Jackie Wilson

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Jackie Wilson
Jackie Wilson 1961.jpg
Wilson in 1961
Background information
Birth nameJack Leroy Wilson, Jr.
Also known asMr. Excitement
Born(1934-06-09)June 9, 1934
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
DiedJanuary 21, 1984(1984-01-21) (aged 49)
Mount Holly, New Jersey, U.S.
GenresR&B, soul, pop, Rock and roll
OccupationsSinger-songwriter
InstrumentsVocals
Years active1953–1975
LabelsDee Gee Records
King Records
Federal Records
Brunswick Records
Associated actsBilly Ward and His Dominoes
Websitewww.jackiewilson.net
 
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Jackie Wilson
Jackie Wilson 1961.jpg
Wilson in 1961
Background information
Birth nameJack Leroy Wilson, Jr.
Also known asMr. Excitement
Born(1934-06-09)June 9, 1934
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
DiedJanuary 21, 1984(1984-01-21) (aged 49)
Mount Holly, New Jersey, U.S.
GenresR&B, soul, pop, Rock and roll
OccupationsSinger-songwriter
InstrumentsVocals
Years active1953–1975
LabelsDee Gee Records
King Records
Federal Records
Brunswick Records
Associated actsBilly Ward and His Dominoes
Websitewww.jackiewilson.net

Jack Leroy "Jackie" Wilson, Jr. (June 9, 1934 – January 21, 1984) was an American singer and performer. Known as "Mr. Excitement", Wilson was important in the transition of rhythm and blues into soul. He was considered a master showman, and one of the most dynamic and influential singers and performers in R&B and rock n' roll history.[1][2] Gaining fame in his early years as a member of the R&B vocal group Billy Ward and His Dominoes, he went solo in 1957 and recorded over 50 hit singles that spanned R&B, pop, soul, doo-wop and easy listening. During a 1975 benefit concert, he collapsed on stage from a heart attack and subsequently fell into a coma that persisted for nearly nine years until his death in 1984, at the age of 49. By this time, he had become one of the most influential artists of his generation.

A two-time Grammy Hall of Fame Inductee, Jackie Wilson was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987.[3] In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Jackie Wilson #69 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[4]

Early years and career[edit]

Jack Leroy Wilson, Jr. was born on June 9, 1934, in Detroit, Michigan, the only son of Jack Sr. and Eliza Mae Wilson, as she lost two previous children. Eliza Mae was born on The Billups-Whitfield Place in Columbus, Mississippi. Her parents were Tom and Virginia Ransom. Jackie often visited his family in Columbus and was greatly influenced by the choir at Billups Chapel. Growing up in the rough Detroit area of Highland Park, Wilson joined a gang called the Shakers and often found himself in trouble. Wilson's father was frequently absent, as he was alcoholic and usually out of work. Wilson began singing at an early age, accompanying his mother, once a choir singer, to church. In his early teens Jackie joined a quartet, the Ever Ready Gospel Singers, which became a popular feature of churches in the area. Jackie was not very religious, he just loved to sing and the cash he and his group earned came in handy for the cheap wine which he drank since the age of nine.[5] Jack Sr. and Eliza separated shortly after Jackie turned nine.

Wilson dropped out of high school at the age of 15, having already been sentenced to detention in the Lansing Corrections system for juveniles twice. During his second stint in detention, he learned boxing and started performing in the amateur circuit in the Detroit area at the age of 16. His record in the Golden Gloves was 2 and 8. After his mother forced with him to quit, Wilson got married to Freda Hood and became a father at 17. It is rumored that he fathered at least 10 other children prior to getting married and was forced to marry Hood by her father. He gave up boxing for music, first working at Lee's Sensation club as a solo singer,[6] then forming a group called the Falcons (not to be confused with The Falcons Wilson Pickett was part of), that included cousin Levi Stubbs, who later went on to lead the Four Tops (two more of Wilson's cousins, Hubert Johnson and Levi's brother Joe, later became members of The Contours). The other members joined Hank Ballard as part of The Midnighters.[7] including Alonzo Tucker, who would work with Wilson several years later as a solo artist.

