Infantry of the British Army

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British Army arms and services
Flag of the British Army.svg
Combat Arms
Royal Armoured Corps
Infantry
Army Air Corps
Combat Support Arms
Royal Artillery
Royal Engineers
Royal Corps of Signals
Intelligence Corps
Combat Services
Royal Army Chaplains Department
Royal Logistic Corps
Army Medical Services
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
Adjutant General's Corps
Small Arms School Corps
Royal Army Physical Training Corps
General Service Corps
Corps of Army Music
Recruiting areas of British line infantry regiments

The British Army's Infantry, part of the Structure of the British Army, comprises 51 battalions of Infantry, from 19 Regiments. Of these, 37 battalions are part of the 'Regular' army and the remaining 14 a part of the 'Territorial' (reserve) force. The British Infantry forms a highly flexible organisation, taking on a variety of roles including armoured, mechanised, air assault and light.

Recruitment and training[edit]

Recruitment[edit]

Traditionally, regiments that form the combat arms of the British Army (cavalry and infantry) recruit from specific areas of the country. Infantry regiments had been assigned specific areas from which they would recruit from by the mid eighteenth century. These were formalised under the Cardwell Reforms that began in the 1860s. Under this scheme, single battalion infantry regiments were amalgamated into two battalion regiments, then assigned to a depot and associated recruiting area (which would usually correspond to all or part of a county). The recruiting area (usually) would then become part of the regiment's title. It was this that gave rise to the concept of the "county regiment", with the local infantry regiment becoming part of the fabric of its local area.

Over time, regiments have been amalgamated further, which has led to recruiting areas of individual regiments increasing in size. Often, these amalgamations will be between regiments whose recruiting areas border each other. However, there have been occasions where regiments of a similar type, but from widely different areas, have been amalgamated. Two modern examples have been the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers (amalgamated from the county regiments of Northumberland, Warwickshire, City of London and Lancashire, all of which were regiments of fusiliers) and The Light Infantry (amalgamated from the county regiments of Cornwall, Somerset, Shropshire, South Yorkshire and Durham, all of which were regiments of light infantry).

After September 2007, when the current reforms have been completed, the infantry will consist of 18 separate regiments. The five regiments of foot guards recruit from their respective home nations (with the exception of the Coldstream Guards, which recruits from the counties through which the regiment marched between Coldstream and London). Scotland, Ireland and Wales each have a single regiment of line infantry from which they recruit (though the battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland recruit from the areas they recruited from when they were separate regiments), while England has seven line infantry and rifles regiments. The Parachute Regiment recruits nationally, while the Royal Gurkha Rifles recruits most of its serving personnel from Nepal, and the Royal Gibraltar Regiment recruits in Gibraltar.

Before the Second World War, infantry recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) tall. They initially enlisted for seven years with the colours and a further five years with the reserve. They trained at their own regimental depot.[1]

Training[edit]

Unlike the other trades in the army, which have separate units for basic training and specialised training, new recruits into the infantry undergo a single course at the Infantry Training Centre Catterick. This course, called the "Combat Infantryman's Course" (CIC), lasts 26 weeks as standard and teaches recruits both the basics of soldiering (Phase 1 training) and the specifics of soldiering in the infantry (Phase 2 training). Upon completion of the CIC, the newly qualified infantry soldier will then be posted to his battalion.

For some infantry units, the CIC is longer, due to specific additional requirements for individual regiments:

New officers conduct their Phase 1 training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Phase 2 training for officers, which is encompassed by the Platoon Commander's Battle Course, is run at the Infantry Battle School at ITC Brecon in Wales. It is here that leadership and tactics are taught to new platoon commanders. New NCOs and Warrant Officers are also sent on courses at Brecon when they come up for promotion. This encompasses Phase 3 training. Phase 3 training is also undertaken at the Support Weapons School at ITC Warminster, where new officers, NCOs and soldiers are trained in the use of support weapons (mortars, anti-tank weapons) and in communications.

