Born March 13, 1916, Jacque Fresco grew up in a Sephardi Jewish home in Bensonhurst in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, at the corner of 67th Street and 20th Avenue. Having no interest with formal schooling, Fresco said in an interview that he 'dropped out of school at 14'.Fresco has referred to his childhood experience of impoverishment during the Great Depression as influencing his later attitude toward society.
Atop the roof of his home, Fresco spent time with friends discussing Darwin, Einstein, science, and the future.
Fresco attended the Young Communist League. After a discussion with the League president during a meeting Fresco was 'physically ejected' after loudly stating that 'Karl Marx was wrong!' Fresco later turned his attention to Technocracy. In the mid-1930s, Fresco traveled west to Los Angeles where he began a career as a structural designer.
Fresco's alternative designs included both flying wings and a disk-shaped aircraft he referred to as a "flying saucer" with which he attempted to interest the aircraft industry to no avail at a time when experimental construction was underway. His flying disc design (saucer shaped airplane) was before turbo-jets and hence considered impractical at the time. Fresco sketched designs of a disc-shaped aircraft in 1938. Fresco encountered resistance to his proposals and designs, and thereafter resigned from Douglas due to design disagreements.
Fresco traveled to Hawaii in late 1939. From Hawaii he traveled to the South Sea Islands where he interacted with native islanders. After returning to California, Fresco took residence at various locations in Hermosa Beach and throughout Los Angeles, meanwhile continuing industrial design projects for various companies.
Army Air Force, Wright Field
In 1942, Fresco was drafted into the United States Army. He was assigned technical design duties for the Army Air Force at Wright Field design laboratories in Dayton, Ohio. There he would produce up to forty designs a day, of which one was a "radical variable camber wing" with which he attempted to optimize flight control by allowing the pilot to adjust the thickness of the wings during lift and flight. It received a patent and was thereafter given to the Army Air Force. Fresco did not adjust to military life and was discharged. Fresco had advanced ideas for airplane design. He gained a reputation according to some commentary of being "a man twenty years ahead of his time" in that regard.
Model of the Trend Home
Fresco was commissioned by Earl Muntz, to design a form of housing under the conditions that it be low cost, composed of available materials, be functional, and avoid radicalism. Fresco along with his associates Harry Giaretto and Eli Catran then conceived, designed and engineered the project house.
This took place in the summer of 1948. Fresco, then 32 years old, perhaps came closest to traditional career success with this project called the Trend Home. Built mostly of aluminum and glass, it was on prominent display at Stage 8 of the Warner Bros. Sunset Lot in Hollywood. It took 10 men eight hours to construct the Trend Home.
The cost to tour the Trend Home during the three months it was on display was one dollar. Proceeds went to the Cancer Prevention Society.
The Trend Home needed federal funding. An official from the Federal Housing Administration arrived at Muntz’s office at Warner Brothers Studios during the summer of 1948 but denied funding for the Trend Home plan.
Scientific Research Laboratories
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fresco created and was director of Scientific Research Laboratories.
Scientific Research Laboratories
Located near Elysian Park in Los Angeles that business later moved to Los Feliz, near Hollywood, to Fresco's home where he also gave lectures, and taught technical design, meanwhile researching and working on inventions as a freelance inventor and scientific consultant.
Fresco claims that many of his inventions were unconditionally sold to his clients, excluding his name from many of the patents. Fresco also claims that many of his inventions were illegally taken by other associates.
During this period, Fresco struggled to get his research funded and faced setbacks and financial difficulties, in at least one case, resulting in repossession of his lab equipment.
In 1955 Fresco moved to Miami, Florida. He began a business as a psychological consultant though he had no formal education in that area of expertise. He received a 'barrage of criticism' from the American Psychological Association and Fresco eventually ended his consultations. Fresco later acknowledged that absence of a degree was an issue in academic contexts. In a newspaper article from that time period Fresco claimed to have a degree from Sierra University, Los Angeles California, which was unverified.
In later life, Fresco has described his activities during this earlier period. In one account written by himself, he describes white supremacist organizations which he claims he joined in order to test the feasibility of changing people. He describes joining the Ku Klux Klan and White Citizens Council in an attempt to change their views about racial discrimination.
32 part car suspension
Fresco spent time in Miami attempting to showcase his designs of a circular city and raise funds to get his design built. He also designed and attempted to secure funds for a three-wheeled car having 32 moving parts in its suspension though it remained 'unfinished in a garage' due to lack of funds."
Fresco made his living working as an industrial designer for various companies such as Alcoa and the Major Realty Corporation. In 1961, with Pietro Belluschi and C. Frederick Wise, Fresco collaborated on a project, known as the Sandwich House. Consisting of mostly prefabricated components, partitions, and aluminum, it sold for $2,950, or $7,500 with foundation and all internal installations. During this period, Fresco supported his projects by designing prefabricated aluminum devices through Jacque Fresco Enterprises Inc.
