9K720 Iskander

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9K720 Iskander
SS-26 Stone
Russian missile.gif
A Russian Iskander missile
TypeTactical ballistic missile
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service2006[1]
Used byRussian Ground Forces
Production history
ManufacturerKBM (Kolomna)
Specifications
Weight3,800 kg (8,400 lb)[2]
Length7.3 m (24 ft)
Diameter0.92 m (3 ft 0 in)

WarheadHE fragmentation, submunition, penetration, fuel-air explosive, EMP

EngineSingle-stage solid propellant
Operational
range
400 km (250 mi) for Iskander-M
280 km (170 mi) for Iskander-E
Speed2100 m/s Cruising ( Hypersonic ) [3]
Guidance
system
Inertial, optical homing, and possibly GLONASS for Iskander-M
Inertial for Iskander-E
Accuracy5–7 m (Iskander-M)
Launch
platform
Mobile TEL
 
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9K720 Iskander
SS-26 Stone
Russian missile.gif
A Russian Iskander missile
TypeTactical ballistic missile
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service2006[1]
Used byRussian Ground Forces
Production history
ManufacturerKBM (Kolomna)
Specifications
Weight3,800 kg (8,400 lb)[2]
Length7.3 m (24 ft)
Diameter0.92 m (3 ft 0 in)

WarheadHE fragmentation, submunition, penetration, fuel-air explosive, EMP

EngineSingle-stage solid propellant
Operational
range
400 km (250 mi) for Iskander-M
280 km (170 mi) for Iskander-E
Speed2100 m/s Cruising ( Hypersonic ) [3]
Guidance
system
Inertial, optical homing, and possibly GLONASS for Iskander-M
Inertial for Iskander-E
Accuracy5–7 m (Iskander-M)
Launch
platform
Mobile TEL

The 9K720 Iskander (NATO reporting name SS-26 Stone) is a mobile theater ballistic missile system produced and deployed by Russia.

Contents

History

In 1996, the first launch of the Iskander was depicted on Russian television. The road-mobile Iskander was the second attempt to replace the Scud missile since the first attempt, the Oka (Nato designation: SS-23) , was eliminated under the INF Treaty. The Iskander appeared to have several different conventional warheads, including a cluster munitions warhead, a fuel-air explosive enhanced-blast warhead, an earth penetrator for bunker busting and an electro-magnetic pulse device for anti-radar missions.[1][4]

In September 2004, at a meeting with senior defense officials reporting to then-President Vladimir Putin on the drafting of a defense budget for 2005, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov spoke about the completion of static tests of a new tactical missile system called the Iskander. He said that in 2005, the system would go into quantity production and toward the end of that year, Russia would have a brigade armed with it.[1]

In March 2005, a source in the Russian defence industry told Interfax-AVN the development of new missiles with a range of 500–600 km, based on existing Iskander-E tactical missile systems, was a possibility. He said, however, that it "may take up to five or six years".[1]

In 2006, serial production of the Iskander-M Tactical Ballistic Missile System launched, and the system was adopted by the Russian army.[1]

Description

The Iskander ballistic missile is superior to its predecessor, the Oka. The Iskander-M system is equipped with two solid-propellant single-stage guided missiles, model 9M723K1. Each one is controlled throughout the entire flight path and fitted with a nonseparable warhead. Each missile in the launch carrier vehicle can be independently targeted in a matter of seconds. The mobility of the Iskander launch platform makes a launch difficult to prevent.[4]

Targets can be located not only by satellite and aircraft but also by a conventional intelligence center, or by a soldier who directs artillery fire. Targets can also be located from aerial photos scanned into the computer. The missiles can be re-targeted during flight in the case of engaging mobile targets.[4] Another unique feature of Iskander-M (not Iskander-E) is the optically guided warhead, which can also be controlled by encrypted radio transmission, including such from AWACS or UAV. The electro-optical guidance system provides a self-homing capability. The missile's on-board computer receives images of the target, then locks onto the target with its sight and descends towards it at supersonic speed.

In flight, the missile follows a quasi-ballistic path, performing evasive maneuvers in the terminal phase of flight and releasing decoys in order to penetrate missile defense systems. The missile never leaves the atmosphere as it follows a relatively flat trajectory.

