Ivy League

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Ivy League
(Ivies, Ancient Eight)
Ivy League logo
Established1954
AssociationNCAA
DivisionDivision I FCS
Members8
Sports fielded33 (men's: 17; women's: 16)
RegionNortheast
HeadquartersPrinceton, New Jersey
CommissionerRobin Harris[1] (since 2009)
Websiteivyleaguesports.com
Locations
Ivy League locations
 
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This article is about the group of colleges and the athletic conference that gave the group its name. For other uses, see Ivy League (disambiguation).
"Eastern Intercollegiate League" and "Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League" redirect here. For the Eastern Intercollegiate Conference of 1932-1939, see Eastern Intercollegiate Conference.
Ivy League
(Ivies, Ancient Eight)
Ivy League logo
Established1954
AssociationNCAA
DivisionDivision I FCS
Members8
Sports fielded33 (men's: 17; women's: 16)
RegionNortheast
HeadquartersPrinceton, New Jersey
CommissionerRobin Harris[1] (since 2009)
Websiteivyleaguesports.com
Locations
Ivy League locations

The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group.[2] The eight institutions are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale University. The term Ivy League has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism.

The term became official after the formation of the NCAA Division I athletic conference in 1954.[3] The use of the phrase is no longer limited to athletics, and now represents an educational philosophy inherent to the nation's oldest schools.[4] Seven of the eight schools were founded during the United States colonial period; the exception is Cornell, which was founded in 1865. Ivy League institutions account for seven of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution, the other two being Rutgers University and College of William & Mary.

Ivy League schools are viewed as some of the most prestigious, and are ranked among the best universities worldwide.[5] All eight universities place in the top twenty of the U.S. News & World Report 2014 university rankings, including the top four schools and six of the top ten.[6] Each school receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state government.

Locations of Ivy League universities

Undergraduate enrollments range from about 4,000 to 14,000,[7] making them larger than those of a typical private liberal arts college and smaller than a typical public state university. Total enrollments, including graduate students, range from approximately 6,100 at Dartmouth to over 20,000 at Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, and Penn. Ivy League financial endowments range from Brown's $3.2 billion to Harvard's $36.4 billion,[8] the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the world.[9]

Members

InstitutionLocationAthletic nicknameUndergraduate enrollmentGraduate enrollmentTotal enrollment2014 EndowmentAcademic staffMotto
Brown UniversityProvidence,
Rhode Island
Bears6,316[10]2,333[10]8,649$3.2 billion[11]736[12]In Deo Speramus
(In God We Hope)
Columbia UniversityNew York,
New York
Lions7,160[13]15,760[13]22,920$9.2 billion[14]3,763[15]In lumine Tuo videbimus lumen
(In Thy light shall we see the light)
Cornell UniversityIthaca,
New York
Big Red13,931[16]6,702[16]20,633$6.2 billion[17]2,908I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.
Dartmouth CollegeHanover,
New Hampshire
Big Green4,248[18]1,893[18]6,141$4.5 billion[19]571Vox clamantis in deserto
(The voice of one crying in the wilderness)[20]
Harvard UniversityCambridge,
Massachusetts
Crimson7,181[21]14,044[21]21,225$36.4 billion[22]4,671[23]Veritas
(Truth)
Princeton UniversityPrinceton,
New Jersey
Tigers5,113[24]2,479[24]7,592$21.0 billion[25]1,172Dei sub numine viget
(Under God's power she flourishes)
University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia,
Pennsylvania
Quakers10,337[26]10,306[26]20,643$9.6 billion[27]4,464[28]Leges sine moribus vanae
(Laws without morals are useless)[29]
Yale UniversityNew Haven,
Connecticut
Bulldogs5,275[30]6,391[30]11,666$23.9 billion[31]4,140[32]אורים ותומים
Lux et veritas
(Light and truth)

History

Year founded

InstitutionFoundedFounding affiliation
Harvard University[33]1636 as New CollegeCalvinist (Congregationalist Puritans)
Yale University1701 as Collegiate SchoolCalvinist (Congregationalist)
University of Pennsylvania1740 as Unnamed Charity School [34]Nonsectarian,[35] founded by Church of England/Methodists members[36][37]
Princeton University1746 as College of New JerseyNonsectarian, founded by Calvinist Presbyterians[38]
Columbia University1754 as King's CollegeChurch of England
Brown University1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence PlantationsBaptist, founding charter promises "no religious tests" and "full liberty of conscience"[39]
Dartmouth College1769Calvinist (Congregationalist)
Cornell University1865Nonsectarian
Note: Six of the eight Ivy League universities consider their founding dates to be simply the date that they received their charters and thus became legal corporations with the authority to grant academic degrees. Harvard University uses the date that the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony formally allocated funds for the creation of a college. The University of Pennsylvania initially considered its founding date to be 1750; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal.[40] "Religious affiliation" refers to financial sponsorship, formal association with, and promotion by, a religious denomination. All of the schools in the Ivy League are private and not currently associated with any religion.

Origin of the name

Harvard Yard: left to right, Hollis Hall (1763), Stoughton Hall (1805), and Holworthy Hall (1812)
Brown's Front Green: left to right, Hope College (1822), Manning Hall (1834), University Hall (1770), and Slater Hall (1879)
Yale's Old Campus: left to right, Durfee Hall (1871), Battell Chapel (1876), Farnham Hall (1870), and Lawrence Hall (1886)
On the Dartmouth Green: left to right, Dartmouth Hall (1784, rebuilt after fire 1905) and Thornton Hall (1829)

Students have long revered the ivied walls of older colleges. "Planting the ivy" was a customary class day ceremony at many colleges in the 1800s. In 1893 an alumnus told The Harvard Crimson, "In 1850, class day was placed upon the University Calendar.... the custom of planting the ivy, while the ivy oration was delivered, arose about this time."[41] At Penn, graduating seniors started the custom of planting ivy at a university building each spring in 1873 and that practice was formally designated as "Ivy Day" in 1874.[42] Ivy planting ceremonies are reported for Yale,[43] Simmons,[44] Bryn Mawr[45] and many others. Princeton's "Ivy Club" was founded in 1879.[46]

The first usage of Ivy in reference to a group of colleges is from sportswriter Stanley Woodward (1895–1965).

A proportion of our eastern ivy colleges are meeting little fellows another Saturday before plunging into the strife and the turmoil.

—Stanley Woodward, New York Tribune, October 14, 1933, describing the football season[47]

The first known instance of the term Ivy League being used appeared in The Christian Science Monitor on February 7, 1935.[48][49][50] Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly later to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the colonial era, together with the United States Military Academy (West Point), the United States Naval Academy, and a few others. These schools were known for their long-standing traditions in intercollegiate athletics, often being the first schools to participate in such activities. However, at this time, none of these institutions made efforts to form an athletic league.

