International Security Assistance Force

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

International Security Assistance Force
ISAF-Logo.svg

Flag of the International Security Assistance Force.svg

Flag of the International Security Assistance Force (Variant).png
Official emblem (top) and flags (middle and bottom) of the International Security Assistance Force.
ActiveDecember 2001–present
CountrySee Contributing nations
AllegianceNATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Part of

Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum
Brunssum, Netherlands

American contingent responsible to:
United States Central Command
MacDill AFB, Florida, U.S.
HeadquartersKabul, Afghanistan
MottoPashto writing: کمک او همکاری (Komak aw Hamkāri—"Help and Cooperation")
EngagementsWar in Afghanistan
Commanders
Current
commander
Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.
Command Sergeant MajorThomas R. Capel
 
Jump to: navigation, search
International Security Assistance Force
ISAF-Logo.svg

Flag of the International Security Assistance Force.svg

Flag of the International Security Assistance Force (Variant).png
Official emblem (top) and flags (middle and bottom) of the International Security Assistance Force.
ActiveDecember 2001–present
CountrySee Contributing nations
AllegianceNATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Part of

Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum
Brunssum, Netherlands

American contingent responsible to:
United States Central Command
MacDill AFB, Florida, U.S.
HeadquartersKabul, Afghanistan
MottoPashto writing: کمک او همکاری (Komak aw Hamkāri—"Help and Cooperation")
EngagementsWar in Afghanistan
Commanders
Current
commander
Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.
Command Sergeant MajorThomas R. Capel

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan that was established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386,[1] as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.[2] Its main purpose is to train the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and assist Afghanistan in rebuilding key government institutions but is also engaged in the 2001–present war with insurgent groups.

ISAF was initially charged with securing Kabul and surrounding areas from the Taliban, al Qaeda and factional warlords, so as to allow for the establishment of the Afghan Transitional Administration headed by Hamid Karzai.[3] In October 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the expansion of the ISAF mission throughout Afghanistan,[4] and ISAF subsequently expanded the mission in four main stages over the whole of the country.[5] From 2006 to 2011, ISAF had been involved in increasingly more intensive combat operations in southern and eastern Afghanistan.

Troop contributors include from the United States, United Kingdom, NATO member states and a number of other countries. The intensity of the combat faced by contributing nations varies greatly, with the United States sustaining the largest numbers of casualties in intensive combat operations, but with other contributors especially the United Kingdom and Denmark sustaining relatively higher rates of casualties. As of early 2010, there were at least 700 military bases inside Afghanistan. About 400 of these were used by American‑led NATO forces and 300 by ANSF.[6]

Jurisdiction[edit]

ISAF's military terminal at Kabul International Airport in September 2010.

For almost two years, the ISAF mandate did not go beyond the boundaries of Kabul. According to General Norbert Van Heyst, such a deployment would require at least an extra ten thousand soldiers. The responsibility for security throughout the whole of Afghanistan was to be given to the newly reconstituted Afghan armed forces. However, on 13 October 2003, the Security Council voted unanimously to expand the ISAF mission beyond Kabul in Resolution 1510. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said that Canadian soldiers (nearly half of the entire force at that time) would not deploy outside Kabul.

On 24 October 2003, the German Bundestag voted to send German troops to the region of Kunduz. Approximately 230 additional soldiers were deployed to that region, marking the first time that ISAF soldiers operated outside of Kabul. After the 2005 Afghan parliamentary election, the Canadian base Camp Julien at Kabul closed, and remaining Canadian assets moved to Kandahar as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in preparation for a significant deployment in January 2006. On 31 July 2006, the NATO‑led International Security Assistance Force assumed command of the south of the country, ISAF Stage 3, and by 5 October also of the east of Afghanistan, ISAF Stage 9.

ISAF is mandated by the UN Security Council Resolutions 1386, 1413, 1444, 1510, 1563, 1623, S/RES/1659, S/RES/1707, S/RES/1776(2007) (with an abstention from Russia due to the lack of clarity in the wording pertaining to ISAF's maritime interception component, which has not appeared in any of the Security Council's previous resolutions.[7]) and Resolution 1917 (2010). The last of these extended the mandate of ISAF to 23 March 2011.