The Russian Iskander-M cruises at hypersonic speed of 2100–2600 m/s (Mach 6–7) at a height of 50 km. The Iskander-M weighs 4615 kg, carries a warhead of 710–800 kg, has a range of 400–480 km, and achieves a CEP (Circular error probable) of 5–7 meters. During flight it can maneuver at different altitudes and trajectories and can pull up to 20 to 30 G to evade anti-ballistic missiles. For example, in one of the trajectory modes it can dive at the target at 90 degrees at the rate of 700–800 m/s performing anti-ABM maneuvers.[3][5]

Iskander has achieved accuracy, range and reliability (ability to penetrate defences) that constitutes an alternative approach to precision bombing for air forces that cannot expect to launch bombing or cruise missile fire missions reliably in the face of superior enemy fighters and air defenses. Training and competence requirements are much lower than for normal air force assets like a fighter bomber squadron utilizing guided bombs.

Iskander is a tactical missile system designed to be used in theater level conflicts.[6] It is intended to use conventional warheads for the engagement of small and area targets (both moving and stationary), such as hostile fire weapons, air and antimissile defense weapons, command posts and communications nodes and troops in concentration areas, among others. The system can therefore destroy both active military units and targets to degrade the enemy's capability to wage war. It offers a high probability of fire mission accomplishment in hostile active countermeasures environments, a high probability of failure-proof functioning of the missile during its launch preparation and in flight, automatic computation and input of missile flight missions by the launcher devices, high tactical maneuverability and strategic mobility owing to transportability of the system vehicles by all types of transport and long service life and ease of operation.

In 2007, a new missile for the system (and launcher), the R-500 Iskander-K (K stands for krylataya or "winged") cruise missile, was test fired.[7]

Versions

Deployment and combat history

According to the Moscow Centre for Strategy and Technology Analysis, the Iskander-M system was combat-tested in the 2008 South Ossetia war with Georgia and it proved highly effective in destroying military targets and infrastructure.[10] Quoting unconfirmed reports,[who?] Moscow Defense Brief says that it was an Iskander missile that inflicted a high precision strike on the Georgian Separate Tank Battalion base in Gori, destroying 28 tanks. Russian officials have admitted to using the Iskander missile against Georgia and official reports[who?] testify to the high effectiveness of the Iskander missiles, as one of the most devastating and accurate weapons in the Russian arsenal.[11] Georgian authorities later claimed that none of the targeted areas had any military installations or troops formations at the time of attacks; and the Iskander missiles were fired at civilian areas, including Baku-Supsa Oil Pipeline.[12]

The Dutch government's investigation claims that a single, 5 mm fragment from an anti-personnel sub-munition, that was propelled by an Iskander missile, killed Dutch journalist Stan Storimans in Gori, which was home to various military targets and had been almost completely evacuated before the bombardment.[13]

In November 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev stated in his first state of the nation speech that Russia would deploy Iskander missiles to Russia's western district of Kaliningrad "to neutralize, if necessary, a NATO missile defense system."[14][15] However, on September 17, 2009, US president Barack Obama announced the cancellation of the US missile defence project in Poland and the Czech Republic.[16] Following the announcement, on September 26, Medvedev stated in a press conference that he would in turn cancel the plans to deploy Iskander missiles to Kaliningrad.[17]

On September 29, 2009, the Russian military announced plans to set up an extensive network of Iskander missiles throughout the country as part of the broader military reforms underway. According to General Vladimir Boldyrev, Iskander systems would be stationed in every defence district in Russia, with exception to Kaliningrad.[18]

On November 23, 2011, President Dmitri Medvedev said that Russia may deploy Iskander tactical missiles in the Kaliningrad region as part of Russia’s reaction to the United States’ missile shield plans.[19]

According to the Stratfor.com e-mails leaked by Wikileaks from February 2012, there are a number of Iskander brigades operational. The leaked Stratfor.com e-mail was dated 13 December 2009:[20]

"There are already 5 Iskander Missile Brigades in service and stationed across Russia.