In 1969, with Ken Keyes Jr., Fresco coauthored Looking Forward. The first half of the book attempted to explain causes of issues concerning humanity and potential solutions. Fresco and Keyes describe three components they claimed could correctly analyze the future: humanity's values, methods of thinking, and tools i.e. technological developments. The second half of the book is about the possible social implications of a central network knowledge bank used to bring about a 'humanized man-machine symbiosis', and a speculative look at the future with fictional characters, Scott and Hella. The authors picture an ideal 'cybernetic society in which want has been banished and work and personal possessions no longer exist; individual gratification is the total concern'.
Project Americana, Sociocyberneering, Inc. and Venus Project
Project Americana a speculative venture concerning cultural ideas by Fresco did not gain popular acceptance. Fresco formed a new non-profit called "Sociocyberneering." Fresco introduced it at university discussions in 1970 and 1971. His new group was a non-political and non-sectarian membership organization having, at its peak, 250 members. Fresco frequently hosted educational lectures in Miami Beach and four nights a week at his home in Coral Gables for a small fee, and followed by informal discussions at local cafes. A description of these lectures from the (Gold Coast Free Press Vol. 1, page 10 February 11, 1971) stated: "Every night (except Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday) Dr. Fresco admits the public to his presence from 8:30 to about 11p.m. at a dollar-a-head (if you have one; a dollar, that is). Coffee afterward [...] is optional." His lecture topics ranged from physics to sociology though he had no formal education. Fresco worked with members of his organization to produce designs, films, and booklets advocating the aims and goals of the organization.
Fresco defined "sociocyberneering" as "the application of the most sophisticated forms of computer technology in the management of human affairs." His goal was to "investigate alternative solutions based in conservation of energy, international cooperation in all areas of social endeavor, and the assimilation of a systems approach for the design of cities."
Fresco promoted his organization by lecturing at universities and appearing on radio and television.
One aim of Sociocyberneering was to locate land in south Florida to build an experimental community in which they would live and expand. Investments were made in a few locations. They encountered a setback in 1978 when members feared that the Collier Countyzoning board would complicate implementation. The result was a near total dissolution of Sociocyberneering Inc. membership. The investment was abandoned and the land was resold. Fresco sold his home and new land for a new project was located in rural Venus, Florida. Fresco then established a research center there in 1980. With help of remaining members, some buildings were constructed at the Venus site.
Venus Project and later career
Fresco with Roxanne Meadows in Venus
In 1994, Fresco incorporated The Venus Project. Fresco had accumulated a quantity of designs and models that could represent a general outline of how his ideas might look and operate, and these were used to gain exposure for the organization. Fresco and Meadows continued to support the project in the '90s through freelance inventing, industrial engineering, conventional architectural modeling, and invention consultations. In the process, some of Fresco's designs received attention from development companies. In 2002, Fresco published his main work The Best That Money Can't Buy.
At work in Venus studio
Construction in Venus
In 2006, William Gazecki directed the semi-biographical film about Fresco, "Future by Design" In 2008, Peter Joseph featured Fresco in the film Zeitgeist Addendum where his ideas of the future were given as possible alternatives. Peter Joseph, founder of The Zeitgeist Movement began advocating Fresco's approach. In April 2012, the two groups 'split' over differences of how to proceed as cooperating groups, and at that point the Zeitgeist Movement was no longer the "activist arm" of the Venus Project, as it had previously been described by both groups.
In 2010, Fresco attempted to trademark the phrase "resource-based economy" The phrase was reviewed and found to be too generic, and the trademark was denied.
Currently, Fresco holds lectures and tours at The Venus Project location.
The Venus Project logo
The Venus Project is presented in its literature as the culmination of Fresco's life work. It is located in central Florida near west Lake Okeechobee about fifty miles northeast of Fort Myers. On its 21.5-acre lot, there are ten buildings designed by Fresco. It is partly a research center for Fresco and Roxanne Meadows and partly an educational center for supporters. They produce videos and literature presenting their goals and ideas. According to their literature, their ultimate goal is to improve society by moving towards global, sustainable, technological social design which they call a "resource-based economy".
Personal life and family
Fresco was born to immigrants from the Middle East, Isaac and Lena Fresco. His father was born in 1880 and around 1905 immigrated from Istanbul to New York where he worked as a horticulturalist. He died in 1963. Fresco's mother was born in 1887 in Jerusalem and also migrated to New York around 1904. She died in 1988. Fresco was brother to two siblings, a sister, Freda, and a brother, David. Fresco had two marriages when he lived in Los Angeles and carried his second marriage through his first couple years in Miami. He divorced his second wife in 1957 and remained unmarried thereafter. His second wife, Patricia, gave birth to a son, Richard, in 1953 and a daughter, Bambi, in 1956. Richard was an army private and died in 1976. Bambi died of cancer in 2010.
