Indore

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Indore
Indur
—  Metropolis Town  —
Clockwise from top: IIM Indore, Holkar Cricket Stadium, Indore IT SEZ, Indore CBD, Rajwada, Indore Nightlife, and Indore High Court.
Indore is located in Madhya Pradesh
Indore
Location of Indore in Central India
Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.725298°N 75.865534°E / 22.725298; 75.865534Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.725298°N 75.865534°E / 22.725298; 75.865534
Country India
StateMadhya Pradesh
RegionMalwa
DistrictIndore District
Government
 • BodyIndore Municipal Corporation
 • MayorKrishna Murari Moghe (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerRakesh Singh
Area[1]
 • Total526 km2 (203 sq mi)
Area rank15
Elevation553 m (1,814 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total1,960,631
 • Rank14
 • Density9,718/km2 (25,170/sq mi)
DemonymIndorite
Languages
 • OfficialHindi,
 • OtherMalavi
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN452001
Telephone code0731
Vehicle registrationMP-09
Sex ratio0.920 /
Literacy87.38%[2]%
ClimateCfa (Köppen)
Precipitation945 millimetres (37.2 in)
Avg. annual temperature24.0 °C (75.2 °F)
Avg. summer temperature31 °C (88 °F)
Avg. winter temperature17 °C (63 °F)
Websitewww.indore.nic.in
 
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Indore
Indur
—  Metropolis Town  —
Clockwise from top: IIM Indore, Holkar Cricket Stadium, Indore IT SEZ, Indore CBD, Rajwada, Indore Nightlife, and Indore High Court.
Indore is located in Madhya Pradesh
Indore
Location of Indore in Central India
Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.725298°N 75.865534°E / 22.725298; 75.865534Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.725298°N 75.865534°E / 22.725298; 75.865534
Country India
StateMadhya Pradesh
RegionMalwa
DistrictIndore District
Government
 • BodyIndore Municipal Corporation
 • MayorKrishna Murari Moghe (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerRakesh Singh
Area[1]
 • Total526 km2 (203 sq mi)
Area rank15
Elevation553 m (1,814 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total1,960,631
 • Rank14
 • Density9,718/km2 (25,170/sq mi)
DemonymIndorite
Languages
 • OfficialHindi,
 • OtherMalavi
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
PIN452001
Telephone code0731
Vehicle registrationMP-09
Sex ratio0.920 /
Literacy87.38%[2]%
ClimateCfa (Köppen)
Precipitation945 millimetres (37.2 in)
Avg. annual temperature24.0 °C (75.2 °F)
Avg. summer temperature31 °C (88 °F)
Avg. winter temperature17 °C (63 °F)
Websitewww.indore.nic.in

Indore (/ɪnˈdɔər/, About this sound Indore.ogg) is the largest city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the most populous metropolitan area in central India. It serves the headquarters of both Indore District and Indore Division. A central power city, Indore exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment and has been described as the commercial capital of the state.

Located on the southern edge of Malwa Plateau, the city is located 190 km west of the state capital of Bhopal. With a Census-estimated 2011 population of 1,960,631[3] distributed over a land area of just (526 km2), Indore is the most densely populated major city in the central province. As more than 13 languages are spoken in Indore, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the central India[citation needed]. The Indore Metropolitan Area's population is the states' largest, with 2.2 million. It is the 14th largest city in India and 147th[4] largest city in the world.

Indore traces its roots to its 16th century founding as a trading hub between the Deccan and Delhi. The city and its surroundings came under Maratha Empire on 18 May 1724 after Maratha Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa. During the days of the British Raj it was a 19 Gun Salute (21 locally) princely state (a rare high rank) ruled by the Maratha Holkar dynasty, until they acceded to the Union of India.[5] Indore served as the capital of the Madhya Bharat from 1950 until 1956.

Indore's financial district, anchored by central Indore, functions as the financial capital of the Madhya Pradesh and is home to the Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange, the India's third oldest stock exchange. Indore's real estate market is among the most expensive in the state. Indore's Lokmanya Nagar incorporates the highest concentration of Marathi people in the Western city. Providing continuous 18 hour service, the Indore City Bus is one of the most popular bus transit systems in India. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Indore, including IIM Indore and IIT Indore, which are ranked among world's top institutions.

Contents

Etymology

Indore's name differ. According to the most popular theory, the present name of the city derives from its earlier name Indrapur in 1716, which was named after Lord Indra, the chief temple deity of Indreshwar temple in the city. The temple is said to have been constructed in 10th century by Parmar king Bhoja. During the Maratha reign, the city was renamed as "Indur" which is still used by local Marathi community. This name was eventually transliterated as "Indore" during the British rule in India.

History

Sculpture of a Holkar courtier from HH Maharani Ahilyabai Halkar's Durbar

Origins

The area of the modern Indore city was a part of the Kampel pargana (administrative unit) during the Mughal Empire.[6] Kampel was administered by the Ujjain sarkar (government) of Malwa Subah (province). The area was controlled by the local zamindars (feudal landlords), who accepted the suzerainty of the Mughal empire. The zamindars received the title of Chaudhari, which established their claim to the land.

