Invictus

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"Invictus"
William Ernest Henley Vanity Fair 1892-11-26.jpg
Portrait of William Ernest Henley by Leslie Ward published in Vanity Fair 26 November 1892
AuthorWilliam Ernest Henley
CountryEngland
LanguageEnglish
Genre(s)Lyric poetry
PublisherBook of Verses
Media typePrint (periodical)
Publication date1888
 
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This article is about the poem. For other uses, see Invictus (disambiguation).
"Invictus"
William Ernest Henley Vanity Fair 1892-11-26.jpg
Portrait of William Ernest Henley by Leslie Ward published in Vanity Fair 26 November 1892
AuthorWilliam Ernest Henley
CountryEngland
LanguageEnglish
Genre(s)Lyric poetry
PublisherBook of Verses
Media typePrint (periodical)
Publication date1888

"Invictus" is a short Victorian poem by the English poet William Ernest Henley (1849–1903). It was written in 1875 and published in 1888 — originally with no title — in his first volume of poems, Book of Verses, in the section Life and Death (Echoes).[1] Early printings contained a dedication To R. T. H. B.—a reference to Robert Thomas Hamilton Bruce (1846–1899), a successful Scottish flour merchant, baker, and literary patron.[2] The title "Invictus" (Latin for "unconquered")[3] was added by editor Arthur Quiller-Couch when the poem was included in The Oxford Book of English Verse.[4][5]

Text[edit]

Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.

In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.

Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds and shall find me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate,
I am the captain of my soul.

[6]

Importance[edit]

Henley's literary reputation rests almost entirely on this single poem.[7]

In 1875 one of Henley's legs required amputation due to complications arising from tuberculosis. Immediately after the amputation he was told that his other leg would require a similar procedure. He chose instead to enlist the services of the distinguished surgeon Joseph Lister, who was able to save Henley's remaining leg after multiple surgical interventions on the foot.[8] While recovering in the infirmary, he was moved to write the verses that became "Invictus". This period of his life, coupled with recollections of an impoverished childhood, were primary inspirations for the poem, and play a major role in its meaning.[9]

Influence[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henley, William Ernest (1888). A book of verses. London: D. Nutt. OCLC 13897970. 
  2. ^ For example in Henley, William Ernest (1891). A book of verses (3rd ed.). New York: Scribner & Welford. OCLC 1912116. 
  3. ^ "English professor Marion Hoctor: The meaning of 'Invictus'". CNN. 2001-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  4. ^ Quiller-Couch, Arthur Thomas (ed.) (1902). The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250–1900 (1st (6th impression) ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 1019. OCLC 3737413. 
  5. ^ Wilson, A.N. (2001-06-11). "World of books". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  6. ^ Poetry Foundation: I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul. URL http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/182194
  7. ^ University of California Press http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/stable/3817033?seq=1
  8. ^ poem analysis http://sites.google.com/site/jreedeshs/home/invictus-analysis
  9. ^ biography of William Ernest Henley http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/william-ernest-henley
  10. ^ Daniels, Eddie (1998) There and back
  11. ^ Dominic Sandbrook (30 January 2010). "British leaders: they're not what they were". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ "Bloodied but unbowed" mirror.co.uk
  15. ^ Sayers, Dorothy (1943). "Clouds of Witness". Classic Gems Publishing. p. 28. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  16. ^ Aung San Suu Kyi in BBC Reith Lecture, 2011-06-28
  17. ^ http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighinvictus.html
  18. ^ Rita Cosby (2001-06-12). "Timothy McVeigh Put to Death for Oklahoma City Bombings". FOX News. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  19. ^ "http://www.economist.com/printedition/2013-12-14". Retrieved 10 January 2014. 

External links[edit]