Roxanne Meadows has assisted Fresco since 1976. As Fresco's domestic partner and administrative colleague, she oversees much of the management of the Venus Project.
It’s a 'lack of professional engagement', William Gazecki who in 2006 completed Future by Design, a feature-length profile of Jacque Fresco says, that has hurt Fresco the most. “The real missing link in Jacque’s world is having put Jacque to work,” Gazecki says, “[It’s] exemplified when people say: ‘Well, show me some buildings he’s built. And I don’t mean the domes out in Venus. I mean, let’s see an office building, let’s see a manufacturing plant, let’s see a circular city.’ And that’s where he should have been 30 years ago. He should have been applying his work, in the real world … [but] he’s not a collaborator, and I think that’s why he’s never had great public achievements.”
Some aspects of Fresco's ideas have been compared to thinkers from the nineteenth century. Titles such as The Paradise within the Reach of all Men without Labor by Powers of Nature and Machinery, Emigration to the Tropical World for the Melioration of All Classes of People of All Nations, and The New World or Mechanical System were written in the 1800s by John Adolphus Etzler who has been described by independent scholar, Anna Notaro, as an early forerunner to Fresco's ideas. Likewise, Ebenezer Howard and his book Garden Cities of Tomorrow, as well as the Garden City Movement during the early 1900s has been described, by Morten Grønborg of Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, as another predecessor.
Fresco's proposed economy removes the mechanics of traditional economics and his critical view of modern economics has been compared to Thorstein Veblen's concept of "the predatory phase in human development," according to an article in the journal of Society and Business Review. Grønborg has labeled other facets of Fresco's ideology a "tabula rasa approach."
Human value systems often undergo emphasis in Fresco's concepts. According to Jack Catran, "Fresco, [states] the scientist of today is involved in a conflict between two value systems: 1. The orderly world of scientific methodology; 2. The non-scientific culture (and language) which surrounds him on all sides, but in which is embodied the embryo of the future."
Also noted by synergetics theorist, Arthur Coulter, is the organic nature of Fresco's city designs and the evolutionary (rather than revolutionary) development he expects them to take. Evolving Ideas host, Elaine Smitha, compares the relationship and functions between city facilities and humans to the relationships and functions of organismic bodies. Coulter posits such cities as the answer to Walter B. Cannon's idea of achieving homeostasis for society.
Form of Governance, Human Nature, Scientism, Calculation Problem
His hypothesis of a resource-based economy is sometimes equated with Marxism, socialism, communism, or fascism. Fresco responds to these comparisons by stating, "The aims of The Venus Project have no parallel in history, not with communism, socialism, fascism or any other political ideology. This is true because cybernation is of recent origin. With this system, the system of financial influence and control will no longer exist."
Writing for the Naples Daily News, Steve Schmadeke, notes, "it's also true that his system of governance, in which authority is given to the expert in each field – in this case, specially programmed computers – is one that many writers, including Nobel-prize-winner Friedrich Hayek, have shown to be disastrous."
Independent scholar, Anna Notaro, has suggested a scientistic approach due to Fresco's heavy emphasis on science alone to overcome humanity's obstacles,
His vision is eminently practical, and although this constitutes an innovative and welcome element with reference to previous utopian projections, his focus on science alone makes him fail as a generalist – the criticism Fresco himself passed on academics and scientists. Today's pressing problems require a holistic approach – various disciplines, arts science, philosophy working on a "convergence mode", unfortunately Fresco's vision seems to consolidate the long established view that the "two cultures" (Science and Art) are antagonistic.
Writing for the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Robert P. Murphy has raised the calculation problem against a resource-based economy. In a resource-based economy, Murphy claims there is no ability to calculate the availability and desirability of resources because the price mechanism is not utilized. Addressing this aspect, another article in the Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, states criticism of 'central plannings' computation problem applies to the ideas of Fresco.
Question of Utopianism
Exploring whether Fresco's ideology is utopian, Viktor Vakhshtayn, the director of the Department of Sociology at the Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences, claims that Fresco has carried forth a perspective that bypassed utopian perspectives of the twentieth-century. He describes the whole of Fresco's ideology as "telling us about the deep past of the future." That, "in fact, the whole history of the 20th century is the history of death of utopia. This is in fact what gives Jacque Fresco such power. He jumped from the 19th century to the 21st century, leap-frogging the 20th century. It's a single step from Jules Verne to Jacque Fresco. This is very powerful. This keeps amazing me."
In response to association with utopianism, Fresco has stated, "We do not believe in the erroneous notion of a utopian society. There is no such thing. Societies are always in a state of transition. We propose an alternative direction, which addresses the causes of many of our problems. There are no final frontiers for human and technological achievement."
