Jack (given name)

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Jack
Pronunciationdʒæk (jak)
GenderMale
Origin
Word/NameMiddle English, indirect diminutive of "John"
Other names
Related namesJohn, Jacob, Jackie, Jackson, Johnny, Jacqueline, Jacques, Jake, Jay, Jayceon, Jaco[disambiguation needed], Jacobi
 
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Jack
Pronunciationdʒæk (jak)
GenderMale
Origin
Word/NameMiddle English, indirect diminutive of "John"
Other names
Related namesJohn, Jacob, Jackie, Jackson, Johnny, Jacqueline, Jacques, Jake, Jay, Jayceon, Jaco[disambiguation needed], Jacobi

Jack /ˈæk/ is a male given name, although in very rare cases it can be used as a female given name,[1] and sometimes as a surname. In English it is traditionally used as the diminutive form of the name John, though it is also often given as a proper name in its own right.

The name Jack is unique in the English language for the frequency of its use as a verb and a noun for many common objects and actions; and also its use in many compound words and phrases: jack-of-all-trades, jackknife, jackpot, jack tar, hijack, union jack, jack straw (scarecrow), apple jack, lumberjack, jackhammer, jackdaw, jack o'lantern, jack-off, jack-in-the-box, jack of clubs (playing cards), etc. The Encyclopædia Britannica article on the history of the word "jack" linked it directly to the common name: "Jack, a word with a great variety of meanings and applications, all traceable to the common use of the word as a by-name of a man." [2]

Origin[edit]

The name Jack probably originated as a medieval diminutive of the name John, originally as "Jackin" (earlier Jankin).[3][4] Alternatively it may be derived from the name Jacques, which is the French form of the name Jacob.[3] There is also a theory that it is Celtic in origin, meaning "Healthy, Strong, Full of Vital Energy" (compare the Welsh word iach, "health"), from a putative Ancient British *Jakkios.[5] Whatever its origin, the name and also the word "jack" were long used as a term to refer to any man, especially of the common classes.[2][6]

Frequency[edit]

Given name[edit]

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, "Jack" was the most frequently used male name for the years 2003–2007.[7][8][9] The high status of Jack as a male given name is a recent phenomenon. For all of the 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, William or John held the title of most frequent male given name.[10] A closer look at London shows that as of 1994 "Jack" was the most popular name in the city, but does not appear among the top-ten most popular in the preceding 970 years.[10][not in citation given] A survey in December 2008 showed that Jack is the most popular name in the UK for the 14th year running, since it took over from Thomas in 1994.

In 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2013 Jack was the most common boy's name in Australia.[11]

According to the United States Census of 1990, "Jack" is an uncommon American name, the given name for 0.315% of the male population and 0.001% of the female population.[1][12][13] However, the frequency of use of "Jack" as a baby name has steadily increased from the 160–170 rank prior to 1991 to a rank of 35 in 2006.[14]

Jock is the Scottish form of the name Jack.

Surname[edit]

The appearance of "Jack" as a surname is much less frequent than its use as a male given name. In 1990 United States, this surname is shared by about 0.007% of the population, though the geographical distribution of the surname has been broad since at least 1840, at which time there was a modest concentration of Jacks in Pennsylvania.[12][15][16] In the late 19th century, the geographic distribution of Jacks in England was also broad, with enrichment in North East England, Yorkshire and the Humber and southern North West England.[17] In 1891, the highest concentration of Jacks in the United Kingdom appeared in Scotland. The surname is considered almost exclusively Scottish.[18]

List of people with given name Jack[edit]

Jack in fiction[edit]

TV[edit]

Film[edit]

Music[edit]

Literature[edit]

Comics[edit]

Nursery rhymes[edit]

Video games[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Name search results". Search name files from 1990 Census. United States Census Bureau. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2008-02-09. "NAME(female):JACK ; RANK:3217; %FREQ (CUMM FREQ):0.001 (88.832)" 
  2. ^ a b JACK (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910). Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  3. ^ a b "Jack". Thinkbabynames.com. n.d. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  4. ^ Campbell, Mike (n.d.). "Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Jack". Behind the Name. Mike Campbell. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  5. ^ "English words of British origin - dexsowā". Google Sites. n.d. Retrieved March 30, 2012. [unreliable source?]
  6. ^ "Dictionary entry, jack". Dictionary.com. Ask.com. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Top 100 names for baby boys in England and Wales". National Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  8. ^ "Jack and Katie are the most popular baby names in Northern Ireland". News. Department of Finance and Personnel, Northern Ireland. 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2008-02-10. "Jack has been the most popular boys name since 2003...." 
  9. ^ "Jack and Emma were the most popular first names in Northern Ireland in 2003" (PDF) (Press release). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 2004-01-02. Retrieved 2008-02-14. "Jack and Emma were the most popular first names given to children whose births were registered in Northern Ireland in 2003" 
  10. ^ a b Galbi, Douglas A. (2002-07-20). Long-Term Trends in Personal Given Name Frequencies in England and Wales. 1.1. (self-published). Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  11. ^ "Australia’s 100 most popular baby names". Kidspot. April 2, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  12. ^ a b The male, female and total populations of the United States in the 1990 census were 121,239,418; 127,470,455; and 248,709,873, respectively. Information from "General Population and Housing Characteristics: 1990". 1990 Summary Tape File 1 (STF 1) - 100-Percent data. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  13. ^ "Name search results". Search name files from 1990 Census. United States Census Bureau. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2008-02-09. "NAME(male):JACK ; RANK:53; %FREQ (CUMM FREQ):0.315 (48.102)" 
  14. ^ Popular baby names
  15. ^ "Name search results". Search name files from 1990 Census. United States Census Bureau. 2007-09-07. Retrieved 2008-02-09. "NAME(last):JACK ; RANK:1852; %FREQ (CUMM FREQ):0.007 (50.991)" 
  16. ^ "Jack Family History Facts 1840". Family Facts. The Generations Network, Inc. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  17. ^ "Jack Families Living in England and Wales in 1891". Family Facts. The Generations Network, Inc. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  18. ^ http://www.ancestry.co.uk/facts/Jack-family-history-sct.ashx Retrieved 08-24-11