The mandates the different governments give to their forces differ from country to country.[citation needed] Some governments wish to take a full part in counter-insurgency operations;[citation needed] some are in Afghanistan for NATO alliance reasons;[citation needed] some are in the country partially because they wish to maintain their relationship with the United States,[citation needed] and possibly,[original research?] some are there for domestic political reasons.[citation needed] This means that ISAF suffers from a certain lack of united aims.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Geographic depiction of the four ISAF stages (January 2009).

The initial ISAF headquarters (AISAF) was based on 3rd UK Mechanised Division, led at the time by Major General John McColl. This force arrived in December 2001. Until ISAF expanded beyond Kabul, the force consisted of a roughly division-level headquarters and one brigade covering the capital, the Kabul Multinational Brigade. The brigade was composed of three battle groups, and was in charge of the tactical command of deployed troops. ISAF headquarters serves as the operational control center of the mission.

ISAF command originally rotated among different nations on a 6‑month basis. However, there was tremendous difficulty securing new lead nations. To solve the problem, command was turned over indefinitely to NATO on 11 August 2003. This marked NATO's first deployment outside Europe or North America.

Stage 1: to the north – completed October 2004[edit]

Stage 2: to the west – completed September 2005[edit]

Stage 3: to the south – completed July 2006[edit]

Stage 4: ISAF takes responsibility for entire country – completed October 2006[edit]

ISAF Post Stage 4: October 2006 to present[edit]

Anaconda Strategy vs the insurgents as of 2010-10-20.
SOF 90‑Day Accumulated effect (23 Sep 10).

Colombia had planned to deploy around 100 soldiers in Spring 2009.[18][19] These forces were expected to be demining experts.[20][21] General Freddy Padilla de Leon announced to CBS that operators of Colombia's Special Forces Brigade were scheduled to be deployed to Afghanistan in either August or September 2009.[22] However, the Colombians are not listed as part of the force as of June 2011.

Three NATO states have announced withdrawal plans: Canada in 2011,[23] Poland in 2012,[24] and the United Kingdom in 2015.[25] The United States said it would end combat operations in Afghanistan by the end of 2014. This would not involve a total withdrawal, but sizable advisory forces may remain to train and mentor Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).

Security and reconstruction[edit]

Since 2006 the insurgency of the Taliban has been intensifying, especially in the southern Pashtun parts of the country, areas that were the Taliban's original power base in the mid‑1990s. ISAF took over command of the south on 31 July 2006, British, Dutch, Canadian and Danish ISAF soldiers in the provinces of Helmand, Uruzgan, and Kandahar have come under almost daily attack. British commanders said the fighting for them was the fiercest since the Korean War, fifty years ago. BBC reporter Alistair Leithead, embedded with the British forces, called it in an article "Deployed to Afghanistan's hell".[26]

Because of the security situation in the south, ISAF commanders have asked member countries to send more troops. On 19 October, for example, the Dutch government decided to send more troops, because of the increasing attacks by suspected Taliban on their Task Force Uruzgan, which makes it very difficult to complete the reconstruction work they came to accomplish.
Derogatory alternative acronyms for the ISAF were created by critics, including "I Saw Americans Fighting",[27] "I Suck at Fighting", and "In Sandals and Flip Flops".[28]

ISAF and the illegal opium economy[edit]

Opium production levels for 2005–2007
Regional security risks of opium poppy cultivation in 2007–2008.

Prior to October 2008, ISAF had only served an indirect role in fighting the illegal opium economy in Afghanistan through shared intelligence with the Afghan government, protection of Afghan poppy crop eradication units and helping in the coordination and the implementation of the country's counternarcotics policy. For example, Dutch soldiers have used military force to protect eradication units that came under attack.