With a broader conception of utopianism than Fresco, Vakhshtayn upon initial assessment states that Fresco appears to have four out of five characteristic features of utopianism of the nineteenth-century, namely, the belief in rationality of science, belief in the technological process, that technology should better human life, and the overseeing of cities from a center. The only feature remaining to close the question of utopianism is a "final frontier, and this is exactly the element that Fresco is stressing so much." Vakhshtayn concludes by saying, "When we say utopia, we don't mean it cannot be implemented. So many utopias have been implemented in the twentieth-century. And they were discredited because they were actually put into life." Vakhshtayn further accuses Fresco of not answering the "epistemological" question, i.e. how does one certainly know that a course of events will unfold as one expects them to.
Focusing on accusations of utopianism, Nikolina Olsen-Rule, writing for the Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, remarks, "For most people, the promise of the project sounds like an unattainable utopia, but if you examine it more closely, there are surprisingly many scientifically founded arguments that open up an entire new world of possibilities." Morten Grønborg, also of Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies, points out,
Perhaps the modern interpretation of the word "utopia" is to blame when the Renaissance man and futurist Jacque Fresco says ... he doesn't want to call his life work, The Venus Project, a utopia. However, this visionary idea of a future society has many characteristics in common with the utopia. ... the word utopia carries a double meaning, since in Greek it can mean both the good place (eutopia) and the nonexisting place (outopia). A good place is precisely what Fresco has devoted his life to describing and fighting for.
Notaro suggests instead that "The Venus project is no static utopia, rather a dynamic one: it requires an incremental process driven by an ever-changing extropic ideal."
Hans-Ulrich Obrist notes, "Fresco's future may, of course, seem outmoded and his writings have been subject to critique for their fascistic undertones of order and similitude, but his contributions are etched in the popular psyche and his eco-friendly concepts continue to influence our present generation of progressive architects, city planners and designers."
When asked by a FOX reporter why he has such difficulty actualizing his many ideas, Fresco responded, "Because I can't get to anybody."
Commenting on what he sees as Fresco's inspirational and charismatic teaching methods, physicist, Paul G. Hewitt, cites Fresco as being one of the three major sources of inspiration, turning him toward a career in physical science.
His contribution to futuristics is singular, as few, if any around the globe, dare the sweep, the depth, and the drama of his vision. When he writes or speaks, futurists grow quiet, pensive, and finally, appreciative – as his work is sound in its call for a thorough examination of the assumptions under which we labor. While little of his vision may materialize in the lifetime of us all, our grandchildren may yet salute much of what Jacque first helped them set in motion.
In 2008 the Prophet Rael of the Raelian Movement gave Fresco its Honorary Guide award, saying he had dedicated "his life to the betterment of humanity as a whole, not just one country, one race, one religion, but the whole of humanity." Fresco received the International Design Award in 2009 from the a! Diseño organization of Mexico. In 2010, it was announced that Fresco was selected to receive the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Exemplar-Zero Initiative in the summer of 2011. In April 2012, Fresco was honoree at Sustainatopia in Miami.
a "Fresco never got past elementary school. 'It was all bullshit to him,' Catran said." – p.166, ¶ 3
b "For a period in the '30s, the 'gang' gathered at night on the roof of Fresco's building in Bensonhurst. The conversation was science." – p.168, ¶ 1
c "After a while Fresco also discovered Technocracy ..." – p.168, ¶ 2
d "Catran moved in and now all the old gang around Fresco was ensconced in Hermosa Beach." – p.168, ¶ 4
e "Fresco was standing in an Army induction line outside the Warner studios." – p. 69, ¶ 4
f "Fresco's talents, however, did not go unnoticed by the Army. He was assigned to a special futuristic unit of the Army's Air Force ..." – p.169, ¶ 4
g "Fresco didn't adjust to Army life and was eventually discharged ..." – p.169, ¶ 4
h "Fresco was not unknown in the early days of the aircraft industry." – p.159, ¶ 1
i "Earl 'Madman' Muntz spent $500,000 ... on something called the Trend Home." – p.170, ¶ 1
j "The idea was simply that a home of aluminum could be manufactured quickly and cheaply for all the GIs coming home from the war ... A man from the Truman administration did come to look the project over ..." – p.170, ¶ 1
k "He was the technical adviser on a number of other science-fiction movies." – p.170, ¶ 3
l "Fresco had asked his brother Dave Fresco (who became a character actor in Hollywood), what an atheist was." – p.167, ¶ 1
m "Fresco was not without his influential admirers. Forrest Ackerman, the well known science-fiction impresario ... was always terribly taken with Fresco." – p.170, ¶ 2
a "The advantage of a high school education escaped him, a most fortunate quirk of destiny, for it was that very fact that contributed to his genius; I always suspected that the lack of a formal education was what made him an authentic original." – p.70, ¶ 1
