Inspirations for James Bond

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A number of real-life inspirations have been suggested for James Bond, the fictional character created in 1953 by British author, journalist and Naval Intelligence Officer Ian Fleming; Bond appeared in twelve novels and nine short stories by Fleming, as well as a number of continuation novels and twenty-five films, with seven actors playing the role of Bond.

Although the stories and characters were fictional, a number of elements had a real life background, taken from real people or events that Fleming knew or about which he had read. These included the name James Bond, which Fleming took from the American ornithologist James Bond, Bond's code number—007—which came both from English spy and polymath John Dee, the breaking of a World War I German diplomatic code, Bond's character and tastes, as well as Fleming himself.

Contents

Origins of the name

James Bond, ornithologist; provider of Bond's name

On the morning of 17 February 1952 Ian Fleming started writing what would become his first book, Casino Royale, at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica. He typed out 2,000 words in the morning, directly from his own experiences and imagination[1] and finished work on the manuscript in just over a month,[2] completing it on 18 March 1952.[3] Fleming took the name for his character from that of the American ornithologist James Bond, a Caribbean bird expert and author of the definitive field guide Birds of the West Indies; Fleming, a keen birdwatcher himself, had a copy of Bond's guide and he later explained to the ornithologist's wife that "It struck me that this brief, unromantic, Anglo-Saxon and yet very masculine name was just what I needed, and so a second James Bond was born".[4]

When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an extremely dull, uninteresting man to whom things happened; I wanted him to be a blunt instrument ... when I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I thought by God, [James Bond] is the dullest name I ever heard.

Ian Fleming, The New Yorker, 21 April 1962[5]

On another occasion Fleming said: "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, 'James Bond' was much better than something more interesting, like 'Peregrine Carruthers'. Exotic things would happen to and around him, but he would be a neutral figure—an anonymous, blunt instrument wielded by a government department."[6] After Fleming met the ornithologist and his wife, he described them as "a charming couple who are amused by the whole joke".[7] The ornithologist was obliquely referred to in the film Die Another Day with Pierce Brosnan's Bond picking up a copy of Birds of the West Indies and posing as an ornithologist.[8]

Character inspirations

During World War II Fleming was the personal assistant to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiral John Godfrey.[9] He reached the rank of commander—a rank he subsequently gave to his fictional creation—and was the planner for special operations unit 30th Assault Unit.[10] Many of Bond's tastes and traits were Fleming's own, including sharing the same golf handicap, the taste for scrambled eggs and using the same brand of toiletries.[11] Bond's tastes are also often taken from Fleming's, as was his behaviour,[12] with Bond's love of golf and gambling mirroring his creator's. Fleming used his experiences of his espionage career and all other aspects of his life as inspiration when writing, including using names of school friends, acquaintances, relatives and lovers throughout his books.[13]

Bond's cigarettes were also the same as Fleming's, who had been buying his custom-made by Morland since the 1930s; Fleming added the three gold bands on the filter during the war to mirror his naval Commander's rank.[14] On average, Bond smokes sixty cigarettes a day, although he cut back to around twenty five a day after his visit to a health farm in Thunderball.[15] Fleming himself smoked up to eighty cigarettes a day.[16] Apart from imbuing Bond with his own tastes, Fleming based his fictional creation on a number of individuals he came across during his time in Intelligence, admitting that Bond "was a compound of all the secret agents and commando types I met during the war".[13]