The Ivy League universities are also called the "Ancient Eight" or simply the Ivies.[citation needed]

A common folk etymology attributes the name to the Roman numerals for four (IV), asserting that there was such a sports league originally with four members. The Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins helped to perpetuate this belief. The supposed "IV League" was formed over a century ago and consisted of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and a 4th school that varies depending on who is telling the story.[51][52][53] However, it is clear that Harvard, Princeton, Yale and Columbia met on November 23, 1876 at the so-called Massasoit Convention to decide on uniform rules for the emerging game of American football, which rapidly spread.[54]

Pre–Ivy League

Chancellor Green Library at Princeton and Robinson Hall at Brown (below), contemporary examples of the panoptic principle in library architecture[55]
Robinson Hall at Brown, built 1878
A Cornell Big Red college baseball player from 1908.

Seven of the Ivy League schools were founded before the American Revolution; Cornell was founded just after the American Civil War. These seven were the primary colleges in the Northern and Middle Colonies, and their early faculties and founding boards were largely, therefore, drawn from other Ivy League institutions. There were also some British graduates from the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the University of St. Andrews, the University of Edinburgh, and elsewhere on their boards. Similarly, the founder of The College of William & Mary, in 1693, was a British graduate of the University of Edinburgh. Cornell provided Stanford University with its first president.

The influence of these institutions on the founding of other colleges and universities is notable. This included the Southern public college movement which blossomed in the decades surrounding the turn of the 19th century when Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia established what became the flagship universities for each of these states. In 1801 a majority of the first board of trustees for what became the University of South Carolina were Princeton alumni. They appointed Jonathan Maxcy, a Brown graduate, as the university's first president. Thomas Cooper, an Oxford alumnus and University of Pennsylvania faculty member, became the second president of the South Carolina college. The founders of the University of California came from Yale, hence the school colors of University of California are Yale Blue and California Gold.[56]

Some of the Ivy League schools have identifiable Protestant roots, while others were founded as nonsectarian schools. Church of England King's College broke up during the Revolution and was reformed as public nonsectarian Columbia College. In the early nineteenth century, the specific purpose of training Calvinist ministers was handed off to theological seminaries, but a denominational tone and such relics as compulsory chapel often lasted well into the twentieth century. Penn and Brown were officially founded as nonsectarian schools. Brown's charter promised no religious tests and "full liberty of conscience", but placed control in the hands of a board of twenty-two Baptists, five Quakers, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians. Cornell has been strongly nonsectarian from its founding.

"Ivy League" is sometimes used as a way of referring to an elite class, even though institutions such as Cornell University were among the first in the United States to reject racial and gender discrimination in their admissions policies. This sense dates back to at least 1935.[57] Novels[58] and memoirs[59] attest this sense, as a social elite; to some degree independent of the actual schools.

After the Second World War, the present Ivy League institutions slowly widened their selection of students. They had always had distinguished faculties; some of the first Americans with doctorates had taught for them; but they now decided that they could not both be world-class research institutions and be competitive in the highest ranks of American college sport; in addition, the schools experienced the scandals of any other big-time football programs, although more quietly.[60]

History of the athletic league

Yale University's four-oared crew team, posing with the 1876 Centennial Regatta trophy.
The 1879 Brown baseball varsity, with W.E. Whiteseated second from right; recent research suggests that White's appearance in an 1879 major league game broke baseball's color line 68 years before Jackie Robinson[61]
Yale rowing team in the annual Harvard-Yale Regatta, rowed since 1852.
Penn's ICAA track champions in 1907

19th and early 20th centuries

The first formal athletic league involving eventual Ivy League schools (or any US colleges, for that matter) was created in 1870 with the formation of the Rowing Association of American Colleges. The RAAC hosted a de facto national championship in rowing during the period 1870–1894. In 1895, Cornell, Columbia, and Penn founded the Intercollegiate Rowing Association, which remains the oldest collegiate athletic organizing body in the US. To this day, the IRA Championship Regatta determines the national champion in rowing and all of the Ivies are regularly invited to compete

A basketball league was later created in 1902, when Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Yale and Princeton formed the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League; they were later joined by Penn and Dartmouth.

In 1906, the organization that eventually became the National Collegiate Athletic Association was formed, primarily to formalize rules for the emerging sport of football. But of the 39 original member colleges in the NCAA, only two of them (Dartmouth and Penn) later became Ivies.

In February 1903, intercollegiate wrestling began when Yale accepted a challenge from Columbia, published in the Yale News. The dual meet took place prior to a basketball game hosted by Columbia and resulted in a tie. Two years later, Penn and Princeton also added wrestling teams, leading to the formation of the student-run Intercollegiate Wrestling Association, now the Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association (EIWA), the first and oldest collegiate wrestling league in the US.[62]

Before the formal establishment of the Ivy League, there was an "unwritten and unspoken agreement among certain Eastern colleges on athletic relations". In 1935, the Associated Press reported on an example of collaboration between the schools:

The athletic authorities of the so-called "Ivy League" are considering drastic measures to curb the increasing tendency toward riotous attacks on goal posts and other encroachments by spectators on playing fields.

—The Associated Press, The New York Times[63]

Despite such collaboration, the universities did not seem to consider the formation of the league as imminent. Romeyn Berry, Cornell's manager of athletics, reported the situation in January 1936 as follows:

I can say with certainty that in the last five years—and markedly in the last three months—there has been a strong drift among the eight or ten universities of the East which see a good deal of one another in sport toward a closer bond of confidence and cooperation and toward the formation of a common front against the threat of a breakdown in the ideals of amateur sport in the interests of supposed expediency.

Please do not regard that statement as implying the organization of an Eastern conference or even a poetic "Ivy League". That sort of thing does not seem to be in the cards at the moment.