Crop eradication often affects the poorest farmers who have no economic alternatives on which to fall back. Without alternatives, these farmers can no longer feed their families, causing anger, frustration, and social protest. Thus, being associated with this counterproductive drug policy, ISAF soldiers on the ground find it difficult to gain the support of the local population.[29]

Though problematic for NATO, this indirect role has allowed NATO to avoid the opposition of the local population who depend on the poppy fields for their livelihood. In October 2008 NATO altered its position in an effort to curb the financing of insurgency by the Taliban. Drug laboratories, and drug traders became the targets, and not the poppy fields themselves.[30] In order to appease France, Italy, and Germany, the deal involved the participation in an anti-drugs campaign only of willing NATO member countries, was to be temporary, and was to involve cooperation of the Afghans.[30]

On 10 October 2008, during a news conference, after an informal meeting of NATO Defence Ministers in Budapest, Hungary, NATO Spokesman James Appathurai said:[31]

...with regard to counternarcotics, based on the request of the Afghan government, consistent with the appropriate UN Security Council Resolutions, under the existing operational plan, ISAF can act in concert with the Afghans against facilities and facilitators supporting the insurgency, subject to the authorization of respective nations.... The idea of a review is, indeed, envisioned for an upcoming meeting.

Military and civilian casualties[edit]

ISAF military casualties, and the civilian casualties caused by the war and Coalition/ISAF friendly fire, have become a major political issue, both in Afghanistan and in the troop contributing nations. Increasing civilian casualties threaten the stability of President Hamid Karzai's government. Consequently, effective 2 July 2009, coalition air and ground combat operations were ordered to take steps to minimize Afghan civilian casualties in accordance with a tactical directive issued by General Stanley A. McChrystal, USA, the commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.[32]

ISAF command structure as of 2011[edit]

ISAF troops under NATO command (April 2009).

Throughout the four different regional stages of ISAF the number of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) began growing. The expansion of ISAF, during October 2006, to all provinces of the country brought the total number of PRTs to twenty-four (24). The teams are led by different members of ISAF mission. PRT at Wardak was installed in November 2006, which is led by Turkey. This brought the number to 25. The overall NATO-ISAF mission is led by the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, at Brunssum, Netherlands.[33]

The headquarters of ISAF is located in Kabul. As of October 2010, there were 6 Regional Commands, each with subordinate Task Forces and Provincial Reconstruction Teams:

The lower strength numbers of the ISAF forces are as of 6 October 2008.[34] The numbers also reflect the situation in the country. The north and west are relatively calm, while ISAF and Afghan forces in the south and east are almost under daily attack.

Kabul; Clock wise, Michael Mullen, David Petraeus, James Mattis, John Allen, Marvin L. Hill and German Army Gen. Wolf Langheld inside the ISAF headquarters in Kabul.

The new ISAF structure from August 2009

Afghan Defense Ministry spokesman, Zahir Azimi, with German Army Brig. Gen. Josef Blotz in 2010.
Camp Marmal in Mazar-i-Sharif, headquarters of Regional Command North.
Meeting of Italian and U.S. commanders at Regional Command West headquarters in Herat.

List of Commanders[edit]

The command of ISAF has rotated between officers of the participating nations. The first American took command in February 2007 and only Americans have commanded ISAF since that time.[44]