Territorial Infantrymen undertake preliminary training at Regional Training Centres prior to attending a two-week CIC(TA) at Catterick.

Divisions of infantry[edit]

The majority of the infantry in the British Army is divided for administrative purposes into five divisions. These are not the same as the ready and regenerative divisions (see below), but are based on either the geographical recruiting areas of regiments, or the type of regiments:

A further division, the Light Division, grouped together the regiments of light infantry and rifles, until they were amalgamated into a single regiment in 2007.

Regular army[edit]

Guards DivisionScottish DivisionKing's DivisionPrince of Wales' DivisionQueen's Division
Grenadier GuardsThe Royal Regiment of ScotlandThe Duke of Lancaster's RegimentThe Mercian RegimentThe Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment
Coldstream GuardsThe Yorkshire RegimentThe Royal WelshThe Royal Regiment of Fusiliers
Scots GuardsThe Royal Irish RegimentThe Royal Anglian Regiment
Irish GuardsThe Royal Gibraltar Regiment
Welsh Guards

There are further infantry units in the army that are not grouped in the various divisions:

Territorial Army[edit]

British Army Infantry Organization (click to enlarge)
British Army Infantry Organization after Army 2020 reform (click to enlarge)

Types of infantry[edit]

Operations[edit]

Within the British Army, there are four main types of infantry:

Traditions[edit]

The infantry is traditionally divided into three types:

The tactical distinctions between infantry regiments disappeared in the late nineteenth century, but remain in tradition. In the order of precedence, the five regiments of foot guards are ranked above the ten regiments of traditional line infantry, who are ranked above the two remaining regiments of rifles.

Deployments[edit]

Postings, due to be completed in 2009:[2]

UK battalions[edit]

Overseas battalions[edit]

There are four locations that have a permanent British infantry presence: Germany, Cyprus and Brunei are home to battalions from the regular army, while Gibraltar has its own permanent home defence battalion. Other postings are usually roulement postings from either the UK, Germany or Cyprus.

Divisions and brigades[edit]

The British Army is administered through HQ Land Command, which has responsibility for the majority of army units. Most of these are organised into a total of five divisions, each of which has a number of brigades under its command.

1st (Armoured) Division3rd (UK) DivisionSupport Command
7 (Armoured) Brigade1 (Mechanised) Brigade15 (North East) Brigade2 (South East) Brigade16 (Air Assault) Brigade[note 1]
20 (Armoured) Brigade4 (Mechanised) Brigade42 (North West) Brigade49 (Wessex) Brigade49 (East) Brigade
12 (Mechanised) Brigade51 (Scottish) Brigade145 (South) Brigade143 (West Midlands) Brigade
19 (Light) Brigade38 (Irish) BrigadeAldershot Garrison160 (Welsh) Brigade
Catterick GarrisonBrunei GarrisonColchester Garrison
London District[note 2]
British Gurkhas Nepal

Battalions are attached permanently (semi-permanently for light role battalions) to formations:

Notes
  1. ^ 16 (Air Assault) Brigade is based at Colchester, which falls under the direction of 5 Division. However, when deployed, 16 Brigade forms part of the Joint Rapid Reaction Force.
  2. ^ London District is operationally separate from any higher formation, but for budgetary and administrative purposes comes under the remit of 4 Division.
  3. ^ 3 Commando Brigade is the main element of the United Kingdom Amphibious Force under the command of CINCFLEET. Command and logistics elements and three of the four infantry units assigned to this formation are provided by the Royal Marines, part of the Naval Service. Artillery and engineering support comes from attached Army units, together with the remaining infantry battalion.