b "The story of Johnny Califano, the son of an Italian gangster and a mother dying of overwork, won him the coveted first prize in an All-City drama competition." – p.69, ¶ 3
c "his ability to draw and paint, and his unquestioned skill with theatrics, attracted many intellectuals of the day ..." – p.69, ¶ 4
d "We spent many hours in that small flat, listening to Jacque expound on Darwin, Einstein, the scientific method, the design of high-speed aircraft, the future, behaviorism, and the indignities of suffering through another impoverished northeastern winter." – p.70, ¶ 4
a "Fresco was not just Catran's mentor – he was also his boyhood chum in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn, where the two grew up together at the bottom of the Depression." – p. 161, ¶ 5
b "At one point during the Depression Fresco had been attracted to the theories of Karl Marx. But he finally decided – and was brave enough to declare as much at a public meeting of the Young Communist League, from which he was physically ejected – that Marx was all wrong." – p. 160, ¶ 1
c-d "As a Douglas aircraft employee, he had argued with his chief engineer about an airplane design. Fresco warned that it would crash during its first big test. It did, killing two people.." – p. 159, ¶ 1
e In the early '50s I went to Fresco's laboratory every Saturday morning ... to take lessons in technical illustration." – p. 159, ¶ 3
f "Jacque Fresco ... had moved to Miami in the Mid-'50s, after the State of California had destroyed the laboratory to make way for the Golden State Freeway." – p. 161, ¶ 3
g "Fresco had a circle of disciples who considered him next only to Albert Einstein, although the friends and relatives of those disciples often thought Fresco was a fraud and charlatan." – p. 158, ¶ 2
a "Bensonhurst, specifically the corner of 67th Street and 20th Avenue ..." – p. 64, ¶ 2; "Nearly everybody living in Bensonhurst was a member of a minority; the minorities made up a majority of the neighborhood." – p. 68, ¶ 4
b "The thirst for learning in the crowded public libraries, was to be seen to be believed." – p. 65, ¶ 3
c "For us Technocracy obsoleted Marx overnight ..." – p. 65, ¶ 5
"This is an original design depicting a huge Flying Wing of 70 ton capacity. It will probably be of the pusher type, using dual rotation propellers or jet propulsion. The undercarriage and power plant are housed within the aerodynamically designed wing. Flying Wings derive stability by means of a 'washout' arrangement. The wing tips have a slight degree of twist downward. Turning is [a]ffected by the ailerons." – p. 34, ¶ caption
^ abcScully, Frank (1950), "The Aerodynamic Correction", Behind the Flying Saucers, New York: Henry Holt & Co., pp. 122–123
a "In 1938 Jacque Fresco designed a flying saucer but at that time the aircraft companies said the model was too far ahead of anything they could handle and it was shelved ..." – p. 122, ¶ 3
b "the model was too far ahead of anything they could handle and it was shelved while he worked on a more conventional job, which he did at Pearl Harbor, just before the war, and some Buck Rogers contributions which were his lot at Wright Field during the conflict." – p. 122, ¶ 3
c "In the aircraft industry Fresco is known as the man who is forever twenty years ahead of his time." – p. 123, ¶ 5
^I. Gelatt, Roland., "In a Saucer from Venus", Saturday Review., Vol. 33, Sept. 1950: 21 II. Scully, Frank. (February 7, 1951). "Construction Possibilities of Flying Discs Discussed". Charleston Daily Mail (Charleston, WV). p. 8.
"To show me how far it would be safe to go he sketched some saucers that could be built even now. He started out with a modest job that was his model of 1938. It had eight jets spaced around the rim of the saucer like a pinwheel firecracker. The center rotated on a turbine held in position like a helicopter, while the outer rim revolved on a turbine. It was before turbo-jets and hence considered impractical at the time. [...]" – p. 8, ¶ 6
a "He was shelved in the rungs of office hierarchy. Although his advanced ideas were hot, there were older engineers on the payroll and so Fresco's ideas had to wait. It was upsetting to Fresco because frequently before a model was finished on paper he could foresee its unsafe feature. He would warn the engineers about them. No one would listen to him. And if anyone listened, they resented his advice." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 4
b "In two cases, his predictions came true when planes of which he spoke as unsafe, cracked up costing several lives ... After that he followed the only logical course open – he quit." – p. 9, col. 3, ¶ 1
c "Fresco was transferred to the design laboratories at Wright Field." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 4
d "From his prolific drafting boards poured design after design that startled even the military experts in the particular type of logistics. [...] He produced as many as 40 designs a day ..." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 2, 8
e "He also invented a 'variable camber' wing, patent for which he gave to Uncle Sam." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 8
f "Long before they appeared as standard designs of leading aircraft plants, Fresco had foreseen such developments as the flying wing, the dual rotation props, the washout wingtips and pusher airplanes." – p. 9, col. 2, ¶ 3
^Passenger List (Original Document). Los Angeles: U.S. Department of Labor Immigration and Naturalization. October 13, 1939.
"A hublike hydraulic jack unit, joining a number of flexible spars from points along the wing's edges, increases or decreases space between the wing's surfaces, thus giving the pilot constant control over the wing's performance."