The modern settlement was developed by Rao Nandlal Chaudhary (also known as Nandlal Mandloi,a ShriGaud Brahmin), the chief local zamindar. Nandlal, who had an army of 2000 soldiers. Under the Mughal rule, his family enjoyed great influence and was accorded confirmatory sanads by the Emperors Aurangzeb and Farrukhsiyar, confirming their jagir (land ownership) rights. When Nandlal visited the Mughal court at Delhi, he received a special place in the emperor's court along with two jewel studded swords (now on display in the Royal British Museum under the family's name) and confirmatory sanads. Raja Savai Jai singh of Jaipur, a personal friend of his, gifted him with a special "Gold Langar" which guaranteed a special place to him in all the courts of India.

In the mid-1710s, Nandlal was caught in the struggle between the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad (who had been appointed as the governor of the Deccan region by the Mughal emperor). Once, while visiting the Indreshwar Temple near the banks of river Saraswati, Nandlal found the location to be safe and strategically located, being surrounded by rivers on all sides. He started moving his people in, and constructed the fort of Shree Sansthan Bada Rawala to protect them from harassment by the warring forces. This marked the establishent of the present-day Indore city, which became an important trade center on the Delhi-Deccan route.

HH Tukoji Rao Holkar III, Maharaja of Indore (1890-1978) by James Lauder, London

Holkar era

By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana were transferred from Kampel to Indore, due to the increasing commercial activity in the city. On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth (taxes) from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa, and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar (Governor) of the province.[7] Nandlal Chaudhary accepted the suzerainty of the Marathas. During the Maratha rule, the Chaudharis came to be known as "Mandloi"s (derived from Mandals meaning districts). The Holkars conferred the title of Rao Raja upon Nandlal's family.[8] The family retained its possessions of royalty, in addition to the right of performing the first puja of Dushera (Shami Pujan) before the Holkar rulers. The respectability and influence of Nandlal's family in the region was instrumental in the ascent of the Peshwas and Holkars to rulership of this region.

On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder ruler of Holkar dynasty. His daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre.

During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II (1852–86) efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. With the introduction of Railways in 1875, the business in Indore flourished till the reign of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar.

The Throne room of Holkars in Lal Bagh Palace, Indore

British era

In 1818, the Holkars and Scindias were defeated by the British during the Third Anglo-Maratha War, in the Battle of Mahidpur by virtue of which the capital was again moved from Maheshwar to Indore A residency with British resident was established at Indore, but Holkars continued to rule mainly due to efforts of their Dewan Tatya Jog. During that time, Indore was established the headquarters of British Central Agency. In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, fire brigade was established in 1909 and in 1918, first master-plan of city was made by noted architect and town planner, Patrick Geddes.

Post Independence

After India's independence in 1947, Holkar State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states acceded to Indian Union. In 1948 with the formation of Madhya Bharat, Indore became the summer capital of state. On 1 November 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh, the state capital was shifted to Bhopal. Indore a nearly 2.1 million city today has transformed from a traditional commercial urban center into a modern dynamic commercial capital of the state.

Geography

Indore is located in the western region of Madhya Pradesh, on the southern edge of the Malwa plateau. It lies on the Saraswati and Khan rivers, which are tributaries of the Shipra River and has an average elevation of 553.00 meter above mean sea level. It is located on an elevated plain, with the Vindhyachal range to the south.

Apart from Yashwant Lake, there are many lakes that supply water to the city including Sirpur Tank, Bilawali Talab, Sukhniwas Lake and Piplyapala Talab. Soil cover in the city region is predominantly black. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely red and black. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black basalt, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. The area is classified as Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.

To the west, Indore borders the administrative district of Dhar with cities such as Pithampur and Betma; to the northwest with Hatod and Depalpur; to the north the Ujjain with Sawer; to the northeast the Dewas with Manglaya Sadak; to the southeast the city of Kampel and Simrol; to the south Khandwa with Mhow, Choral and Manpur. Together with these cities (and some larger nearby cities, e.g. Rau, Hatod, Rangwasa, Palda, Sinhasa) Indore forms a contiguous built-up urban area called Indore Metropolitan Region which is an unofficial administrative district.

Climate

Indore has a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) and tropical savanna climate (Aw). Three distinct seasons are observed: summer, monsoon and winter.

Summers start in mid-March and can be extremely hot in April and May. The daytime temperatures can touch 42 °C (108 °F) on more than one occasion. Average summer temperatures may go as high as 40 °C (104 °F) but humidity is very low.

Winters are moderate and usually dry. Lower temperatures can go as low as 4 °C (39 °F)-6 °C (43 °F) on some nights. Usually the temperature ranges between 8 to 26 °C during winters.

Rains are due to southwest monsoons. The typical monsoon season goes from 15 June till mid-September, contributing 32–35 inches of annual rains. 95% of rains occur during monsoon season.

Indore gets moderate rainfall of 35 to 38 inches (890 to 970 mm) during July–September due to the southwest monsoon.

