International business

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International business comprises all commercial transactions (private and governmental, sales, investments, logistics,and transportation) that take place between two or more regions, countries and nations beyond their political boundaries. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit; governments undertake them for profit and for political reasons.[1] It refers to all those business activities which involve cross border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transaction of economic resources include capital, skills, people etc. for international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, construction etc.[2]

A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than a country. An MNE is often called multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational company (TNC). Well known MNCs include fast food companies such as McDonald's and Yum Brands, vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors, Ford Motor Company and Toyota, consumer electronics companies like Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell and BP. Most of the largest corporations operate in multiple national markets.

Areas of study within this topic include differences in legal systems, political systems, economic policy, language, accounting standards, labor standards, living standards, environmental standards, local culture, corporate culture, foreign exchange market, tariffs, import and export regulations, trade agreements, climate, education and many more topics. Each of these factors requires significant changes in how individual business units operate from one country to the next.

Physical and societal factors of competitive social environment[edit source | edit]

The conduct of international operations depends on companies' objectives and the means with which they carry them out. The operations affect and are affected by the physical and societal factors and the competitive environment.

Operations[edit source | edit]

Means[edit source | edit]

Physical and societal factors[edit source | edit]

Competitive factors[edit source | edit]

Risk[edit source | edit]

Factors that influenced the growth in globalization[edit source | edit]

There has been growth in globalization in recent decades due to the following eight factors:

Importance International Business Education[edit source | edit]

Managers in international business must understand social science disciplines and how they affect all functional business fields.

Importance of studying International Business[edit source | edit]

The International Business standards focuses on the following:

By focusing on these, students will gain a better understanding Political economy. These are tools that would help future business people bridge the economical and political gap between countries.

There is an increasing amount of demand for business people with an education in International Business. A survey conducted by Thomas Patrick from University of Notre Dame concluded that Bachelor's degree holders and Master's degree holders felt that the training received through education were very practical in the working environment. Business people with an education in International Business also had a significantly higher chance of being sent abroad to work under the international operations of a firm.

The following table provides descriptions of higher education in International Business and its benefits.

Master'sDoctorate
Who is this degree forPeople interested in management careers with multinational companiesPeople who are interested in academic or research careers
Common Career Paths (with approximate median annual salary)- Chief executives ($167,000)*

- General or operations managers ($95,000)*

- University business professors ($75,000)*

- Economists ($91,000)*

Time to Completion1–2 years full-time3–5 years in addition to master's or other foundational coursework
Common Graduation Requirements- Roughly 15-20 graduate level courses

- Internship or study abroad program

- Foreign language requirement

Most (or all) of the master's degree requirements, plus:

- At least 12 more graduate level courses

- Ph.D. qualifier exams

- Dissertation prospectus (proposal)

- Dissertation

- Teaching requirement

PrerequisitesBachelor's degree and work experience, quantitative expertiseBachelor's or master's degree in business or related field
Online AvailabilityYesLimited

Notes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Daniels, J., Radebaugh, L., Sullivan, D. (2007). International Business: environment and operations, 11th edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-186942-6
  2. ^ Joshi, Rakesh Mohan, (2009) International Business, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-568909-7

See also[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]