^"Hydraulic Jack to Alter Airplane Wing's Camber", Science News Letter., Vol. 50, No. 20, (November 16, 1946).: 310, JSTOR3923108Check date values in: |date= (help)
"The old dilemma of the camber of an airplane's wings ... has challenged Jacque Fresco of Hollywood, Calif., for patent 2,410,056."
"It may be that in the future your umbrella will consist of nothing more than a small plastic knob on the end of a stick, if the research being done by Jacque Fresco in his small Los Angeles laboratory is successful." – p. 149, ¶ 1
"'Well,' Forry drawled, 'there's a chap named Jacques Fresco that might be more in your price range. Do you want his number?' Not long after Roger was back on the phone to Forry. 'He wanted a thousand dollars!'" – p. 21, ¶ 3
a "This experience helped to shape what appears to be Fresco’s core ideological principle: that there is no such thing as “human nature,” and hence, a resource-based economy – the most logical and equitable system he can imagine – would not be imperiled by innate greed." – ¶ 20
b "In 1969 Fresco built a prototype of the car, powered by a Villiers motorcycle engine placed behind the front wheel."
c "Letters exchanged between then-U.S. Senator Hubert Humphrey (who would later be elected vice president of the United States along with President Lyndon B. Johnson) and Gerald Barron, a California attorney and one-time U.S. House candidate who thought highly of Fresco. This correspondence occurred around the time the city of Washington, D.C., was planning its mass transit system. When Fresco finally met Humphrey, he recommended that the train be built above ground to save both financial and material resources; the top of the above-ground tunnel, Fresco argued, could be used as a raised pedestrian walkway."
d "The end of the war meant low demand for warplanes, and Fresco figured that the production of Trend Homes could save metal-working factories from shedding workers or shutting down completely. The homes would also solve the problem of housing for the tens of thousands of soldiers who had returned home from the battlefields and were starting new families." – ¶ 1
e-f "Meadows designed multi-million dollar luxury homes for powerful real estate developers – how she would “prostitute” herself, she says – and Fresco consulted on aspiring inventors’ designs." – ¶ 23
g "But it didn’t last – the partnership ended in April of this year..." – ¶ 22
i "in 1976, he met the woman who would become his romantic and professional partner, architect Roxanne Meadows." – ¶ 3
^Rau, Herb. (February 10, 1961). "Dateline Miami". The Miami News (Miami). pp. 3B.
"Tipster says a man named Jacques Fresco, in the S.W. section, has 'perfected' an automobile that can be mass-produced for $700, the vehicle having only 32 moving parts."
^Tyler, Sharon. (July 8, 1968). "Technocratic Age Coming For U.S.". The Miami Herald (Miami).
"the inventor of a 32-part car, which lies unfinished in a garage due to lack of funds." – ¶ 8
a "The shell was developed in consultation with Prof. Pietro Belluschi, dean of architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; C. Frederick Wise, architect, of Rosemont, Pa.; and Jacques Fresco, industrial designer of Miami, Fla." – p. 8R, ¶ 3
b "The basic price of $2,950 includes an aluminum shell, consisting of the walls and roof [...] The company estimates that a complete house, including land, will sell for about $7,500." – p. 1R, ¶ 2
"Keyes and Fresco, in their recent utopia Looking Forward, indicate clearly what the choices are: ... All three factors interact with each other. The value structure not only influences the method of thinking and the technology, but it is, in turn, influenced by them. The method of thinking that man employs is affected by his value structure and the technology of the age, but it also plays a part in modifying both of these. Similarly, the technology of any given civilization interacts in a mutual way with the value structure and the methods of thinking. These pregnant factors might be viewed as three gears that mesh with each other." – p. 589, ¶ 1
The concept of a central computer, which monitors and regulates global society, was envisioned by futurists Ken Keyes, Jr. and Jacque Fresco as early as 1969, when they described a six-foot diameter sphere named Corcen, which would network and integrate computerized information, and serve as a "knowledge bank" that would regulate the lives of individuals in future global society, and coordinate what they referred to as a 'humanized man-machine symbiosis.'" – p. 195, ¶ 3
^Cross, Michael S. (1970.), "Review: 'Looking Forward'", Library Journal., Vol. 94: 612Check date values in: |date= (help)
"Using as illustration a typical 21st-century couple, the authors picture an ideal cybernetic society in which want has been banished and work and personal possessions no longer exist; individual gratification is the total concern." – p. 612, col. 3
^ abI. The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Annual Report (Original Document). Miami: The University of Miami. 1970.
"Seminar: Sociocyberneering, a possible alternative to the future."
II. Bassett, Melanie. (March 6, 1970). "Man Need Not Fear Machine". The Carolinian (Raleigh, NC). p. 4.
"Jacque Fresco, speaking at the College Editors Conference, in Washington D.C. last weekend, said [...]" – p. 4, col. 3, ¶ 1
III. "Series to Explore Suicide or Survival". St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL). April 23, 1970. pp. 3B.