Within a year of this statement and having held month-long discussions about the proposal, on December 3, 1936, the idea of "the formation of an Ivy League" gained enough traction among the undergraduate bodies of the universities that the Columbia Daily Spectator, The Cornell Daily Sun, The Dartmouth, The Harvard Crimson, The Daily Pennsylvanian, The Daily Princetonian and the Yale Daily News would simultaneously run an editorial entitled "Now Is the Time", encouraging the seven universities to form the league in an effort to preserve the ideals of athletics.[64] Part of the editorial read as follows:

The Ivy League exists already in the minds of a good many of those connected with football, and we fail to see why the seven schools concerned should be satisfied to let it exist as a purely nebulous entity where there are so many practical benefits which would be possible under definite organized association. The seven colleges involved fall naturally together by reason of their common interests and similar general standards and by dint of their established national reputation they are in a particularly advantageous position to assume leadership for the preservation of the ideals of intercollegiate athletics.[65]

The Ivies have been competing in sports as long as intercollegiate sports have existed in the United States. Rowing teams from Harvard and Yale met in the first sporting event held between students of two U.S. colleges on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, on August 3, 1852. Harvard's team, "The Oneida", won the race and was presented with trophy black walnut oars from then presidential nominee General Franklin Pierce. The proposal did not succeed—on January 11, 1937, the athletic authorities at the schools rejected the "possibility of a heptagonal league in football such as these institutions maintain in basketball, baseball and track." However, they noted that the league "has such promising possibilities that it may not be dismissed and must be the subject of further consideration."[66]

Post-World War II

Students in Stell Hall at Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business.
Students of Yale College in 1866.

In 1945 the presidents of the eight schools signed the first Ivy Group Agreement, which set academic, financial, and athletic standards for the football teams. The principles established reiterated those put forward in the Harvard-Yale-Princeton Presidents' Agreement of 1916. The Ivy Group Agreement established the core tenet that an applicant's ability to play on a team would not influence admissions decisions:

The members of the Group reaffirm their prohibition of athletic scholarships. Athletes shall be admitted as students and awarded financial aid only on the basis of the same academic standards and economic need as are applied to all other students.[67]

In 1954, the date generally accepted as the birth of the Ivy League, the presidents extended the Ivy Group Agreement to all intercollegiate sports effective with the 1955-56 basketball season. As part of the transition, Brown, the only Ivy that hadn't joined the EIBL, did so for the 1954-55 season. A year later, the Ivy League absorbed the EIBL. The Ivy League claims the EIBL's history as its own. Through the EIBL, it is the oldest basketball conference in Division I.[68][69]

As late as the 1960s many of the Ivy League universities' undergraduate programs remained open only to men, with Cornell the only one to have been coeducational from its founding (1865) and Columbia being the last (1983) to become coeducational. Before they became coeducational, many of the Ivy schools maintained extensive social ties with nearby Seven Sisters women's colleges, including weekend visits, dances and parties inviting Ivy and Seven Sisters students to mingle. This was the case not only at Barnard College and Radcliffe College, which are adjacent to Columbia and Harvard, but at more distant institutions as well. The movie Animal House includes a satiric version of the formerly common visits by Dartmouth men to Massachusetts to meet Smith and Mount Holyoke women, a drive of more than two hours. As noted by Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, and Elizabeth DeBra, "The 'Seven Sisters' was the name given to Barnard, Smith, Mount Holyoke, Vassar, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, and Radcliffe, because of their parallel to the Ivy League men’s colleges."[70]

In 1982 the Ivy League considered adding two members, with the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy, and Northwestern University as the most likely candidates; if it had done so, the league could probably have avoided being moved into the recently created Division I-AA (now Division I FCS) for football.[71] In 1983, following the admission of women to Columbia College, Columbia University and Barnard College entered into an athletic consortium agreement by which students from both schools compete together on Columbia University women's athletic teams, which replaced the women's teams previously sponsored by Barnard.

Academics

Teachers College at Columbia University

Academic rankings

Ivy League universities are viewed as some of the most prestigious, and are ranked among the best universities worldwide.[5] All eight universities place in the top twenty of the 2014 U.S. News & World Report university rankings, including the top four schools and six of the top ten.[6]

Ivy League universities have some of the largest university financial endowments in the world, which allows the universities to provide many resources for their academic programs and research endeavors. As of 2014, Harvard University has an endowment of $36.4 billion.[72] Additionally, each university receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state government.

National academic rankings
University
(in alphabetical order)
ARWU
(2014)[73]
Forbes
(2014)[74]
USNWR
(2014)[75]
Washington Monthly
(2014)[76]
Brown University431316113
Columbia University720451
Cornell University11311539
Dartmouth College78-104181154
Harvard University17210
Princeton University54127
University of Pennsylvania1412841
Yale University96357
Medical schools (research)
USNWR (2015)[77]
Law schools
TLS (2014)[78]
Design schools
DI (2013)[79]
Business schools
USNWR (2015)[80]
Harvard Medical School1Yale Law School1Harvard Graduate School of Design1Harvard Business School1
Perelman School of Medicine (Penn)4Harvard Law School2Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation2Wharton School (Penn)1
Yale School of Medicine7Columbia Law School4Yale School of Architecture3Columbia Business School8
Columbia Medical School8University of Pennsylvania Law School7Cornell University College of Architecture, Art, and Planning5Tuck School of Business (Dartmouth)9
Weill Cornell Medical College16Cornell Law School13University of Pennsylvania School of Design15Yale School of Management13
Warren Alpert Medical School (Brown)31Princeton University School of Architecture15Johnson School of Management (Cornell)17
Geisel School of Medicine (Dartmouth)38

Admissions

Admission statistics (Class of 2018)[81]
ApplicantsAdmission rates
Brown University30,4328.6%[82]
Columbia University32,9526.9%[83]
Cornell University43,04114.0%[84]
Dartmouth College19,29611.5%[85]
Harvard University34,2955.9%[86]
Princeton University26,6417.3%[87]
University of Pennsylvania35,8689.9%[88]
Yale University30,9326.3%[89]

The Ivy League schools are highly selective, with acceptance rates since 2000 ranging from 6 to 16 percent at each of the universities. Admitted students commonly spend many years preparing for their applications to the Ivy League. Admitted students come from around the world, although students from New England and the Northeastern United States make up a significant proportion of students.[90][91][92]

Collaboration

Collaboration between the member schools is illustrated by the student-led Ivy Council that meets in the fall and spring of each year, with representatives from every Ivy League school. The governing body of the Ivy League is the Council of Ivy Group Presidents, composed of each university president. During meetings, the presidents often discuss common procedures and initiatives for the universities.

Libraries

Up until recently, seven of the eight schools (Harvard excluded) participated in the Borrow Direct interlibrary loan program, making a total of 88 million items available to participants with a waiting period of four working days.[93] This ILL program is not affiliated with the formal Ivy arrangement. Harvard and MIT joined the Direct Borrow partnership in January 2011, together contributing over 70 million books to the existing collection.[94]

Nobel laureates

The Ivy League produces many Nobel laureates, winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. Listed from in order from greatest number of Nobel laureates are: Harvard with 153 Nobel winners, the most out of any university in the world. This is followed by Columbia with 101 winners, Yale with 52, Cornell with 45, Princeton with 37, and Penn with 29 Nobel laureates.[95]

Culture

Fashion and lifestyle

Statue of Benjamin Franklin on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania

Different fashion trends and styles have emerged from Ivy League campuses over time, and fashion trends such as Ivy League and Preppy are styles often associated with the Ivy League and its culture.