NameDatesNotes
Sidney Cotton17 June 1894 –
13 February 1969
Cotton was born in Australia and moved to England to serve in the Royal Naval Air Service. He was a close friend of Ian Fleming during World War II. After having served as a pilot in World War I, Cotton worked for MI6 photographing German factories, military installations and airfields from a camera hidden in a plane's fuselage. He would also openly take photographs of installations using people as cover for doing so—including Hitler's deputy, Hermann Göring. Cotton also flew the last civilian plane out of Berlin at the outbreak of World War II, taking pictures of the German navy as he did so.[17]
Patrick Dalzel-Job1 June 1913 –
14 October 2003
Naval Intelligence Officer and Commando of World War II, Dalzel-Job was also an accomplished linguist, author, mariner, navigator, parachutist, diver and skier and knew Fleming through his service with 30AU.[18] Like Bond, he had a rebellious streak when he disagreed with orders on points of principle. A modest man, when once asked about the connection with Bond he replied: "I have never read a Bond book or seen a Bond movie. They are not my style ... And I only loved one woman and I'm not a drinking man."[19]
Wilfred (Biffy) Dunderdale24 December 1899 –
13 November 1990
The MI6 head of station in Paris, Dunderdale would regularly dine at Maxim's; he drove an armour-plated Rolls-Royce and dress in handmade suits and Cartier cufflinks.[20] Dunderdale was a bon viveur who enjoyed attractive women and fast cars and was a friend of Fleming's during World War II.[21] He also played a key role in the cracking of the Enigma code.[20]
Peter Fleming31 May 1907 –
18 August 1971
Ian Fleming's brother and wartime expert of military intelligence and irregular warfare. He spent time behind enemy lines in Norway and Greece during the war.[22] He also spent time in Delhi, organising deception plans to fool the Imperial Japanese Army.[23]
Sandy Glen18 April 1912 –
6 March 2004
Glen was a former Arctic explorer who worked with Fleming in Naval Intelligence.[24] Like Bond, Glen went to Fettes College and had Scottish antecedents.[25] Glen distanced himself from the connection, saying "I don't think it's true for a moment; I'm far too gentle, too law-abiding."[24]
Duane Hudson11 August 1910 –
1 November 1995
Hudson spent much of the Second World War behind enemy lines in Yugoslavia, initially with the British Secret Service and subsequently with the Special Operations Executive (SOE).[26] Hudson survived assassination attempts and recruited a network of agents to blow up Axis shipping—blowing up an Italian ship single-handedly.[27]
Fitzroy Maclean11 March 1911 –
15 June 1996
During World War II Maclean was a British agent in Yugoslavia and friend (and biographer) of Josip Broz Tito, as well as a member of the Special Air Service, active in North Africa and Yugoslavia. Although a number of media sources at the time of his death suggested that he was a model for Bond, he denied the rumour, a view shared by Fleming's biographer, Andrew Lycett.[24][28]
Michael MasonMason ran away from his wealthy family at an early age to go to Canada where he worked as a trapper and professional boxer. At the outbreak of war he worked in then-neutral Bucharest where he killed two German agents who were trying to assassinate him.[24]
Merlin Minshall21 December 1906 –
3 September 1987
Minshall was a fellow member of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve and was known to Fleming through his work in naval intelligence. In 1940 he joined the SOE and waged guerrilla warfare against the Nazis in France and Yugoslavia.[29][30]
Conrad O'Brien-ffrench19 November 1893 –
23 October 1986
O'Brien-ffrench was a distinguished British Secret Intelligence Officer, decorated army officer, skier, mountaineer, linguist, traveller and artist. He met Fleming in Austria in the 1930s while working for Claude Dansey's "Z" network gathering information on German troop movements.[13][31] In 1918, Stewart Menzies recruited Conrad into MI6 who then undertook clandestine missions abroad.[32]
Dušan Popov1912–1981Popov was a Serbian double agent of both MI5 (code named Agent Tricycle) and the Abwehr.[33] Fleming knew Popov and followed him in Portugal, witnessing an event in the Estoril Casino where Popov placed a bet of $40,000 ($632,036 in 2013 dollars[34]) in order to cause a rival to withdraw from a baccarat table: Fleming used this episode as the basis for Casino Royale.[35]
Sidney Reilly24 March 1873 –
5 November 1925
Reilly was an agent for Scotland Yard's Special Branch and the British Secret Service Bureau. In 1918, Reilly was employed by Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming as an operative for MI1(c), an early designation for the MI6.[36] Reilly's friend Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart knew Fleming for many years and told him of Reilly's espionage adventures;[37] Fleming subsequently mentioned to a colleague at The Sunday Times that he had created Bond after hearing about Reilly.[38]
Peter Smithers9 December 1913 –
8 June 2006
Sir Peter Smithers, who was known to Fleming, organised passage for British refugees from France as the Nazis advanced through France. Later, as a naval attaché, he worked in Washington on spreading disinformation about the Nazis.[39] He spent part of the war working in Naval Intelligence; Fleming later named a character in Goldfinger after him.[40]
William Stephenson23 January 1897 –
31 January 1989
William Stephenson was a Canadian spymaster, best known by his code name, Intrepid; Stephenson was the head of the British Security Coordination, an MI6 organisation based in New York.[41] Regarding him, Fleming wrote in The Sunday Times of 21 October 1962, that Bond was: "a highly romanticized version of a true spy. The real thing, the man who became one of the great agents of the [Second World War] is William Stephenson."[42]

Literary inspirations

Besides real life individuals, James Bond was also inspired by one of Dennis Wheatley's characters; the secret agent Gregory Sallust,[43] based on Wheatley's late friend Gordon Eric Gordon-Tombe.[44]

Inspiration for "007"

Dee's glyph

The 007 number assigned to James Bond may have been influenced by any number of sources. In the films and novels, the 00 prefix indicates Bond's discretionary 'licence to kill', in executing his duties.