NamePhotoTerm beganTerm endedNotes
1.Lt Gen John C. McColl, BA10 January 200220 June 2002
2.Lt Gen Hilmi Akin Zorlu, TKK20 June 200210 February 2003
3.Lt Gen Norbert van Heyst, DH10 February 200311 August 2003
4.Lt Gen Götz Gliemeroth, DH11 August 20039 February 2004
5.Lt Gen Rick J. Hillier, CA9 February 20049 August 2004
6.Lt Gen Jean-Louis Py, AT9 August 200413 February 2005
7.Lt Gen Ethem Erdağı, TKK13 February 20055 August 2005Former commander of 3rd Corps (Turkey)
8.Gen Mauro del Vecchio, EI5 August 20054 May 2006
9.Gen Sir David J. Richards, BAGen. Sir David Richards at NATO Summit in Chicago May 20, 2012.jpg4 May 20064 February 2007
10.Gen Dan K. McNeill, USADanMcNeill.jpg4 February 20073 June 2008
11.Gen David D. McKiernan, USADavidMckiernan.jpg3 June 200815 June 2009
12.Gen Stanley A. McChrystal, USAStanleyMcChrystal.jpg15 June 200923 June 2010General McChrystal was removed from command due to conduct that could undermine civilian control of the military.[45]
13.Gen David H. Petraeus, USAGeneral David Petraeus.jpg4 July 201018 July 2011
14.Gen John R. Allen, USMCJohn Allen ISAF.jpg18 July 201110 February 2013Near the end of his term, General Allen became embroiled in an inappropriate communication investigation concerning his correspondences with Jill Kelley.[46]
15.Gen Joseph F. Dunford, Jr., USMCDunford 2013.jpg10 February 2013Present

Current Commander[47]

Contributing nations[edit]

Convoy of U.S. forces passing by in Kapisa Province.

All NATO members have contributed troops to the ISAF, as well as some other partner states of the NATO. The numbers are based in part from NATO; when more recent numbers are available they are given.

Troop figures are as of the latest ISAF/NATO Placemat from 15 January 2014.[48]

NATO nations[edit]

A Bulgarian land forces up-armored M1114 patrol in Kabul, July 2009
Soldiers from the Canadian Grenadier Guards in Kandahar Province.
French units on duty with ISAF.
ISAF's spokesperson Brig. Gen. Gunter Katz (right) surveys the grounds at the Afghan Defense University in 2013.
Norwegian soldiers in Faryab Province.
Polish forces in Afghanistan.
Romanian soldiers in southern Afghanistan in 2003.
Visiting politicians of Spain with soldiers of the Spanish army in 2010.
United Kingdom's Royal Air Force Flight Lieutenant Luke Meldon explains the components of an Afghan Air Force (AAF) C-27 Spartan to five Thunder Lab students.
U.S. Marines conducting a dawn patrol in Nawa District, in Helmand Province, Afghanistan in May 2010.

Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) nations[edit]

U.S. President Barack Obama visiting wounded Georgian LTC Alexandre Tugushi.

Non-NATO and non-EAPC nations[edit]

An Australian Special Operations Task Group patrol in October 2009.
New Zealand Army soldier and NZLAV in Afghanistan.

Withdrawn nations[edit]

Contributions of participating nations[edit]

49 nations contributed 57,004 troops as of 15 January 2014.[48]

Financing[edit]

Resolution 1386 of the United Nations Security Council established that the expense of the ISAF operation must be borne by participating states. For this purpose the resolution established a trust fund through which contributions could be channelled to the participating states or operations concerned, and encouraged the participating states to contribute to such a fund.[124]

