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International Business comprises all commercial transactions (private and governmental, sales, investments, logistics, and transportation) that take place between two or more regions, countries and nations beyond their political boundaries. Usually, private companies undertake such transactions for profit; governments undertake them for profit and for political reasons. It refers to all those business activities which involve cross border transactions of goods, services, resources between two or more nations. Transaction of economic resources include capital, skills, people etc. for international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, construction etc.
A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets and production or one with operations in more than a country. An MNE is often called multinational corporation (MNC) or transnational company (TNC). Well known MNCs include fast food companies such as McDonald's and Yum Brands, vehicle manufacturers such as General Motors, Ford Motor Company and Toyota, consumer electronics companies like Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as ExxonMobil, Shell and BP. Most of the largest corporations operate in multiple national markets.
Areas of study within this topic include differences in legal systems, political systems, economic policy, language, accounting standards, labor standards, living standards, environmental standards, local culture, corporate culture, foreign exchange market, tariffs, import and export regulations, trade agreements, climate, education and many more topics. Each of these factors requires significant changes in how individual business units operate from one country to the next.
The conduct of international operations depends on companies' objectives and the means with which they carry them out. The operations affect and are affected by the physical and societal factors and the competitive environment.
Strategic variables impact the choice of entry mode for multinational corporation expansion beyond their domestic markets. These variables are global concentration, global synergies, and global strategic motivations of MNC.
Economical factor Social factor
There has been growth in globalization in recent decades due to (at least) the following eight factors:
Managers in international business must understand social science disciplines and how they affect all functional business fields.
A considerable advantage in International Business is gained through the knowledge and use of language. Advantages of being a International Businessperson who is fluent in the local language include the following:
In many cases it is truly impossible to gain an understanding of a culture's buying habits without first taking the time to understand the culture. Examples of the benefit of understanding local culture include the following:
The International Business standards focuses on the following:
By focusing on these, students will gain a better understanding of Political economy. These are tools that would help future business people bridge the economical and political gap between countries.
There is an increasing amount of demand for business people with an education in International Business. A survey conducted by Thomas Patrick from University of Notre Dame concluded that Bachelor's degree holders and Master's degree holders felt that the training received through education were very practical in the working environment. Business people with an education in International Business also had a significantly higher chance of being sent abroad to work under the international operations of a firm.
The following table provides descriptions of higher education in International Business and its benefits.
|Who is this degree for||People interested in management careers with multinational companies||People who are interested in academic or research careers|
|Common Career Paths (with approximate median annual salary)||- Chief executives ($167,000)* |
- General or operations managers ($95,000)*
|- University business professors ($75,000)* |
- Economists ($91,000)*
|Time to Completion||1–2 years full-time||3–5 years in addition to master's or other foundational coursework|
|Common Graduation Requirements||- Roughly 15-20 graduate level courses |
- Internship or study abroad program
- Foreign language requirement
|Most (or all) of the master's degree requirements, plus: |
- At least 12 more graduate level courses
- Ph.D. qualifier exams
- Dissertation prospectus (proposal)
- Teaching requirement
|Prerequisites||Bachelor's degree and work experience, quantitative expertise||Bachelor's or master's degree in business or related field|