Ivy League style is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s, believed to have originated on Ivy League campuses. The clothing stores J. Press and Brooks Brothers represent perhaps the quintessential Ivy League dress manner. The Ivy League style is said to be the predecessor to the preppy style of dress.

Preppy fashion started around 1912 to the late 1940s and 1950s as the Ivy League style of dress.[96] J. Press represents the quintessential preppy clothing brand, stemming from the collegiate traditions that shaped the preppy subculture. In the mid-twentieth century J. Press and Brooks Brothers, both being pioneers in preppy fashion, had stores on Ivy League school campuses, including Harvard, Princeton, and Yale.

Some typical preppy styles also reflect traditional upper class New England leisure activities, such as equestrian, sailing or yachting, hunting, fencing, rowing, lacrosse, tennis, golf, and rugby. Longtime New England outdoor outfitters, such as L.L. Bean,[97] became part of conventional preppy style. This can be seen in sport stripes and colours, equestrian clothing, plaid shirts, field jackets and nautical-themed accessories. Vacationing in Palm Beach, Florida, long popular with the East Coast upper class, led to the emergence of bright colour combinations in leisure wear seen in some brands such as Lilly Pulitzer.[97] By the 1980s, other brands such as Lacoste, Izod[98] and Dooney & Bourke became associated with preppy style.'

Today, these styles continue to be popular on Ivy League campuses, throughout the U.S., and abroad, and are oftentimes labeled as "Classic American style" or "Traditional American style".[99][100]

Social elitism

The A.D. White Reading Room at Cornell's Uris Library
A cartoon portrait of the stereotypical Columbia man in the 20th century

The Ivy League is often associated with the upper class White Anglo-Saxon Protestant community of the Northeast, Old Money, or more generally, the American upper middle and upper classes.[101][102][103][104] Although most Ivy League students come from upper middle and upper class families, the student body has become increasingly more economically and ethnically diverse. The universities provide significant financial aid to help increase the enrollment of lower income and middle class students.[105] Several reports suggest, however, that the proportion of students from less-affluent families continues to be too low.[106][107]

Phrases such as "Ivy League snobbery"[108] are ubiquitous in nonfiction and fiction writing of the early and mid-twentieth century. A Louis Auchincloss character dreads "the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges".[58] A business writer, warning in 2001 against discriminatory hiring, presented a cautionary example of an attitude to avoid (the bracketed phrase is his):

We Ivy Leaguers [read: mostly white and Anglo] know that an Ivy League degree is a mark of the kind of person who is likely to succeed in this organization.[109]

The phrase Ivy League historically has been perceived as connected not only with academic excellence, but also with social elitism. In 1936, sportswriter John Kieran noted that student editors at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Cornell, Columbia, Dartmouth, and Penn were advocating the formation of an athletic association. In urging them to consider "Army and Navy and Georgetown and Fordham and Syracuse and Brown and Pitt" as candidates for membership, he exhorted:

It would be well for the proponents of the Ivy League to make it clear (to themselves especially) that the proposed group would be inclusive but not "exclusive" as this term is used with a slight up-tilting of the tip of the nose.[110]

Aspects of Ivy stereotyping were illustrated during the 1988 presidential election, when George H. W. Bush (Yale '48) derided Michael Dukakis (graduate of Harvard Law School) for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique."[111] New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd asked "Wasn't this a case of the pot calling the kettle elite?" Bush explained however that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it.... Harvard boutique to me has the connotation of liberalism and elitism" and said Harvard in his remark was intended to represent "a philosophical enclave" and not a statement about class.[112] Columnist Russell Baker opined that "Voters inclined to loathe and fear elite Ivy League schools rarely make fine distinctions between Yale and Harvard. All they know is that both are full of rich, fancy, stuck-up and possibly dangerous intellectuals who never sit down to supper in their undershirt no matter how hot the weather gets."[113] Still, the last four presidents have all attended Ivy League schools for at least part of their education— George H.W. Bush (Yale undergrad), Bill Clinton (Yale Law School), George W. Bush (Yale undergrad, Harvard Business School), and Barack Obama (Columbia undergrad, Harvard Law School).

U.S. Presidents in the Ivy League

The future President Franklin Delano Roosevelt with his Harvard class in 1904.

Of the forty-three men who have served as President of the United States, fourteen have graduated from an Ivy League university. Of them, eight have degrees from Harvard, five from Yale, three from Columbia, two from Princeton, and one from Pennsylvania. John Adams was the first president to graduate from university, graduating from Harvard University in 1755.

PresidentSchool(s)Graduation year
John AdamsHarvard University1755
James MadisonPrinceton University1771
John Quincy AdamsHarvard University1787
William Henry HarrisonUniversity of Pennsylvania1791
Rutherford B. HayesHarvard Law School1845
Theodore RooseveltHarvard University
Columbia Law School
1880
(withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1882)[114]
William Howard TaftYale University1878
Woodrow WilsonPrinceton University1879
Franklin D. RooseveltHarvard University
Columbia Law School
1903
(withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1907)[115]
John F. KennedyHarvard University1940
Gerald FordYale Law School1941
George H. W. BushYale University1948
Bill ClintonYale Law School1973
George W. BushYale University
Harvard Business School
1968
1975
Barack ObamaColumbia University
Harvard Law School
1983
1991

Student demographics

Racial and/or ethnic background (2011)[116]
AsianBlackHispanic
(of any race)
Non-Hispanic WhiteOther/internationalUnknown
Brown University14%6%10%45%14%11%
Columbia University15%8%13%41%17%6%
Cornell University17%6%10%46%13%10%
Dartmouth College14%8%9%48%13%8%
Harvard University12%7%9%45%22%6%
Princeton University18%7%8%49%15%3%
University of Pennsylvania19%7%8%46%13%7%
Yale University15%6%8%58%5%8%
United States[117]5%13%17%63%4%NA

Geographic distribution

Students of the Ivy League largely hail from the Northeast, largely from the New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia areas. As all eight Ivy League universities are within the Northeast, it is no surprise that most graduates end up working and residing in the Northeast after graduation. An unscientific survey of Harvard seniors from the Class of 2013 found that 42% hailed from the Northeast and 55% overall were planning on working and residing in the Northeast.[118] Boston and New York City are traditionally where many Ivy League graduates end up living.[119][120][121][122]