Reorganisation[edit]

Delivering Security in a Changing World (2003)[edit]

HM Treasury asked for major cuts in the strength of the infantry in 2003, with at least ten battalions to be disbanded. This proved so unacceptable that, in November 2003, there was consideration to instead reducing each battalion to two rifle companies (with the third to come from the TA).[3] By March 2004, ECAB had shown that the maximum number of battalions it was possible to cut was four. This was finally officially announced as part of the army re-organisation. The arms plot system would be abolished; instead, individual battalions would be given fixed roles. To ensure that officers and men could continue to gain the variety of skills that the arms plot provided, the restructuring would also see a series of amalgamations of the remaining single battalion infantry regiments into large regiments. In addition, the regular army will lose four battalions. The roles are divided up as follows:

The reorganisation was a hybrid of the systems used to organise the regular infantry in Australia and Canada. Australia's regular infantry encompasses eight battalions in a single large regiment, the Royal Australian Regiment - this system is the one undertaken by the Scottish Division and the Light Division. Canada's regular infantry has three regiments each of three battalions, which is how the King's Division and the Prince of Wales' Division will be restructured (albeit with one regiment of three battalions and one of two battalions each).

In addition to the army's infantry battalions, there are three further battalion-sized commando infantry units, which are part of the Royal Marines, as well as eight field squadrons (each larger than an infantry company) of the RAF Regiment, who have responsibility for the ground defence of air assets and are under the control of the Royal Air Force.

The majority of infantry battalions are attached to one of the deployable brigades. However, there are a number of formations that exist to administer those infantry battalions that are not assigned to deployable brigades, but are instead available for independent deployment on roulement tours.

Guards Division[edit]

Each battalion in the five single battalion regiments of the Guards Division has a fixed role:

Two battalions will be assigned as general light role battalions, with the other two assigned to public duties. These battalions will periodically rotate roles and postings.

Scottish Division[edit]

The six battalions of the Scottish Division have amalgamated into a single five battalion regiment to be called the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

King's Division[edit]

The six battalions of the King's Division have amalgamated into two regiments;

Prince of Wales's Division[edit]

The original seven battalions of the Prince of Wales's Division have been reduced to five with the transfer of the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment and the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment to the Light Division. The five remaining battalions will amalgamate into two regiments;

Queen's Division[edit]

The three existing large regiments of the Queen's Division remain unaffected by the restructuring.

Light Division[edit]

The four current battalions of the Light Division in two regiments were augmented by two battalions from the Prince of Wales's Division in 2005. These two were amalgamated into a single battalion and then amalgamated with Light Infantry and the Royal Green Jackets to form a new five battalion regiment, called The Rifles. Upon its formation, the Light Division was abolished.[4]

Other infantry regiments[edit]

Royal Irish Regiment[edit]

The single regular battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment is unamalgamated to "retain an infantry footprint in Northern Ireland".

Royal Gurkha Rifles[edit]

The Royal Gurkha Rifles is unaffected by the restructuring. However, the UK based battalion has been integrated more fully with the rest of the infantry and trained in the air assault role.

Parachute Regiment[edit]

One battalion of the Parachute Regiment is the core of the "special forces support battalion", no longer part of the Infantry order of battle. The other two operate in the Airborne role.

Territorial Army[edit]

With the exception of the Royal Gurkha Rifles, every line infantry regiment has at least one TA battalion (the Royal Regiment of Scotland and The Rifles have two). The Guards Division has The London Regiment as an affiliated TA battalion.

Strategic Defence and Security Review (2010)/Army 2020[edit]

Following the 2010 General Election, the new government instituted a new defence review. The ultimate conclusion of this process was to reduce the size of the British Army from approximately 102,000 to approximately 82,000 by 2020. The detail of the process was subsequently announced as Army 2020 in July 2012. As part of this, the infantry was reduced in size from 36 regular battalions to 31. Of the five to be withdrawn, two were armoured infantry units, two general light infantry and one a specialist air assault infantry battalion. The withdrawal of two armoured infantry battalions is to bring this into line with the planned future operational structure, intended to see three "armoured infantry brigades", each with a pair of infantry battalions, forming the core of the Army's "reaction forces". These two battalions, along with the two light infantry battalions, will be disbanded and their personnel distributed among the remaining battalions of each regiment. The air assault battalion will be reduced to company strength, with the intention that it is assigned as a permanent public duties unit in Scotland.