These are the brigades that did have the Tochka and Tochka-U. The 92nd and 107th were the first to get it and the 26th, 103rd and 114th are still currently being implemented and trained but should be completed by the end of 2011. Note that this does not include a Brigade in Kaliningrad, the two from Moscow district or the other Northern Caucasus brigades. These will have to wait until after the first 5 brigades are ready, trained and implemented. Also, the Kaliningrad decision is highly political, since it could reach into Germany or take out any American bmd system. .. The 630th Iskander Brigade - which trains the other Brigades - took part in the Russia-Georgia war."

Operators

Possible future operators

Details

Specifications

System components

An Iskander transporter-erector-launcher

The full Iskander system includes[29]

Intended targets

The system is intended to use conventional warheads for the engagement of point and area targets, including:

Comparable systems

References

  1. ^ a b c d e 9K720 Iskander-M (SS-26 Stone) – Program GlobalSecurity retrieved on 11-15-08
  2. ^ a b Iskander / SS-26 specs GlobalSecurity Retrieved on 11-15-08
  3. ^ a b SS-26 Iskander-M
  4. ^ a b c 9K720 Iskander-M (SS-26 Stone) GlobalSecurity Retrieved on 11-15-08
  5. ^ SS-26 Stone Iskander 9M72 9P78E Ballistic missile system
  6. ^ Missiles of the world - SS-26
  7. ^ Iskander Missile System Retrieved on 11-18-08
  8. ^ a b Russia to compensate for INF losses with Iskander missile system RIA Novosti Retrieved on 11-18-08
  9. ^ INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) INF Treaty. Retrieved 11-18-08.
  10. ^ Russia’s rapid reaction. The International Institute for Strategic Studies Volume 14 Issue 07 September 2008 Georgia crisis special issue.
  11. ^ Iskander the Great Moscow Defense Brief
  12. ^ Russian Invasion of Georgia: Russian SS-21 and SS-26 missiles used against Georgia. Georgia Update. November 17, 2008
  13. ^ Official Dutch government investigation stating that SS26 propelled cluster bomb that killed Dutch journalist (PDF)
  14. ^ Medvedev hopes for 'second wind' with U.S. under Obama, RussiaToday, 2008-11-06
  15. ^ Russia to deploy short-range missiles near Poland Associated Press Retrieved on 11-15-08
  16. ^ "Obama cancels missile defence and changes transatlantic politics". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). September 25, 2009. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/obama-cancels-missile-defence-and-changes-transatlantic-politics/article1292073/. 
  17. ^ News Conference with Medvedev following G20 Summit Retrieved on 2009-10-10[dead link]
  18. ^ Russia announces plans for extensive short-range missile network Retrieved on 2009-10-10
  19. ^ Russia’s radar to counter missile shield, says Medvedev
  20. ^ Lauren Goodrich (Stratfor analyst), [Eurasia [Fwd: INSIGHT - RUSSIA - Iskander Missile], released by Wikileaks, 27 February 2012
  21. ^ http://warfare.ru/?lang=&linkid=1769&catid=363
  22. ^ Belarus buys missile systems Iskander Retrieved on 11-18-08
  23. ^ Russia to deliver Iskander missile systems to Belarus Retrieved on 11-18-08
  24. ^ Belarus Not Planning to Deploy Russian Missiles to Counter U.S. Bloomberg Retrieved on 11-18-08
  25. ^ Belarus puts Russian missiles on shopping list Russia Today Retrieved on 11-18-08
  26. ^ [http://http://national-pride.org/2010/07/23/%CE%BE%CE%B5%CE%BA%CE%B9%CE%BD%CE%BF%CF%8D%CE%BD-%CE%BF%CE%B9-%CE%B5%CE%BE%CE%B1%CE%B3%CF%89%CE%B3%CE%AD%CF%82-%CF%84%CF%89%CE%BD-iskander-e-%CE%B7-%CE%B5%CE%BB%CE%BB%CE%AC%CE%B4%CE%B1-%CF%83%CF%84/
  27. ^ Belarus 'selling Iran Iskander-M missiles Presstv.ir Retrieved on March 1, 2010
  28. ^ Libya Insists Ball In U.S. Court On Scud B Alternative - Telegraph
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h promotional CD of KBM
  30. ^ "Iskander (SS-26 Stone) Short-Range Ballistic Missile". 2010-12-31. http://www.military-today.com/missiles/iskander.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  • Russia's Arms Catalog 2004

External links