Socioeconomics and social class

Harvard Law School students circa 1895

Students of the Ivy League, both graduate and undergraduate, come primarily from upper middle and upper class families. In recent years, however, the universities have looked towards increasing socioeconomic and class diversity, by providing greater financial aid packages to applicants from lower, working, and middle class American families.[123][124]

In 2013, 46% of Harvard College students came from families in the top 3.8% of all American households (over $200,000 per annum).[125][126] In 2012, the bottom 25% of the American income distribution accounted for only 3-4% of students at Brown, a figure that had remained unchanged since 1992.[127] In 2014, 69% of incoming freshmen students at Yale College came from families with annual incomes of over $120,000, putting most Yale College students in the upper middle and/or upper class. (The median household income in the U.S. in 2013 was $52,700.)[128]

In the 2011-2012 academic year, students qualifying for Pell Grants (federally funded scholarships on the basis of need) comprised 20% at Harvard, 18% at Cornell, 17% at Penn, 16% at Columbia, 15% at Dartmouth and Brown, 14% at Yale, and 12% at Princeton. Nationally, 35% of American university students qualify for a Pell Grant.[129]

Competition and athletics

New students march through Van Wickle Gates at Brown University's opening Convocation
The Yale Bowl during The Game, played since 1875, is the annual football game played between Harvard and Yale.

Ivy champions are recognized in sixteen men's and sixteen women's sports. In some sports, Ivy teams actually compete as members of another league, the Ivy championship being decided by isolating the members' records in play against each other; for example, the six league members who participate in ice hockey do so as members of ECAC Hockey, but an Ivy champion is extrapolated each year. Unlike all other Division I basketball conferences, the Ivy League has no tournament for the league title;[130] the school with the best conference record represents the conference in the Division I NCAA Men's and Women's Basketball Tournament (with a playoff, or playoffs, in the case of a tie).[131] Since its inception, an Ivy League school has yet to win either the men's or women's Division I NCAA Basketball Tournament.

On average, each Ivy school has more than 35 varsity teams. All eight are in the top 20 for number of sports offered for both men and women among Division I schools. Unlike most Division I athletic conferences, the Ivy League prohibits the granting of athletic scholarships; all scholarships awarded are need-based (financial aid).[132] Ivy League teams' non-league games are often against the members of the Patriot League, which have similar academic standards and athletic scholarship policies.

In the time before recruiting for college sports became dominated by those offering athletic scholarships and lowered academic standards for athletes, the Ivy League was successful in many sports relative to other universities in the country. In particular, Princeton won 26 recognized national championships in college football (last in 1935), and Yale won 18 (last in 1927).[133] Both of these totals are considerably higher than those of other historically strong programs such as Alabama, which has won 13, Notre Dame, which claims 11 but is credited by many sources with 13, and USC, which has won 11. Yale, whose coach Walter Camp was the "Father of American Football," held on to its place as the all-time wins leader in college football throughout the entire 20th century, but was finally passed by Michigan on November 10, 2001. Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Penn each have over a dozen former scholar-athletes enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame. Currently Dartmouth holds the record for most Ivy League football titles, with 17. In addition, the Ivy League has produced Super Bowl winners Kevin Boothe (Cornell), two-time Pro Bowler Zak DeOssie (Brown), Sean Morey (Brown), All-Pro selection Matt Birk (Harvard), Calvin Hill (Yale), Derrick Harmon (Cornell) and 1999 "Mr. Irrelevant" Jim Finn (Penn).

Beginning with the 1982 football season, the Ivy League has competed in Division I-AA (renamed FCS in 2006).[134] The Ivy League teams are eligible for the FCS tournament held to determine the national champion, and the league champion is eligible for an automatic bid (and any other team may qualify for an at-large selection) from the NCAA. However, the Ivy League has not played any postseason games at all since 1956 due to the league's concerns about the extended December schedule's effects on academics. For this reason, any Ivy League team invited to the FCS playoffs turns down the bid. The Ivy League plays a strict 10-game schedule, compared to other FCS members' schedules of 11 (or, in some seasons, 12) regular season games, plus post-season, which was most recently expanded in 2013 to five rounds with 24 teams, with a bye week for the top eight teams. Football is the only sport in which the Ivy League declines to compete for a national title.

In addition to varsity football, Penn, Princeton and Cornell also field teams in the eight-team Collegiate Sprint Football League, in which all players must weight 172 pounds or less. Penn and Princeton are the last remaining founding members of the league from its 1934 debut, and Cornell is the next-oldest, joining in 1937. Yale and Columbia previously fielded teams in the league but no longer do so.

Teams in Ivy League competition[135]
SportMen'sWomen's
Baseball
8
-
Basketball
8
8
Cross Country
8
8
Fencing
6
7
Field Hockey
-
8
Football
8
-
Golf
8
7
Ice Hockey
6
6
Lacrosse
7
8
Rowing
7
7
Soccer
8
8
Softball
-
8
Swimming & Diving
7
8
Squash
8
8
Tennis
8
8
Track and Field (Indoor)
8
8
Track and Field (Outdoor)
8
8
Volleyball
-
8
Wrestling
6
-

The Ivy League is home to some of the oldest college rugby teams. Although these teams are not "varsity" sports, they compete annually in the Ivy Rugby Conference.

Historical results

Total championships won
InstitutionIvy League
Championships
NCAA Team
Championships
Princeton University Tigers41410
Harvard University Crimson3614
Cornell University Big Red2085
University of Pennsylvania Quakers1953
Yale University Bulldogs1813
Dartmouth College Big Green1303
Brown University Bears1197
Columbia University Lions889

The table above includes the number of team championships won from the beginning of official Ivy League competition (1956–57 academic year) through 2011–12. Princeton and Harvard have on occasion won ten or more Ivy League titles in a year, an achievement accomplished six times by Harvard and 21 times by Princeton, including a conference-record 15 championships in 2010-11. Only once has one of the other six schools earned more than eight titles in a single academic year (Cornell with nine in 2005-06). In the 33 academic years beginning 1979-80, Princeton has averaged 11 championships per year, one-third of the conference total of 33 sponsored sports.[136]

In the seven academic years beginning 2005-06, Harvard has won Ivy titles in 22 different sports, two-thirds of the league total, and Princeton has won championships in 31 different sports, all except wrestling and men's tennis.[137]

Rivalries

Built in 1927, Penn's Palestra, has been called the "Cathedral of Basketball"
Performance of a Greek play at Harvard Stadium in 1903.