Jackie Wilson was soon discovered by talent agent Johnny Otis, who assigned him to join a group called the Thrillers. That group would later be known as The Royals (who would later evolve into R&B group, The Midnighters, but Wilson wasn't part of the group when they changed their name and signed with King Records). LaVern Baker, Little Willie John, Johnnie Ray and Della Reese were acts managed by Al Green, owner of two music publishing companies, Pearl Music and Merrimac Music, and Detroit's Flame Show Bar where Wilson met Baker (not to be confused with R&B singer Al Green, nor Al Green of the now defunct National Records). After recording his first version of "Danny Boy" and a few other tracks on Dizzy Gillespie's record label Dee Gee Records under the name Sonny Wilson (his nickname), Wilson was eventually hired by Billy Ward in 1953 to join a group Ward formed in 1950 called The Dominoes, after a successful audition to replace the immensely popular Clyde McPhatter, who left the Dominoes and formed his own group, The Drifters.[8] Wilson almost blew his chance that day, showing up calling himself "Shit" Wilson and bragging about being a better singer than McPhatter.[9]

Billy Ward felt a stage name would fit The Dominoes' image, hence Jackie Wilson. Prior to leaving The Dominoes, McPhatter coached Wilson on the sound Billy Ward wanted for his group, influencing Wilson's singing style and stage presence. "I learned a lot from Clyde, that high-pitched choke he used and other things...Clyde McPhatter was my man. Clyde and Billy Ward."[6] Forties blues singer Roy Brown was also a major influence on him, and Wilson grew up listening to The Mills Brothers, The Ink Spots, Louis Jordan and Al Jolson.

Wilson was the group's lead singer for three years, but the Dominoes lost some of their stride with the departure of McPhatter. They were able to make appearances riding on the strength of the group's earlier hits, until 1956 when the Dominoes recorded Wilson with an unlikely interpretation of the pop hit "St. Therese of the Roses", giving The Dominoes another brief moment in the spotlight. (Their only other post-McPhatter/Wilson successes were "Stardust", released July 15, 1957, and "Deep Purple", released October 7, 1957.)[10] In 1957 Wilson set out to begin a solo career, leaving the Dominoes and collaborating with cousin Levi and got work at Detroit's Flame Show Bar. Later, Al Green worked out a deal with Decca Records, and Wilson was signed to their subsidiary label, Brunswick.

Solo stardom[edit]

Shortly after Wilson signed a solo contract with Brunswick, Al Green suddenly died. Green's business partner, Nat Tarnopol, took over as Wilson's manager (and later rose to president of Brunswick). Wilson's first single was released, "Reet Petite" from the album He's So Fine, which became a modest R&B success (and many years later, a huge international smash). The song was written by another former boxer, Berry Gordy, Jr., who co-wrote it with partner Roquel "Billy" Davis (who also went by the pseudonym Tyran Carlo) and Gordy's sister Gwendolyn. The trio composed and produced six further singles for Wilson, which included "To Be Loved", "I'm Wanderin'", "We Have Love", "That's Why (I Love You So)", "I'll Be Satisfied" and his late-1958 signature song, "Lonely Teardrops", which peaked at No. 7 on the pop charts, No. 1 on the R&B charts, and established him as an R&B superstar known for his extraordinary, operatic multi-octave vocal range.[11]

Due to his fervor when performing, with his dynamic dance moves, singing and impeccable dress, he was soon christened "Mr. Excitement", a title he would keep for the remainder of his career. His stagecraft in his live shows inspired James Brown, Michael Jackson[12] and Elvis Presley, among a host of other artists. Presley was so impressed by Wilson that he made it a point to meet him, and the two instantly became good friends. In an photo of the two posing together, Presley's caption in the autograph reads "You got you a friend for life." Presley also dubbed Jackie "The Black Elvis".[13]