Notable soldiers[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386 S-RES-1386(2001) on 31 May 2001 (retrieved 21 September 2007)
  2. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 1154 Annex I – International Security Force page 9 in 2001
  3. ^ Official Documents System of the United Nations[dead link]
  4. ^ "UNSC Resolution 1510, October 13, 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "ISAF Chronology". Nato.int. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  6. ^ Turse, Nick (11 February 2010). "The 700 Military Bases of Afghanistan". Foreign Police in Focus (FPIF). Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  7. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbotim Report meeting 5744 page 2, Mr. Churkin Russia on 19 September 2007 at 17:20 (retrieved 21 September 2007)
  8. ^ ISAF in Afghanistan CDI, Terrorism Project – 14 February 2002.
  9. ^ a b c d NATO's role in Afghanistan NATO ISAF missions – 3 September 2009.
  10. ^ a b "More Dutch troops for Afghanistan". BBC News. 3 February 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "International Security Assistance Force". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 20 September 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2010. [dead link]
  12. ^ "South Asia | Afghan conflict deaths quadruple". BBC News. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  13. ^ "Europe | Nato hails shift on Afghan combat". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  14. ^ U.S. general in Afghanistan seen tough on Taliban REUTERS – 5 February 2007
  15. ^ ISAF and Afghan Forces launch major operation in the South at the Wayback Machine (archived March 13, 2007) NATO Press release – 6 March 2007 and Nato in major anti-Taleban drive BBC – 6 March 2007
  16. ^ a b "Microsoft PowerPoint – JAN0912 – Updated ISAF Troops Placemat.ppt" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  17. ^ "Petraeus takes command in Afghanistan". CBC News. 4 July 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  18. ^ HumbertoMay 26, 2009 – 02:58:54 (26 May 2009). "Colombia sends troops to Afghanistan – first Latin American country". Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  19. ^ "Tropas colombianas reforzarán a las fuerzas españolas en Afganistán". Elespectador.Com. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "Colombia to send demining experts to Afghanistan_English_Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  21. ^ "Colombia sends troops to Afghanistan". Thaindian.com. 7 August 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  22. ^ "Colombia To Aid U.S. In Taliban Fight". CBS. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  23. ^ Canada PM: Troops Home From Afghanistan in 2011[dead link]
  24. ^ Terence Neilan (1 August 2010). "Dutch Pullout From Afghanistan Leaves Some Nervous". Aolnews.com. Retrieved 26 May 2012. [dead link]
  25. ^ Patrick Wintour in Toronto (25 June 2010). "Afghanistan withdrawal before 2015, says David Cameron". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  26. ^ Leithead, Alistair (5 August 2006). "Programmes | From Our Own Correspondent | Deployed to Afghanistan's 'Hell'". BBC News. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  27. ^ Killing the Cranes, by Edward Girardet, 2011, published by Chelsea Green
  28. ^ Hastings, Michael (25 June 2010). "The Runaway General". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  29. ^ The Washington Quarterly Poppies for Peace: Reforming Afghanistans Opium Industry
  30. ^ a b "South Asia | Nato to attack Afghan opium labs". BBC News. 10 October 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  31. ^ NATO, NATO Events: Informal Meeting of NATO Defence Ministers – Budapest, 9–10 October 2008, Retrieved on 10 October 2008
  32. ^ Jim Garamone (6 July 2009). "Directive Re-emphasizes Protecting Afghan Civilians". American Forces Press Service. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 1 October 2012.  and "Tactical Directive". NATO/International Security Assistance Force. 6 July 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  33. ^ NATO OTAN[dead link] Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum – (ISAF)
  34. ^ ISAF source at the Wayback Machine (archived June 28, 2007) International Security Assistance Force
  35. ^ "ISAF – International Security Assistance Force – Official Homepage". Nato.int. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  36. ^ "Tutta la Taurinense in Afghanistan". Lastampa.It. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  37. ^ "Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team". Afghanistan.gc.ca. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  38. ^ http://www.www.globalcollab.org/Nautilus/australia/afghanistan/prt-oruzgan
  39. ^ "PRT-Zabul helps reconnect Afghans, government". Army.mil. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  40. ^ "US Plans New Command in Southern Afghanistan to Prepare for Major Offensive in Kandahar". Wwono.com. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  41. ^ Regional Command Southwest stands up[dead link]