Rivalries run deep in the Ivy League. For instance, Princeton and Penn are longstanding men's basketball rivals;[138] "Puck Frinceton", and "Pennetrate the Puss" t-shirts are worn by Quaker fans at games.[139] In only 11 instances in the history of Ivy League basketball, and in only seven seasons since Yale's 1962 title, has neither Penn nor Princeton won at least a share of the Ivy League title in basketball,[140] with Princeton champion or co-champion 26 times and Penn 25 times. Penn has won 21 outright, Princeton 19 outright. Princeton has been a co-champion 7 times, sharing 4 of those titles with Penn (these 4 seasons represent the only times Penn has been co-champion). Harvard won its first title of either variety in 2011, losing a dramatic play-off game to Princeton for the NCAA tournament bid, then rebounded to win outright championships in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

Rivalries exist between other Ivy league teams in other sports, including Cornell and Harvard in hockey, Harvard and Princeton in swimming, and Harvard and Penn in football (Penn and Harvard have each had two unbeaten seasons since 2001).[141] In men's lacrosse, Cornell and Princeton are perennial rivals, and they are the only two Ivy League teams to have won the NCAA tournament. In 2009, the Big Red and Tigers met for their 70th game in the NCAA tournament.[142] No team other than Harvard or Princeton has won the men's swimming conference title outright since 1972, although Yale, Columbia, and Cornell have shared the title with Harvard and Princeton during this time. Similarly, no program other than Princeton and Harvard has won the women's swimming championship since Brown's 1999 title. Princeton or Cornell has won every indoor and outdoor track and field championship, both men's and women's, every year since 2002-03, with one exception (Columbia women won indoor championship in 2012). Harvard and Yale are football and crew rivals although the competition has become unbalanced; Harvard has won all but one of the last 11 football games and all but one of the last 13 crew races.

Intra-Conference Football Rivalries

TeamsNameTrophyFirst metGames playedSeries record
Columbia-CornellEmpire State BowlEmpire Cup188998 games35–60–3
Cornell-PennsylvaniaNoneTrustee's Cup1893118 games45–68–5
Dartmouth-PrincetonNoneSawhorse Dollar189790 games43–43–4
Harvard-YaleThe GameNone1875129 games56–65–8
Princeton-YaleNoneNone1873134 games50–74–10

The Yale-Princeton series is the nation's second longest, exceeded only by "The Rivalry" between Lehigh and Lafayette, which began later in 1884 but included two or three games in each of 17 early seasons.[143] For the first three decades of the Yale-Princeton rivalry, the two played their season-ending game at a neutral site, usually New York City, and with one exception (1890: Harvard), the winner of the game also won at least a share of the national championship that year, covering the period 1869 through 1903.[144][145] This phenomenon of a finale contest at a neutral site for the national title created a social occasion for the society elite of the metropolitan area akin to a Super Bowl in the era prior to the establishment of the NFL in 1920.[146][147] These football games were also financially profitable for the two universities, so much that they began to play baseball games in New York City as well, drawing record crowds for that sport also, largely from the same social demographic.[148] In a period when the only professional sports were fledgling baseball leagues, these high profile early contests between Princeton and Yale played a role in popularizing spectator sports, demonstrating their financial potential and raising public awareness of Ivy universities at a time when few people attended college.

Extra-Conference Football Rivalries

TeamsNameTrophyFirst metGames playedSeries record
Brown-Rhode IslandNoneGovernor's Cup190998 games70–26–2
Columbia-FordhamNoneLiberty Cup189022 games12–10–0
Cornell-ColgateNoneNone189695 games48–44–3
Dartmouth-New HampshireGranite BowlGranite Bowl Trophy190137 games17–18–2
Harvard-Holy CrossNoneNone190467 games41–24–2
Pennsylvania-LafayetteNoneNone188290 games63–23–4
Princeton-RutgersNoneNone186971 games53–17–1
Yale-ArmyNoneNone189345 games22–16–8

Athletic facilities

Football stadiumBasketball arenaBaseball fieldHockey rinkSoccer stadium
School[149]NameCapacityYearNameCapacityYearNameCapacityYearNameCapacityYearNameCapacityYear
BrownBrown Stadium20,0001925Pizzitola Sports Center2,8001989Murray Stadium1,0001959Meehan Auditorium3,1001961Stevenson Field3,5001979
ColumbiaWien Stadium17,0001984Levien Gymnasium3,4081974Hal Robertson Field at Phillip Satow StadiumN/AN/ANon-hockey schoolColumbia Soccer Stadium3,5001985
CornellSchoellkopf Field25,5971915Newman Arena4,4721990Hoy Field5001922Lynah Rink4,2671957Charles F. Berman Field1,0002000
DartmouthMemorial Field15,6001923Leede Arena2,1001986Red Rolfe Field at Biondi Park2,000N/AThompson Arena4,5001975Burnham Field1,6002007
HarvardHarvard Stadium30,8981903Lavietes Pavilion2,1951926Joseph J. O'Donnell Field1,6001898Bright Hockey Center2,8501956Soldiers Field Soccer Stadium2,5002010
PennFranklin Field52,5931895The Palestra8,7221927Meiklejohn Stadium8502000The Class of 1923 Arena2,9001972Rhodes Field1,7002002 [150]
PrincetonPrinceton University Stadium27,8001998Jadwin Gymnasium6,8541969Bill Clarke FieldN/A1961Hobey Baker Memorial Rink2,0941923Roberts Stadium3,0002008
YaleYale Bowl64,2691914Payne Whitney Gymnasium3,1001932Yale Field6,2001927Ingalls Rink3,4861958Reese Stadium3,0001981

Other Ivies

Marketing groups, journalists, and some educators sometimes promote other colleges as "Ivies," as in Little Ivies (colloquialism referring to a group of small, selective American liberal arts colleges), Public Ivies, or Southern Ivies. These uses of Ivy are intended to promote the other schools by comparing them to the Ivy League. For example, in the 2007 edition of Newsweek's How to Get Into College Now, the editors designated twenty-five schools as "New Ivies."[151]

