Dunwoody Bulloch (25 June 1823 – 7 January 1901) was the Confederate States of America's chief foreign agent in Great Britain during the American Civil War. He was the half-brother of a distinguished Confederate naval officer, Irvine Bulloch and of Martha "Mittie" Bulloch Roosevelt. Mittie was the mother of future U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt and the grandmother of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Bulloch was born near Savannah, Georgia, the only surviving child of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Esther Amarintha Elliot, daughter of Senator John Elliott . After the death of his mother, his father enrolled James in private school in Hartford, Connecticut. Major Bulloch then married Martha (Stewart) Elliott on May 8, 1831. She was the second wife and widow of Senator John Elliott. James and Martha had four children: Anna Bulloch; Martha Bulloch; Charles Irvine Bulloch, who died at age two years nine months; and Irvine Bulloch.
In 1838 Major Bulloch moved his family to Cobb County in the upper Piedmont to become a partner with Roswell King in a new cotton mill there. In what would become Roswell, Georgia, the major had a grand home built, with the labor of craftsmen and slaves. When it was completed in 1839, the major and his family moved into Bulloch Hall.
Major Bulloch, a planter, also had land in cotton cultivation. After his death, in 1849 Martha Bulloch still held 31 enslaved African-Americans, according to the Slave Schedules.
James D. Bulloch married Elizabethe Caskie in 1851. After her death, he married Hariott Cross Foster in 1857, and they had five children.
Bulloch served in the United States Navy for 15 years before resigning his commission to join a private shipping company in 1854. When the southern states attempted to leave the Union and the Civil War began in 1861, one of the first acts of Washington was to begin a strangling Federal naval blockade on the Confederacy. In April 1861 while his ship was in New Orleans, he offered to assist the Confederate States of America, when he returned to New York, he found a letter from Confederate Attorney General Judah P. Benjamin accepting his offer and ordering him to Montgomery, Georgia for his assignment. Bulloch soon became a Confederate secret service agent and their "most dangerous man" in Europe according to Union State Department officials.
In less than two months after the attack on Fort Sumter, Bulloch arrived at Liverpool, England, and established a base of operations there. Britain was officially neutral in the conflict between North and South, but private and public sentiment favored the Confederacy. Britain was also willing to buy all the cotton that could be smuggled past the Union blockade, which provided the South with its only real source of hard currency. Bulloch established a relationship with the shipping firm of Fraser & Trenholm to buy and sell Confederate cotton; Fraser Trenholm became, in effect, the Confederacy's international bankers. Bulloch arranged for the construction and secret purchase of the commerce raider CSS Alabama as well as many of the blockade runners that acted as the Confederacy's commercial lifeline. Bulloch arranged for cotton to be converted to hard currency, which he used to purchase war material including arms and ammunition, uniforms, and other supplies. Bulloch also arranged for the construction of the CSS Florida and with the Alabama, these two ships were destined to prey upon the Union's merchant shipping. James' brother, Irvine, would serve and fight on the CSS Alabama. James also purchased a large quantity of naval supplies. Next, realizing that he must arrange for a steady flow of new funds before he could go much farther with his purchasing program and also prompted by the fact that the materiel of war that he had already acquired would be useless to the Confederate cause as long as it remained in England—he decided to buy a steamship (the SS Fingal which was later renamed the CSS Atlanta), to fill it with the ordnance that he and an agent of the Southern War Department had accumulated, and to take her to America. Bulloch returned to England and continued his business relationship with Fraser & Trenholm in Liverpool. Bulloch was also involved in constructing and acquiring a number of other warships and blockade runners for the Confederacy, including purchase of the Sea King which was renamed the CSS Shenandoah. Bulloch instructed Captain James Iredell Waddell to sail “into the seas and among the islands frequented by the great American whaling fleet, a source of abundant wealth to our enemies and a nursery for their seamen. It is hoped that you may be able to greatly damage and disperse that fleet.”  The CSS Shenandoah fired the last shots of the war on 28 June 1865 during a raid on American whalers in the Bering Sea.
From his base in Great Britain, Bulloch was the financier of covert Confederate naval operations within the British Empire. This aspect of his intelligence operations has eluded the many analysts and historians who have studied the Canadian elements of the conspiracy to assassinate President Lincoln. In late 1864, Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory ordered Bulloch to write a check drawn on “secret funds” to Patrick Martin, a Confederate blockade runner operating from Canada. These funds were intended to support the plot to kidnap Abraham Lincoln. Martin’s project later morphed into the successful assassination plot. Captain Martin and his ship were lost in a storm in December 1864, as he was en route to Maryland with supplies for John Wilkes Booth. When John Surratt, the last surviving member of the Lincoln assassination conspiracy, arrived in Liverpool in 1865, there is no evidence they made contact, but Bulloch had to maintain a very low profile.
As secret Confederate agents, James and Irvine Bulloch were not included in the general amnesty that came on the heels of the Civil War. They therefore decided to stay in Liverpool, where they became cotton importers and brokers, and became quite successful.
During the 1880s, Theodore Roosevelt persuaded his uncle "Jimmie" to write and publish an account of his activities during the Civil War. The Secret Service of the Confederate States in Europe was published in two volumes published in 1883. TR wrote to his mother telling of his success with the project saying, "I have persuaded him [James Bulloch] to publish a work which only he possesses the materials to write." In return, Uncle Jimmie spent considerable time schooling his energetic nephew on the operations of wind-powered ships of the Age of Sail and explained much about ship-to-ship fighting tactics as Theodore had no personal experience or training in early 19th Century Naval warfare. This tutoring, and Roosevelt's long hours spent in libraries researching the official records of the US Navy, resulted in Roosevelt's book, The Naval War of 1812.
In 1905, Theodore Roosevelt toured the South. After spending October 19 in North Carolina, and skipping South Carolina, Roosevelt visited Roswell, Georgia the next day. He spoke to the citizens there as his "neighbors and friends" and concluded his remarks as follows:
In Roosevelt's autobiography, he mentions his Bulloch uncles as follows:
James died in Liverpool at the home of his daughter and son-in-law at 76 Canning Street, Canning, Liverpool, England in 1901 at the age of 77. His headstone in Liverpool's Toxteth Cemetery bears the inscription: An American by birth, an Englishman by choice.
There are biographical sketches in The American National Biography (supplementary volume) and The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.