Wilson's powerful, electrifying live performances rarely failed to bring audiences to a state of frenzy.[14] His live performances consisted of knee-drops,[15][16] splits, spins, one-footed across-the-floor slides, removing his tie and jacket on-stage and throwing it off-stage, a lot of basic boxing steps (advance and retreat shuffling)[17] and one of his favorite routines, getting some of the less attractive girls in the audience to come up and kiss him. "If I kiss the ugliest girl in the audience, they'll all think they can have me and keep coming back and buying my records." Having women come up to kiss is one reason Wilson kept bottles of mouthwash in his dressing room. Another reason was probably his attempt to hide the alcohol on his breath. Wilson also said he was influenced by Presley too, saying "A lot of people have accused Elvis of stealing the black man’s music, when in fact, almost every black solo entertainer copied his stage mannerisms from Elvis."[18]

In 1958, Davis and Gordy left Wilson and Brunswick after royalty disputes escalated between them and Nat Tarnopol. Davis soon became a successful staff songwriter and producer for Chess Records, while Gordy borrowed $800 from his family and used money he earned from royalties writing for Wilson to start his own recording studio, Hitsville USA, the foundation of Motown Records in his native Detroit. Meanwhile, convinced that Wilson could venture out of R&B and rock and roll, Tarnopol had the singer record operatic ballads and easy listening material, pairing him with Decca Records' veteran arranger Dick Jacobs.

Wilson scored hits as he entered the 1960s with the No. 15 "Doggin' Around", the No. 1 pop ballad "Night", and "Baby Workout", another Top 10 hit (No. 5), which he composed with Midnighters member Alonzo Tucker. His songwriting alliance with Tucker also turned out other songs, including "No Pity (In The Naked City)" and "I'm So Lonely." Top 10 hits continued with "Alone At Last" (No. 8 in 1960) and "My Empty Arms" (No. 9 in 1961).

Also in 1961, Wilson recorded a tribute album to Al Jolson, Nowstalgia...You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet, which included the only album liner notes he ever wrote: "...to the greatest entertainer of this or any other era...I guess I have just about every recording he's ever made, and I rarely missed listening to him on the radio...During the three years I've been making records, I've had the ambition to do an album of songs, which, to me, represent the great Jolson heritage...This is simply my humble tribute to the one man I admire most in this business...to keep the heritage of Jolson alive."[19][20] The album was a commercial failure.

Following the success of "Baby Workout", Wilson experienced a lull in his career between 1964 and 1966 as Tarnopol and Brunswick Records released a succession of unsuccessful albums and singles. Despite the lack of sales success, he still made artistic gains as he recorded an album with Count Basie, as well as a series of duets with rhythm and blues legend Lavern Baker and gospel singer Linda Hopkins.

In 1966, he scored the first of two big comeback singles with established Chicago soul producer Carl Davis with "Whispers (Gettin' Louder)" and "(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher", a No. 6 Pop smash in 1967, which became one of his final pop hits. This was followed by "I Get the Sweetest Feeling", which, despite its modest initial chart success in the US (Billboard Pop #34), has since become one of his biggest international chart successes, becoming a Top 10 hit in the UK twice, in 1972 and in 1987, and a Top 20 hit in the Dutch Top 40, and has spawned numerous cover versions by other artists such as Edwin Starr, Will Young, Erma Franklin (Aretha's sister) and Liz McClarnon.

A key to his musical rebirth was that Davis insisted that Wilson no longer record with Brunswick's musicians in New York; instead, he would record with legendary Detroit musicians normally employed by Motown Records and also Davis' own Chicago-based session players. The Detroit musicians, known as The Funk Brothers, participated on Wilson's recordings due to their respect for Davis and Wilson.

By 1975, Wilson and The Chi-Lites were Brunswick's only significant artists left on the aging label's roster. Until then, Wilson continued to record singles that found success on the R&B chart, but found no significant pop chart success. His final hit, "You Got Me Walkin' ", written by Eugene Record of the Chi-Lites, was released in 1972 with the Chi-Lites backing him on vocals and instruments.