Bond's number—007—comes from the English spy and polymath John Dee, who would sign his letters to Elizabeth I with 00 and an elongated 7, to signify they were for her eyes only.[45][46] The number was also assigned by Fleming in reference to one of British naval intelligence's key achievements of World War I: the breaking of the German diplomatic code.[46] One of the German documents cracked and read by the British was the Zimmermann Telegram, which was coded 0075,[47] and which was one of the factors that led the US entering the war. Subsequently if material was graded 00 it meant it was highly classified and, as journalist Ben Macintyre has pointed out, "to anyone versed in intelligence history, 007 signified the highest achievement of British military intelligence."[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 4.
  2. ^ "Ian Fleming". About Ian Fleming. Ian Fleming Publications. http://www.ianfleming.com/pages/content/index.asp?PageID=96. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  3. ^ Black 2005, p. 4.
  4. ^ Caplen 2010, p. 21.
  5. ^ Hellman, Geoffrey T. (21 April 1962). "Bond's Creator (subscription needed)". Talk of the Town. The New Yorker. p. 32. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1962/04/21/1962_04_21_032_TNY_CARDS_000268062#ixzz1XRLtznvp. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  6. ^ Fleming, Ian (5 April 1958). ""The Exclusive Bond" Mr. Fleming on his hero". The Manchester Guardian: p. 4.
  7. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 230.
  8. ^ Steyn, Mark (30 November 2002). "Forever Bond". The Spectator (London) 131: 68.
  9. ^ Lycett 1996, p. 103.
  10. ^ Rankin 2011, p. 136.
  11. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 50.
  12. ^ Cook, William (28 June 2004). "Novel man". New Statesman: p. 40.
  13. ^ a b c Macintyre, Ben (5 April 2008). "Bond – the real Bond". The Times: p. 36.
  14. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 70.
  15. ^ Benson 1988, p. 70.
  16. ^ Burns, John F (19 May 2008). "Remembering Fleming, Ian Fleming". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/books/19bond.html?scp=1&sq=Remembering%20Fleming,%20Ian%20Fleming&st=cse. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  17. ^ Morris, David (15 July 2001). "The real Bond – REVEALED: 007 was actually a Queenslander". The Sunday Mail: p. 18.
  18. ^ McGrory, Daniel; Evans, Michael; English, Shirley. "War hero hailed as the real 007 dies". The Times (London): p. 3.
  19. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 70.
  20. ^ a b Macintyre 2008, p. 72.
  21. ^ Gardham, Duncan (22 September 2010). "Fast cars, women ... was he the model for Bond?". The Daily Telegraph (London): p. 15.
  22. ^ "Obituary: Colonel Peter Fleming, Author and explorer". The Times (London): p. 14. 20 August 1971.
  23. ^ Macintyre 2008, p. 67-68.
  24. ^ a b c d Cathcart, Brian (23 June 1996). "The name's Dunderdale, Biffy Dunderdale". The Independent (London): p. 10.
  25. ^ Lycett 1996, p. 112.
  26. ^ Foot, Michael (14 November 1995). "OBITUARY : Colonel D. T. Hudson". The Independent (London): p. 18.
  27. ^ "Agent who met Tito". Herald Sun. 24 November 1995.
  28. ^ West 2010, p. 134.
  29. ^ "Wartime Agent Believed To Have Been Model For James Bond Dies". Associated Press. 23 September 1987.
  30. ^ "Obituary of Mr Merlin Minshall". The Times. 23 September 1987.
  31. ^ Jackson & Scott 2004, p. 125.
  32. ^ McKay 1993, p. 115.
  33. ^ "The name's Tricycle, Agent Tricycle". BBC News. 9 May 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1973962.stm. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  34. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  35. ^ West 2010, p. xxii–xxiii.
  36. ^ Spence 2002, p. 93.
  37. ^ Cook 2004, p. 12.
  38. ^ Cook 2004, p. 10.
  39. ^ Cameron, Sue (15 June 2006). "Model for 007 was more greenfinger than Goldfinger Obituary: Sir Peter Smithers". Financial Times: p. 4.
  40. ^ "Obituary: Sir Peter Smithers". The Times: p. 62. 15 June 2006.
  41. ^ West 2010, p. 15-16.
  42. ^ Hamilton 2011, p. 147.
  43. ^ Rosenberg, Tina (8 August 2012). "The Novelist Who Spied: How Dennis Wheatley Helped Defeat the Nazis". The Daily Beast. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/08/08/the-novelist-who-spied-how-dennis-wheatley-helped-defeat-the-nazis.html. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  44. ^ "The Dennis Wheatley 'Museum' - Instant success as an author". http://www.denniswheatley.info/museum/room.asp?id=6. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  45. ^ Gardiner 2008, p. 91.
  46. ^ a b c Macintyre 2008, p. 65.
  47. ^ Chancellor 2005, p. 190.

Bibliography

External links