  42. ^ "Official Public Website Home Page – MEB-Afghanistan / TF Leatherneck". Mnfwest.usmc.mil. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  43. ^ "About us". Ukinafghanistan.fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  44. ^ About ISAF: History: ISAF Commanders, retrieved 20 March 2012
  45. ^ MSNBC, "Obama relieves McChrystal of command", 23 June 2010 7:58:33 PM ET
  46. ^ BBC News, "David Petraeus CIA scandal engulfs US Gen John Allen", 13 November 2012 Last updated at 05:26 ET
  47. ^ International Security Assistance Force, "Leadership: General Joseph F. Dunford, Jr." 10 February 2013
  48. ^ a b "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures". Isaf.nato.int. 15 January 2014. 
  49. ^ "Shqipëria dërgoi kontingjentin e tetë në Afganistan". Koha. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  50. ^ Two Albanian Commandos killed in Afghanistan, Top-Channel 20 February 2012
  51. ^ Auteur: vdy (9 September 2008). "Het Nieuwsblad – Belgische F‑16's in Afghanistan zijn operationeel". Nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  52. ^ "Geen gevechtsoperaties F-16s in Afghanistan – België – Nieuws – Knack". Knack.be. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  53. ^ "Bulgaria could add up to 100 troops in Afghanistan: defense minister". Military-world.net. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  54. ^ "Изпратихме още 165 военни на операция в Афганистан". DarikNews.bg. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  55. ^ Bulgaria 2011 review – Defense, Novinite, 6 January 2012
  56. ^ "405 Sqn Deploys to South West Asia ... | Articles | News & Events – News Room | 14 Wing Greenwood | Air Force | DND/CF". Airforce.forces.gc.ca. 5 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  57. ^ "Emisije na zahtjev: Dnevnik". Hrt.hr. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  58. ^ "Hrvatska šalje još vojnika u Afganistan". Ezadar.hr. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  59. ^ "Croatia to host three NATO exercises in 2011". 9 March 2011. 
  60. ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom | Iraq | Fatalities By Nationality". iCasualties. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  61. ^ "Danmarks Radio – Danmark mister flest soldater i Afghanistan". Dr.dk. 15 February 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  62. ^ "France eyes sending troops to Afghan combat zone". Reuters. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  63. ^ "French army to deploy Tigers in second quarter". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  64. ^ "Sarkozy Rules Out More French Troops For Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty 2011. 1 April 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  65. ^ "Flash Actu: Afghanistan : 250 soldats français de plus". Le Figaro. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  66. ^ "Le dispositif français pour l'Afghanistan" (in French). Defense.gouv.fr. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  67. ^ AFP: France says Afghanistan troop pullout faster than expected
  68. ^ "43 tote Bundeswehr-Soldaten in Afganistan". Mitteldeutsche Zeitung. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  69. ^ "Grundlagen – Warum Bundeswehr?" (in (German)). Bundeswehr.de. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  70. ^ Siobhán Dowling (11 February 2010). "New Evaluation on Afghanistan Long Overdue". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  71. ^ "Germany Comes to Terms With Its New War". TIME World. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "NATO allies offer 7,000 extra troops for Afghan war". Reuters. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  73. ^ "Troop Numbers & Contributions ISAF". Isaf.nato.int. 24 July 2003. Retrieved 26 May 2012. [dead link]
  74. ^ "La Russa: "Afghanistan combattiamo da un anno ma Prodi ha taciuto" – Articolo – ilGiornale.it del 1 July 2008". Ilgiornale.it. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  75. ^ Willey, David (7 February 2009). "Italians 'to boost Afghan force'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  76. ^ "Lithuanian Armed Forces – Central and South Asia region" (in (Lithuanian)). Kariuomene.kam.lt. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  77. ^ Marquand, Robert (22 February 2010). "Dutch government collapse: Will other European troops now leave Afghanistan?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
  78. ^ "Dutch troops end Afghanistan deployment". BBC. 1 August 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  79. ^ Norwegian Government website: F-16s for ISAF in Afghanistan
  80. ^ Official Norwegian Defence Force website: New capacity[dead link]
  81. ^ Official Norwegian Defence Force website: Helicopters important for the soldiers (Norwegian)[dead link]
  82. ^ "Norway to send troops to southern Afghanistan – People's Daily Online". English.people.com.cn. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  83. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: More soldiers to Afghanistan[dead link]
  84. ^ The Norway Post: Norwegian explosives experts to Afghanistan[dead link]