Personal life[edit]

Wilson's personal life was full of tragedy. In 1960 in New Orleans, he was arrested and charged with assaulting a police officer when fans tried to climb on stage. He assaulted a policeman who had shoved one of the fans. Wilson had a reputation of being rather quick-tempered.[6]

On February 15, 1961, in Manhattan, Wilson was injured in a shooting. It is said the real story behind this incident is that one of his girlfriends, Juanita Jones, shot and wounded him in a jealous rage when he returned to his Manhattan apartment with another woman, fashion model Harlean Harris, an ex-girlfriend of Sam Cooke's. Supposedly, his management concocted a story to protect Wilson's reputation; that Jones was an obsessed fan who had threatened to shoot herself, and that Wilson's intervention resulted in him being shot.[21] Wilson was shot in the stomach: The bullet would result in the loss of a kidney, and lodged too close to his spine to be operated on.[5] However, in early 1975, in an interview with author Arnold Shaw, Wilson maintained it actually was a zealous fan whom he didn't know that shot him. "We also had some trouble in 1961. That was when some crazy chick took a shot at me and nearly put me away for good..."[22] Nonetheless, the story of the zealous fan was accepted, and no charges were brought against Jones. A month and a half later after the shooting incident, Jackie was discharged from the hospital and apart from a limp and discomfort for a while, he was quickly on the mend.

At the time Jackie had declared annual earnings of $263,000, while the average salary a man earned then was just $5,000 a year, but he discovered that, despite being at the peak of success, he was broke. Around this time the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) seized Jackie's Detroit family home. Tarnopol and his accountants were supposed to take care of such matters. Fortunately, Jackie made arrangements with the IRS to make restitution on the unpaid taxes and to re-purchase the family home at auction.[5] As far as money troubles went, this was not even the beginning for Wilson. Nat Tarnopol had taken advantage of Jackie, mis-managing Wilson's money ever since he took the role of Wilson's manager. He even had power-of-attorney over Wilson's finances, giving him complete control over Jackie's money. Shortly before Wilson suffered a heart attack in 1975, Tarnopol and 18 other Brunswick executives were indicted on charges of mail fraud and tax evasion stemming from bribery and payola scandals. Also in the indictment was the charge that Tarnopol owed at least $1 million in royalties to Wilson. In 1976 Tarnopol and the others were found guilty; an appeals court overturned their conviction 18 months later. Although the conviction was overturned, judges went into detail, outlining that Tarnopol and Brunswick Records did defraud their artists of royalties, and that there was sufficient evidence for Wilson to file a lawsuit. However, a trial to sue Tarnopol for royalties never took place, as Wilson lay in a nursing home comatose. Sadly, Wilson died riddled with debt to the IRS and Brunswick Records.[23]

In March 1967, Wilson and friend/drummer Jimmy Smith were arrested in South Carolina on "morals charges"; the two were entertaining two 24-year-old white women in their motel room.[9]

Freda Hood, Wilson's first wife, with whom he had four children, divorced him in 1965 after 14 years of marriage, frustrated with his notorious womanizing. Although the divorce was amicable, Freda would regret her decision. She never stopped loving him, and Jackie treated her as though she were still his wife.[5] His 16-year-old son, Jackie Jr, was shot and killed on a neighbor's porch in 1970. The death of Jackie Jr. devastated Wilson. He sank into a period of depression, and for the next couple of years he remained mostly a recluse, drinking and using marijuana and cocaine.

More tragedy hit, when two of Wilson's daughters died at a young age.[24] His daughter Sandra died in 1977 at the age of 24 of an apparent heart attack. Jacqueline Wilson was killed in 1988 in a drug related incident in Highland Park, Michigan.[25] Wilson's second marriage was to model Harlean Harris in 1967 with whom he had three children, but they separated soon after. Wilson later met and lived with Lynn Crochet. He was with Crochet until his heart attack in 1975. However, as he and Harris never officially divorced, Harris took the role of Wilson's caregiver for the singer's remaining nine years.