The affected regiments were:

In addition, the Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd, 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment) will be transferred to the administration of the Prince of Wales' Division.

As a consequence, the make up of the regular infantry units once the changes have been made will be (until September 2016):

Armoured Infantry
Heavy Protected Mobility Infantry (Mastiff)
Air Assault Infantry
Light Protected Mobility Infantry (Foxhound)
Light Role Infantry
Public Duties
Brunei Light Role Infantry
Cyprus

In addition, the 1st Battalion, the Parachute Regiment remains as the core of the Special Forces Support Group.

The Guards Division regiments/Foot Guards will rotate amongst the roles of the Mastiff Battalion in 12th Armoured Infantry Brigade and the Light Protected Mobility Battalion in 11th Infantry Brigade.[12][13]

The two battalions in British Forces Cyprus will rotate as follows; 1 LANCS, 2 LANCS, 2 YORKS and 2 PWRR, 1 R ANGLIAN, 2 R ANGLIAN.[12]

The Territorial Army will be renamed as the Army Reserve. The following infantry battalions will remain under Army 2020:

Air Assault Infantry
Light Role Infantry

Other regiments[edit]

Disbanded regiments[edit]

Over time, a handful of infantry regiments have disappeared from the roll through disbandment rather than amalgamation. In the 20th Century, seven regiments disappeared like this:

Regiments that never were[edit]

Since the Cardwell reforms began, infantry regiments in the British Army have amalgamated on many occasions. However, there have been occasions where amalgamations have been announced, but have then been abandoned:

Fictional regiments[edit]

In recent years, there have been many depictions of the British Army of various periods in fiction. Two notable ones depicting the modern British Army have been Spearhead from the period of the late 1970s, and Soldier Soldier from the early to mid-1990s. Both are seen as reasonably accurate depictions of life in the army at those times, and both are centred on a fictional infantry regiment. The most recent depiction of the British Army came in the film The Mark of Cain, which featured an infantry regiment deployed to Iraq, and the difficulties it faced.

The Loamshire Regiment is used by the British Army as the placeholder name in the provision of examples for its procedures, for example in the method of addressing letters to members of the forces produced by the British Forces Post Office.

Order of precedence[edit]

Preceded by
Royal Corps of Signals
Order of precedenceSucceeded by
Special Air Service

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ War Office, His Majesty's Army, 1938
  2. ^ Information obtained from the MOD under Freedom of Information Act 2000
  3. ^ News - Telegraph
  4. ^ The Rifles - March 2006 situation report 2
  5. ^ http://www.dwr.org.uk/news.php?id=2&nw=239
  6. ^ a b c d e "Regular Army Basing Announcement". AFF. Retrieved 12March 2013. 
  7. ^ http://rwf-forum.co.uk/vBulletin/showthread.php?17113-Regimental-Update
  8. ^ http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/Army2020_Report.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/Army2020_Report.pdf page 7
  10. ^ a b http://www.theblackwatch.co.uk/index/cms-filesystem-action/rh/trh_35_nov_2012.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.rgbw-association.org.uk/newsletter2013.pdf
  12. ^ a b c http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/Army2020_Report.pdf page 9
  13. ^ http://www.aff.org.uk/linkedfiles/aff/latest_news_information/cregulararmybasingannouncementgridunclas.pdf page 5 footnote 10
  14. ^ Statement to Parliament revealing the "Two Battalion add back"
  15. ^ Hoon wins his regimental campaign Daily Telegraph 16/07/04
  16. ^ Sikh regiment dumped over 'racism' fears Daily Telegraph 24/06/07

External links[edit]