The term "Ivy Plus" is sometimes used to refer to the Ancient Eight plus several other schools for purposes of alumni associations,[152][153] university affiliations,[153][154][155][156] or endowment comparisons.[157][158][159][160] In his book Untangling the Ivy League, Zawel writes, "The inclusion of non-Ivy League schools under this term is commonplace for some schools and extremely rare for others. Among these other schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University are almost always included. The University of Chicago and Duke University are often included as well."[153]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Executive Director Robin Harris". Retrieved 2009-07-07. [dead link]
  2. ^ "Princeton Campus Guide – Ivy League". Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  3. ^ "IvySport – History". Archived from the original on 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  4. ^ "What is the origin of the term, Ivy League?". Retrieved 2006-05-17. 
  5. ^ a b "World's Best Colleges". Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  6. ^ a b "National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  7. ^ Dartmouth and Cornell respectively
  8. ^ National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO), "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value" (published Jan. 28, 2014 at www.nacubo.org)
  9. ^ "10 Private Universities With Largest Financial Endowments". Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  10. ^ a b "Facts about Brown University". Brown.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  11. ^ Michael McDonald, "Brown Posts 16.1 Percent Investment Gain in Year Ended June 30," Bloomberg.com/news, Oct. 1, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-01/brown-posts-16-1-investment-gain-in-year-ended-june-30.html)
  12. ^ "Faculty & Employees". Brown University. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  13. ^ a b [1]. Columbia University Common Data Set. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  14. ^ Christian Zhang, "University announces 17.5 percent return on endowment in 2014," Columbia Daily Spectator, Oct. 1, 2014 (columbiaspectator.com/news/2014/10/01/university-announces-175-percent-return-endowment-2014)
  15. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/opir/abstract/opir_faculty_history_1.htm
  16. ^ a b "Cornell Common Data Set". Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  17. ^ Peter Jacobs, "How All the Ivy League Endowments Performed," Business Insider, Oct. 22, 2014 (businessinsider.com/ivy-league-university-endowments-fiscal-year-2014-returns-2014-10)
  18. ^ a b "Microsoft Word - header_factbook.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  19. ^ "College endowment valued at $4.5 billion," The Dartmouth, Sept. 16, 2014 (thedartmouth.com/2014/09/16/news/college-endowment-valued-at-4-5-billio)
  20. ^ The former English translation is that more commonly used by Dartmouth itself
  21. ^ a b [2]. Harvard University Factbook. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  22. ^ Michael McDonald, "Harvard’s 15.4% Gain Trails as Mendillo Successor Sought," Bloomberg.com/news, Sept. 24, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-09-23/harvard-has-15-4-investment-gain-trailing-dartmouth-penn-1-.html)
  23. ^ http://www.provost.harvard.edu/institutional_research/Provost_-_09_18-19facuni.pdf
  24. ^ a b [3]. Princeton University Common Data Set. Retrieved on 2010-04-18.
  25. ^ Peter Jacobs, "How All the Ivy League Endowments Performed," Business Insider, Oct. 22, 2014 (businessinsider.com/ivy-league-university-endowments-fiscal-year-2014-returns-2014-10)
  26. ^ a b "Penn: Facts and Figures". Upenn.edu. 2010-11-19. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  27. ^ Michael McDonald, "University of Pennsylvania Posts 17.5% Investment Return," Bloomberg.com/news, Sept. 18, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-09-18/university-of-pennsylvania-posts-17-5-investment-return-1-.html)
  28. ^ "Penn: Penn Facts". The University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  29. ^ Guide to the Usage of the Seal and Arms of the University of Pennsylvania University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
  30. ^ a b "Factsheet – Statistical Summary of Yale University". Yale.edu. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  31. ^ Adrian Rodrigues, "Yale endowment rises to all-time high," Yale Daily News, Sept. 25, 2014 (yaledailynews.com/blog/2014/09/25/yale-endowment-rises-to-all-time-high)
  32. ^ "About - Facts". Yale University. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  33. ^ The institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years
  34. ^ See University of Pennsylvania for details of the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn considered its founding date to be 1749 for over a century.[4] In 1895, elite universities in the United States agreed that henceforth formal academic processions would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. Penn's periodical "The Alumni Register," published by the General Alumni Society, then began a grassroots campaign to retroactively revise the university's founding date to 1740, in order to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746. In 1899, the Board of Trustees acceded to the alumni initiative and voted to change the founding date to 1740. The rationale offered in 1899 was that, in 1750, founder Benjamin Franklin and his original board of trustees purchased a completed but unused building and assumed an unnamed trust from a group which had hoped to begin a church and charity school in Philadelphia. This edifice was commonly called the "New Building" by local citizens and was referred to by such name in Franklin's memoirs as well as the legal bill of sale in Penn's archives. No name is stated or known for the associated educational trust, hence "Unnamed Charity School" serves as a placeholder to refer to the trust which is the premise for Penn's association with a founding date of 1740. The first named entity in Penn's early history was the 1751 secondary school for boys and charity school for indigent children called "Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania."[5] Undergraduate education began in 1755 and the organization then changed its name to "College, Academy and Charity School of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania."[6] Operation of the charity school was discontinued a few years later.
  35. ^ Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen."[7]. Jencks and Riesman (2001) write "The Anglicans who founded the University of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian." In Franklin's 1749 founding Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pensilvania (page images), religion is not mentioned directly as a subject of study, but he states in a footnote that the study of "History will also afford frequent Opportunities of showing the Necessity of a Publick Religion, from its Usefulness to the Publicks; the Advantage of a Religious Character among private Persons; the Mischiefs of Superstition, &c. and the Excellency of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION above all others antient or modern." Starting in 1751, the same trustees also operated a Charity School for Boys, whose curriculum combined "general principles of Christianity" with practical instruction leading toward careers in business and the "mechanical arts." [8], and thus might be described as "non-denominational Christian." The charity school was originally planned and a trust was organized on paper in 1740 by followers of travelling evangelist George Whitefield. The school was to have operated inside a church supported by the same group of adherents. But the organizers ran short of financing and, although the frame of the building was raised, the interior was left unfinished. The founders of the Academy of Philadelphia purchased the unused building in 1750 for their new venture and, in the process, assumed the original trust. Since 1899, Penn has claimed a founding date of 1740, based on the organizational date of the charity school and the premise that it had institutional identity with the Academy of Philadelphia. Whitefield was a firebrand Methodist associated with The Great Awakening; since the Methodists did not formally break from the Church of England until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled Episcopalian, and in fact Brown University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian".[9] Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties (its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.") But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and Haverford College implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America."[10]