Wilson converted to Judaism as an adult.[26]

Patti LaBelle wrote in her biography that Wilson once tried to force himself on her in her teenage years, as she waited backstage to meet him after one of his performances.[27] Wilson is also said to be the father of author and speaker Alexyss K. Tylor, who claims that her mother was raped and impregnated by the entertainer.[28]

Death[edit]

On September 29, 1975, Wilson was one of the featured acts in Dick Clark's Good Ol' Rock and Roll Revue, hosted by the Latin Casino in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. He was in the middle of singing "Lonely Teardrops" when he suffered a heart attack, reportedly during the middle of the line "My heart is crying." When he collapsed on stage, audience members initially thought it was part of the act. Clark felt something was wrong, then ordered the musicians to stop the music. Cornell Gunter of the Coasters, who was backstage, noticed Wilson was not breathing. Gunter was able to resuscitate him and Wilson was then rushed to a nearby hospital.[9]

Medical personnel worked nearly 30 minutes to stabilize his vitals, but the lack of oxygen to his brain caused him to slip into a coma. He briefly emerged in early 1976, and was even able to take a few wobbly steps[29] but slipped back into a semi-comatose state. He was a resident of the Medford Leas Retirement Center in Mount Holly, New Jersey, when he was admitted into Memorial Hospital of Burlington County in Mount Holly due to having trouble taking nourishment, according to Wilson's attorney John Mulkerin.[30]

Jackie Wilson died on January 21, 1984, at the age of 49 from complications of pneumonia. Initially, he was buried in an unmarked grave at Westlawn Cemetery near Detroit. In 1987, a fundraiser collected enough money to purchase a headstone.[9]

Tributes and legacy[edit]

On August 17, 2013 in Cleveland, Ohio Jackie Wilson was inducted into The Official R&B Music Hall of Fame.

In 1985, the soul/funk band the Commodores recorded "Nightshift" in memory of Wilson and soul singer Marvin Gaye, who had both died in 1984. Reaching No. 1 R&B and No. 3 pop in the US, and topping the Dutch singles chart, it was the group's biggest post-Lionel Richie hit.

Van Morrison also recorded a tribute song called "Jackie Wilson Said (I'm in Heaven When You Smile)" on his 1972 album Saint Dominic's Preview. This song was later covered by Dexy's Midnight Runners. When the track was performed on the British TV show Top of the Pops, a picture of darts player Jocky Wilson was used instead. This has often been speculated to be a mistake but Dexy's frontman Kevin Rowland stated that it was a deliberate joke by the band.

Michael Jackson honored Jackie Wilson at the 1984 Grammy Awards. Jackson dedicated his Album of the Year Grammy for Thriller to Wilson, saying, "In the entertainment business, there are leaders and there are followers. And I just want to say that I think Jackie Wilson was a wonderful entertainer...I love you and thank you so much."[31]

Until Jackson's comments, Wilson's recording legacy had been dormant for almost a decade. Tarnopol owned Wilson's recordings due to Brunswick's separation from MCA, but the label had essentially closed down, essentially deleting Wilson's considerable recorded legacy. But when Jackson praised Wilson at the Grammys, interest in the legendary singer stirred, and Tarnopol released the first Wilson album (a two-record compilation) in almost nine years through Epic Records, Jackson's label at the time. Through Tarnopol's son, Wilson's music has become more available.

Discography[edit]

For a detailed listing of singles and albums, see Jackie Wilson discography.

Hit singles[edit]

YearTitleChart positions
US Billboard Hot 100US R&BUK Singles Chart[34]
1957"Reet Petite"62-6
"To Be Loved"22723
1958"Lonely Teardrops"71-
1959"That's Why (I Love You So)"132-
"I'll Be Satisfied"206-
"You Better Know It"371-
"Talk That Talk"343-
1960"A Woman, a Lover, a Friend"151-
"Night"4--
"Alone at Last"8-50
"Doggin' Around"151-
"Am I the Man"-10-
"(You Were Made For) All My Love"--33
1961"My Empty Arms"9--
"The Tear of the Year"-10-
"I'm Comin' on Back to You"199-
1963"Baby Workout"51-
1966"Whispers (Gettin' Louder)"115-
1967"(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher"61-
1968"I Get the Sweetest Feeling"34129
1969"(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher"
(UK re-release)
--11
1970"(I Can Feel These Vibrations) This Love is For Real"-9-
1975"I Get the Sweetest Feeling" /
"(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher"
(UK re-release)
--25
1986"Reet Petite"
(UK re-release)
--1
1987"I Get the Sweetest Feeling"
(UK re-release)
--3
"(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher"
(UK second re-release)
--15