"'Suicide or Survival?' The question will be explored in a four-day series of programs beginning May 4 at the University of South Florida in Tampa. [...] On May 5, Fresco, co-author of the book "Looking Forward" and an inventor of medical equipment and prefab aluminum housing, will discuss some possible solutions to pollution problems." – p. 3B, col. 1, ¶ 1,3
IV. Steigleman, Walt. (October 20, 1971). "'Jules Vernesque' City Shows Plans at USF". The Oracle (Tampa, FL). p. 9.
"Jacques Fresco, nationally recognized scientist – inventor – lecturer and coordinator of the Sociocyberneering effort, will discuss the project with interested students, faculty and staff today at 2 p.m. in the University Center (UC) Ballroom." – p. 9, col. 1, ¶ 2
a,b "Fresco and his 250-member organization are not yet silent. They donate hours each week to research projects and draw blueprints of model cities, transit systems, airplanes and any other area of civilzed life needing improvement." – p. 1, ¶ 4
a "I attended Fresco's dynamic series of weekly lectures in Miami Beach and sometimes at his home in Coral Gables."
b "Charismatic Jacque has always been a futurist ... As a teacher, Jacque was and is the very best. He certainly was an enormous influence in my own teaching. He taught me to introduce concepts new to a student by first comparing them to familiar ones – teaching by analogy."
a "Every night (except Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday) Dr. Fresco admits the public to his presence from 8:30 to about 11p.m. at a dollar-a-head (if you have one; a dollar, that is). Coffee afterward [...] is optional." — p. 10, col. 1, ¶ 6
^Colebrook Jr., Faul F. (July 4, 1971). "Site Sought". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH). pp. 9B.
"An 80-acre site for a very special kind of circular city is being sought in southern Florida by a Miami-based non-profit organization called Sociocyberneering, Inc. Essentially, the new community is to be a kind of university, according to the organization's president and founder, Jacque Fresco." — p. 9B, col. 7, ¶ 1
^Anderson, Marie. (April 29, 1973). "Living Should Be Easier Says Systems Advocate". The Miami Herald (Miami, FL). pp. 10H.
"[...] are out to try to get a small segment of Jacque Fresco's Total Enclosure System built on ten acres down in South County." — p. 10H, col. 2, ¶ 1
^ abcSchmadeke, Steve (October 27, 2002). "Venus Before Dawn". Naples Daily News (Naples, FL). pp. 1G & 3G.
a,b "Not surprisingly, there have been some setbacks to Fresco's grand vision. The biggest came in 1978 ... The group's plan collided with the Collier County zoning board ... Fresco says, 'So they all pulled out, they left.' ... Fresco sold his share of the Naples land and his Miami home ..." — p. 3G, col. 1, ¶ 9
d "It's true that his ideas, with variations in scope not only have been tried in another era. They owe much to Technocratic thought, a 1930s movement advocating the reform of social structures under the guidance of scientists and engineers and writers like Paul Ehlrich." — p. 1G, col. 2, ¶ 1
a "Fresco says his interest in creating a dramatically different social order emerged from the heartaches of the Great Depression." – p.3, col. 4, ¶ 5
b-c "He uses the expertly crafted models made by Meadows to make movies he sells to high school teachers and university professors intrigued by his ideas. The tapes and books, and the models Meadows creates of commercial real estate projects, provide the couple income to keep their hope of finding a major backer for The Venus Project alive." – p.3, col. 5, ¶ 3
d "His more immediate goal is to find the funding to make a feature-length film of his techno-utopian lifestyle so his theories can reach a mass audience." – p.3, col. 2, ¶ top
"To finance what they have done thus far, Fresco free-lances his designs for tools and prostheses to doctors and clients like Pratt and Whitney ..."
^"Designing the Future of Hospitality", National Hotel Executive., March 2000; Hardy, John R., Venus's 'Utopia' May Remain Elusive, Yet Industry Values Should Be Questioned, p. 6; Balfe, Christopher J., Venus Project Could Pave Vision for Lodging Industry, p. 6; Wolff, Howard, Design Firm Credits Futuristic Concepts, p. 7
"At 94, it's a future that Jacque will never see. But it won't stop him spending the next seven months traveling the globe promoting his vision. It's called the Venus Project and he says 50 million people around the world are now involved or aware of it." – 00:12–00:31
a "The New American had an opportunity to spend the day with Fresco and his partner during the project's 28-country "World Tour" stop in Stockholm, Sweden." – ¶ 22
b "Countless critics have drawn parallels between Fresco's vision and totalitarian systems that have wreaked havoc and death in the past such as communism, socialism, Marxism, and fascism. But Fresco rejects those comparisons." – ¶ 49
"A special U.S. Army court-martial in Wuerzburg, West Germany; sentenced two soldiers who converted to the Sikh religion of India last September to three months' confinement at hard labor: Pvt. Richard Fresco, 20. of Miami, Fla., and Pfc. James K. Broadwell, 21, of Superior, Wis."