  85. ^ Official Norwegian Defence Force website: New "Norwegian" camp
  86. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Taliban threaten more attacks in Afghanistan[dead link]
  87. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Fallen soldier comes home[dead link]
  88. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Norwegian fatality in Afghanistan[dead link]
  89. ^ Aftenposten Newspaper: Soldier's body arrives home[dead link]
  90. ^ BBC News: Four Norwegian soldiers killed in Afghanistan
  91. ^ "Romania To Send More Troops To Afghanistan; Germany Mulls Raising Number". Rferl.org. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  92. ^ "Pierderile romanesti din Afganistan si pierderile aliatilor". adevarul.ro. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  93. ^ "Ministry of Defence of Slovak Republic – ISAF mission, Afghanistan". Mod.gov.sk. 1 April 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  94. ^ "Delegacija Ministrstva za obrambo in Slovenske vojske na obisku pri slovenskih vojakih v Afganistanu". Ministry of Defense (Slovenia). July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013. [dead link]
  95. ^ "Next week Slovenian soldiers start the training for new tasks in Afghanistan". Slovenskavojska.si. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  96. ^ "Ejército de Tierra español". Ejercito.mde.es. 1 December 2001. Retrieved 5 July 2010. [dead link]
  97. ^ Treviño Martínez, Rafael: "Afganistán: ¿qué está fallando?", Fuerza Terrestre n.39, March 2007
  98. ^ "Turkey says no more troops for Afghanistan"[dead link]
  99. ^ "Gordon Brown sparks anger by revealing SAS role in Afghanistan" The Telegraph. 30 November 2009
  100. ^ "Armenian Troops Due in Afghanistan Soon | Asbarez Armenian News". Asbarez.com. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. 
  101. ^ BMLVS – Kommunikation – Referat WebAuftritt. "All missions from Austrian troops (German))". Bmlv.gv.at. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  102. ^ "Amount of Finnish troops in Afghanistan almost doubled". Mil.fi. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010. [dead link]
  103. ^ a b Georgian soldiers killed in Afghanistan attack BBC 13 May 2013
  104. ^ Civil.Ge | Three Georgian Soldiers Wounded in Afghanistan
  105. ^ 93 Georgian Soldiers Wounded in Afghanistan in 2010–2012 7 January 2013
  106. ^ "28-Year-Old Georgian Officer Dies in Afghanistan – News Agency InterpressNews". New.interpressnews.ge. Retrieved 13 June 2011. [dead link]
  107. ^ Rubin, Alissa (7 June 2013). "Taliban Attack Kills 7 Georgian Soldiers in Afghanistan". New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  108. ^ "ISAF official web site statistics". [dead link]
  109. ^ "Australian Defence Force personnel wounded and killed in action". Australian Operation in Afghanistan. Australian Department of Defence. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  110. ^ "DefenseLink News Article: Jordanian Military Helps Its Neighbors". Defenselink.mil. Retrieved 5 July 2010. [dead link]
  111. ^ "Mongolia to send troops to Afghanistan". Reuters. 21 July 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2010. [dead link]
  112. ^ [1][dead link]
  113. ^ "SAS back in NZ, no plans to return". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 22 November 2005. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  114. ^ Armstrong, John (20 July 2009). "Key indicates SAS will return to Afghanistan". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  115. ^ "Day at the office for SAS in Kabul". The New Zealand Herald. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  116. ^ "SAS troops to remain in Afghanistan". National Business Review. NZPA. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  117. ^ Romanos, Amelia (28 September 2011). "PM defends Afghan deployment". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  118. ^ "South Korea confirms new troops for Afghanistan". BBC News. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  119. ^ "Taliban warns S Korea not to send more troops to Afghanistan". News.xinhuanet.com. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  120. ^ "Afghan 'trust' in Arab troops". BBC News. 29 March 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  121. ^ "Singapore Armed Forces Concludes Deployment in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence, Singapore. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  122. ^ "Channelnewsasia.com". Channelnewsasia.com. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  123. ^ "Last Swiss officers back from Afghanistan – swissinfo". Swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  124. ^ "Security Council resolution 1386 (2001) on the situation in Afghanistan". United Nations Security Council. 20 December 2001. S/RES/1386 (2001). Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  125. ^ ""Vi fryktet han kunne dø når som helst" – VG Nett om Afghanistan". Vg.no. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  126. ^ "Medaljeutdelingen på Veterandagen 2012 – VG Nett". Vg.no. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]