Hit albums[edit]

YearTitleChart positions
US PopUS R&B
1963Baby Workout36*
Merry Christmas from Jackie Wilson6*
1966Whispers-15
1967Higher and Higher-28
1968Manufacturers of Soul-18

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jackie Wilson (American singer)". britannica.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  2. ^ Jackie Wilson at AllMusic
  3. ^ "Jackie Wilson". rockhall.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  4. ^ "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d Jackie Wilson at history-of-rock.com
  6. ^ a b c Arnold Shaw, Honkers And Shouters. The Golden Years Of Rhythm And Blues. New York: Crowell-Collier Press, 1978.
  7. ^ Shaw, Honkers And Shouters, 1978, p. 442.
  8. ^ Jackie Wilson interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969).
  9. ^ a b c d Icons of R&B and Soul: Ray Charles ; Little Richard ; Fats Domino ; Ruth ... - Bob Gulla - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  10. ^ "Billboard Top Forty", ISBN 8230-8280-6, et al.
  11. ^ "Show 17 - The Soul Reformation: More on the evolution of rhythm and blues. [Part 3] : UNT Digital Library". Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  12. ^ Junod, Tom (2009-06-29). "Michael Jackson: The First Punk, the King at Last". esquire.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  13. ^ Miller, James (2000-09-19). Flowers in the Dustbin: The Rise of Rock and Roll, 1947-1977. Fireside. p. 160. ISBN 0-684-86560-2. 
  14. ^ Cox, Erica. "Jackie Wilson: Mr. Excitement – A R&B Pioneer and Balladeer". loti.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  15. ^ "Jackie Wilson - All My Love".
  16. ^ alchemyandaccident.wordpress.com/tag/jackie-wilson/ "Almanac – June 09".
  17. ^ Jet - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. 1984-02-13. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  18. ^ "Quotes By and About Elvis". elvis.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  19. ^ Giddins, Gary. Rhythm-a-ning: Jazz Tradition and Innovation, Da Capo (2000), pgs 148-149
  20. ^ "Jackie Wilson's Tribute to Al Jolson". youtube.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  21. ^ Guralnick, P: Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke, Abacus, 2006, p. 355.
  22. ^ Shaw, Honkers And Shouters, 1978, p. 444.
  23. ^ "Jackie Wilson 20/20 Interview Pt. 1".
  24. ^ Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches. Chicago Review Press. p. 188. ISBN 1-55652-754-3. 
  25. ^ "Singer Jackie Wilson's daughter shot dead - Chicago Sun-Times | HighBeam Research - FREE trial". Highbeam.com. 1988-08-25. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  26. ^ Gale, Thomson (2007). Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles From the International Black Community. Gale/Cengage Learning. p. 165. ISBN 0-7876-7932-1. 
  27. ^ "From Our Forum: Jackie Wilson". Oldies.about.com. 2003-09-11. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  28. ^ "The Vice Guide To Sex:Alexyss Tylor's Vagina Power". 2010. 5:50 minutes in. Vice TV. http://www.vice.com/the-vice-guide-to-sex/alexyss-tylors-vagina-power.
  29. ^ Jet - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1976-03-04. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  30. ^ Jet - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1984-02-13. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  31. ^ Lisa D. Campbell, Michael Jackson: The King of Pop, p. 77
  32. ^ "Say It Loud!". VH1. Retrieved 2010-09-18. 
  33. ^ To Be Loved by Berry Gordy, 1994, p. 88
  34. ^ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 606. ISBN 1-904994-10-5. 

External links[edit]