^Social Security Death Index Master File: Richard Fresco, Social Security Administration
a "Etzler pre-dates Fresco ... by a century, but his approach has similarities, not just in the potential for technology to minimize the need for menial labor, but also for his emphasis on the practical attainability of a better world." – p. 12, ¶ 1
d Similarly to Soleri, another visionary architect, R. Buckminster Fuller devoted his imaginative efforts to respond to the challenges posed by the modern world. Like in the case of Jacque Fresco, Fuller's motivation was an acute social awareness of the profound economic disparities which characterize our 'supposedly' advanced way of living. Although Fuller did not come up with a whole new blueprint for humanity, he sought to 'do more with less' ..." – p. 9
"'No where have we really overcome what Thorstein Veblen called 'the predatory phase' of human development. The observable economic facts belong to that phase and even such laws as we can derive from them are not applicable to other phases' (Einstein, 1949). Jaques Fresco ... takes a similar view. Business and monetary economies generally he argues are predatory – devised to serve business and the monetary economies – not humanity." – p. 31, ¶ 1
^ abCoulter, Arthur. (Oct. 1996), "The Venus Project: A Review", Journal of the Synergetic Society, No. 247: 10Check date values in: |date= (help)
a It is based on evolution by design, addressed to real human needs, not the blind pursuit of more wealth by the wealthy which now dominates the political and economic processes. [...] It does not call for revolution or resort to the political process [...]" – p. 10, ¶ 9
c Instead of "urban renewal" – which achieves so little and costs so much and mostly makes the rich richer – the Project envisions designing new cities – "cities that think". – p. 10, ¶ 9
"It is an integrated system, just like the human body. All aspects of it function with a unified goal of a healthy, self-sustaining system. Fresco's designs also interface with comfort and utility. He bases his concept on the capacity of the human body to be efficient, flexible, strong and enduring, integrally supported by a neatly packaged organized system of blood and extracellular fluids. Each relies on the other, and some cells even multitask when the need is there. Nature must be in harmony to efficiently function, to make the flowers bloom and emit a fragrant perfume. Harmony is our goal in life and in business, just as it is in biology. " – p. 74, ¶ 5
a "The amiable and erudite visionary believes that 'the intelligent application of science and technology' will provide the bridge to cross over into new thinking ..."
b "Fresco is not alone in his ambitions visionary Italian architect Paolo Soleri has been pursuing his vision of a brave new world at Arcosanti, an experimental community in the high desert of Arizona ..."
^ ab"Welcome to the Future Review", Video Librarian., Vol. 13, No. 5, Oct. 1998: 66Check date values in: |date= (help)
"Futurist Jacque Fresco's vision of the new society ... has more than a faint Marxist-utopian ring to it, except that in Fresco's world – a kind of Bucky Fuller landscape on steroids ..." – ¶ 1
^Conn, David R. (October 1, 2007), "Future By Design Review", Library Journal., Vol. 132, No. 16: 101
"Fresco is often compared to R. Buckminster Fuller, but in this presentation he lacks Fuller's transcendence."
^Fresco, Jacque (May/June 1994.), "Designing the Future", The Futurist., Vol. 28, No. 3: 30Check date values in: |date= (help)
"Jacque Fresco invites comparison with the late R. Buckminster Fuller and Paolo Soleri. All three may be classed as comprehensive designers seeking to realize in practical terms their grand visions of a better future world. All three dreamed on a grandiose scale and then struggled with the nitty-gritty details of realizing their great dreams – at least in some measure – in concrete form."
" [Ray Bradbury is] "a coruscating Roman candle in the pyrotechnical company of H. G. Wells, Aldous Huxley, Philip Wylie, Jacque Fresco, Hugo Gernsback, Arthur C. Clarke, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, and, yes Edgar Rice Burroughs" – p. 13
^Feldman, Karen (January 24, 1997). "A Future Without Money". Philadelphia Tribune (Philadelphia, PA). pp. 4B.
a "Clarke has sent him the names of people who might be able to help him get exposure and financial backing to build his first city, an experimental one." – p. 4B, col. 2, ¶ 12
b "Dr. Art Coulter, professor emeritus of the University of North Carolina, also found Fresco's vision impressive ... Coulter, a biomedical engineer, said one of its best features is its emphasis 'that it should be done not for profit, but to meet the needs of human beings.'" – p. 4B, col. 2, ¶ 15
"There are three big influences. First is Burl Grey ... Then there was his friend, Jacque Fresco, who demonstrated inspirational teaching in his public lectures about building a saner world via technology. The third is dear friend Ken Ford ... All three greatly inspired me to be inspirational to others."