  36. ^ "Protestant Episcopal Church – LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  37. ^ "Brown Admission: Our History". Brown.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  38. ^ University Chapel: Orange Key Virtual Tour of Princeton University[dead link]
  39. ^ Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions."[11] Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder be "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians."[12]
  40. ^ Hughes, Samuel (2002). "Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University's seal has a curious history". Pennsylvania Gazette 100 (3). 
  41. ^ "Class Day, New and Old". 
  42. ^ "Penn: Ivy day and Ivy Stones, a Penn Tradition". 
  43. ^ Boston Daily Globe, Jun 27, 1882, p. 4: "CLASS DAY.: Yale Seniors Plant the Ivy, Sing "Blage," and Entertain the Beauty of New Haven;"
  44. ^ Boston Evening Transcript, Jun 11, 1912, p. 12, "Simmons Seniors Hosts Class Day Exercises Late in Afternoon, Planting of the Ivy will be One of the Features;
  45. ^ "Play a Romance and Plant Ivy, Pretty Class Day Exercises of the Women's College". The Gazette Times. June 9, 1907. Retrieved October 22, 2012. 
  46. ^ "The Ivy Club: History". 
  47. ^ "Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale University Press edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  48. ^ "The Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale University Press, edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  49. ^ Oxford English Dictionary entry for "Ivy League"
  50. ^ Ivy League Sports[dead link]
  51. ^ The Chicago Public Library reports the "IV League" explanation, [13][dead link] sourced only from the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins.
  52. ^ Various Ask Ezra student columns report the "IV League" explanation, apparently relying on the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins as the sole source: [14] [15] [16]
  53. ^ "The Penn Current / October 17, 2002 / Ask Benny". Upenn.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  54. ^ "This according to the Penn history of varsity football". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  55. ^ "Robinson Hall" in SAH Archipedia Classic Buildings, Society of Architectural Historians (sah-archipedia.org)
  56. ^ "Resource: Student history". Resource.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  57. ^ Epstein, Joseph (2003). Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-34073-4.  p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them."
  58. ^ a b Auchincloss, Louis (2004). East Side Story. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-45244-3.  p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges"
  59. ^ McDonald, Janet (2000). Project Girl. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22345-4.  p. 163 "Newsweek is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption.... It is completely Ivy League — a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money."
  60. ^ scandals: James Axtell, The Making of Princeton University (2006), p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League
  61. ^ Robert Siegel, "Black Baseball Pioneer William White's 1879 Game," National Public Radio, broadcast Jan. 30, 2004 (audio at npr.org); Stefan Fatsis, "Mystery of Baseball: Was William White Game's First Black?" Wall Street Journall, Jan. 30, 2004 (online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB107541676333815810); Peter Morris and Stefan Fatsis, "Baseball's Secret Pioneer: William Edward White, the first black player in major-league history," Slate, Feb. 4, 2014; baseball-reference.com/bullpen/Bill_White_(whitebi01); Rick Harris, Brown University Baseball: A Legacy of the game (Charleston: The History Press, 2012), pp. 41-3
  62. ^ "Columbia Celebrates College Wrestling Centennial". Columbia College Today. 
  63. ^ "Colleges Searching for Check On Trend to Goal Post Riots". The New York Times. Associated Press. 1935-12-06. p. 33. 
  64. ^ "Immediate Formation of Ivy League Advocated at Seven Eastern Colleges". The New York Times. 1936-12-03. p. 33. 
  65. ^ "The Harvard Crimson :: News :: AN EDITORIAL". Thecrimson.com. 1936-12-03. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  66. ^ "Plea for an Ivy Football League Rejected by College Authorities". The New York Times. 1937-01-12. p. 26. 
  67. ^ Gwertzman, Bernard M. (1956-10-13). "The Harvard Crimson ''Ivy League: Formalizing the Fact'' Saturday, October 13, 1956". Thecrimson.com. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  68. ^ “Ivy Group”, Sports-reference.com
  69. ^ “Division I Conference Alignment History” in the 2009 NCAA Men’s Basketball Record Book, p. 221, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/BK09.pdf
  70. ^ "Archived: Women's Colleges in the United States: History, Issues, and Challenges". Ed.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  71. ^ White, Gordon S. Jr. (1982-01-10). "Ivy League Considers Adding 2 Schools". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  72. ^ http://online.wsj.com/articles/harvard-endowment-earns-15-4-return-for-fiscal-2014-1411506002
  73. ^ http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2014.html
  74. ^ http://www.forbes.com/top-colleges/list/
  75. ^ http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities/
  76. ^ http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/college_guide/rankings-2014/national-universities-rank-all.php
  77. ^ http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-medical-schools/research-rankings?int=98fd08
  78. ^ http://www.top-law-schools.com/rankings.html
  79. ^ http://www.di.net/articles/big-shifts-in-design-school-rankings-for-2013/
  80. ^ http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-business-schools/mba-rankings
  81. ^ Nick Anderson, "Ivy League admission rate: 8-point-something-something-percent", The Washington Post March 28, 2014. Local references for the schools' statistics are footnoted at their entries
  82. ^ Jillian Lanney, "Brown admits record-low 8.6 percent", The Brown Daily Herald, March 31, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jim Miller: 30,432 applied, 2,619 admitted, 8.61 percent
  83. ^ Samantha Cooney, "CC and SEAS admission decisions mailed this afternoon, 6.94 percent of applicants admitted", spectrum.columbiaspectator.com, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jessica Marinaccio: 32,952 applied, 2,291 admitted, 6.953 percent. *Nick Anderson, op cit, used an applied number of 32,967, giving 6.949 percent
  84. ^ Annie Bui, "Cornell Admits Most Selective Class in University History", Cornell Daily Sun, March 28, 2014; sourcing associate vice provost for enrollment Jason C. Locke: 43,041 applied, 6,014 admitted, 13.97 percent
  85. ^ Zac Hardwick, "College accepts 11.5 percent of applicants", The Dartmouth, March 28, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Maria Laskaris: 19,296 applied, 2,220 admitted, 11.50 percent
  86. ^ Theodore R. Delwiche, "Harvard Makes Admissions Offers to 5.9 Percent of Applicants to the Class f 2018", The Harvard Crimson, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean William R. Fitzsimmons: 34,295 applied, 2,023 admitted, 5.899 percent
  87. ^ Corinne Lowe, "Princeton offers admission to 7.28 percent of applicants", The Daily Princetonian, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Janet Rapelye: 26,641 applied, 1,939 admitted, 7.28 percent
  88. ^ Fiona Glisson, "Admission numbers released: The class of 2018 is the most competitive in Penn's history", The Daily Pennsylvanian, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Eric Furda: 35,868 applied, 3,583 admitted, 9.99 percent. *The Penn news-release figure of 9.9 percent (rounded down from 9.99 percent) was disputed in the Washington Post by higher education reporter Nick Anderson ("Ivy League admission rate: 8-point-something-something-percent", The Washington Post March 28, 2014), who published a rounded-up percentage of 10.0, supported by rounded-up figures released by Cornell, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale; Anderson's article was discussed in Penn's CollegeConfidential.com forum "University of Pennsylvania Class of 2018 Waitlist"
  89. ^ Rishabh Bhandari, "6.26 percent of applicants admitted to class of 2018", Yale Daily News, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jeremiah Quinlan: 30,932 applied, 1,935 admitted, 6.26 percent
  90. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-09-03/college-consultant-thinktank-guarantees-admission-for-hefty-price
  91. ^ "National University Rankings". U.S.News & World Report LP. Retrieved 2011-05-11. 
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