Climate data for Indore
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33.7
(92.7)
36.6
(97.9)
40.5
(104.9)
43.4
(110.1)
45.2
(113.4)
43.9
(111.0)
38.3
(100.9)
35.6
(96.1)
38.5
(101.3)
37.5
(99.5)
34.6
(94.3)
31.3
(88.3)
45.2
(113.4)
Average high °C (°F)25.5
(77.9)
28.8
(83.8)
34.3
(93.7)
38.7
(101.7)
40.4
(104.7)
36.2
(97.2)
30.3
(86.5)
28.2
(82.8)
30.9
(87.6)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
26.9
(80.4)
31.86
(89.34)
Daily mean °C (°F)18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
25.3
(77.5)
30.0
(86.0)
32.4
(90.3)
30.1
(86.2)
26.5
(79.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.0
(78.8)
25.3
(77.5)
21.8
(71.2)
18.8
(65.8)
24.96
(76.92)
Average low °C (°F)9.2
(48.6)
11.4
(52.5)
16.2
(61.2)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.1
(70.0)
18.1
(64.6)
12.2
(54.0)
9.6
(49.3)
17.67
(63.80)
Record low °C (°F)2.4
(36.3)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
12.2
(54.0)
17.6
(63.7)
19.4
(66.9)
18.7
(65.7)
18.4
(65.1)
13.4
(56.1)
11.6
(52.9)
6.2
(43.2)
2.9
(37.2)
2.4
(36.3)
Precipitation mm (inches)4
(0.16)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
3
(0.12)
11
(0.43)
136
(5.35)
279
(10.98)
360
(14.17)
185
(7.28)
52
(2.05)
21
(0.83)
7
(0.28)
1,062
(41.81)
humidity46362523335879857350444850
Avg. precipitation days0.80.80.30.31.88.615.918.38.63.11.40.660.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours288.3274.4288.3306.0325.5210.0105.480.6180.0269.7273.0282.12,883.3
Source: HKO, NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity 1971-1990) [9]

Demographics

Religion in Indore
ReligionPercent
Hindus
  
82%
Muslims
  
14%
Jains
  
2%
Others†
  
1.50%
Christians
  
.50%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (1%), Buddhists (<0.5%).

Indore is the most populous city in the central India, with an estimated 2,160,631 residents as of 2011. As of the 2001 Indian Census, the city's population stood at a record high of 1,516,918, significantly greater than any other city from central province. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.[10] In 2010, the city had a population density of 25,170 people per square mile (9,718/km²), rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities with over 100,000 population in the Madhya Pradesh. As per 2011 census, the city of Indore has an average literacy rate of 87.38%, higher than the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 91.84%, and Female literacy was 82.55%[11] In Indore, 12.72% of the population is under 6 years of age (as per census 2011).[10] The average annual growth rate of population is around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001.

The Indore City metropolitan area is ethnically diverse. It is home to the large Jain community outside Gujarat ana Rajasthan. Indore contains the highest total Marathi population of any M.P. city proper, many of them living in the western part alone viz. Lokmanya Nagar and Rajendra Nagar. The Gujarati community also have a notable presence in the city which can be easily identified in the city culture. Indore has a high degree of income disparity. Ethnically, Hindi linguistics form major sub groups in the city followed by Marathi, Punjabis, Sindhis, Gujaratis and others. The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower income brackets. Indore is always ranked as the home to the highest number of billionaires in state.

Indore has the highest percentage of constant foreign migrants among Indian cities. As of now, around 10,000 Pakistani Hindus are migrated in state out of which nearly 6,000 are in Indore. More than 1,000 Pakistani immigrants arrive in the Indore area every year, no single nationality or culture dominates city's immigrant population, placing it among the most diverse cities in the India.[12]

Cityscape

Viewing westward to Vijay Nagar from Nipania suburb at dusk.

Architecture

Indore is all fascinating with the charm of its architectural grandeur and historical enigma. Indore has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods of Mughals, Maratha, Holkars and British era. These include the Rajwada Palace (1766), a blend of Maratha and Mughal styles with a giant wooden door covered with iron studs and seven storied entrance; Lal Bagh Palace, the grandest monument of Holkar dynasty reflecting the taste, grandeur and lifestyle of the Holkars with British flavor; Krishnapura Chhatris (cenotaphs), the royal tombs of typical Maratha style architecture with domes and pyramidal spires allures with its historical enigma.

Indore is the only city of Madhya Pradesh with a significant number of highrise buildings. Almost all the tall buildings of central India are located in Indore with many under construction in Nipania. Most of the high-rise buildings in Indore are located in the financial district of Vijay Nagar in the upper east city.

The tallest structure in Indore is the replica of Eiffel Tower at All India Radio campus, which rises 337 metres (1,106 ft). However, the observation tower is not generally considered a high-rise building as it does not have successive floors that can be occupied. The tallest habitable building in Indore is the Radisson Blu. The second-tallest building in the city is the Bombay Hospital while the tallest residential building are 3 residential towers in Navlakha. There are many landmarks in Indore which make it a tourist attraction.[13]

Parks and Recreation

The White tiger preserve in the Indore Zoo, the state's largest metropolitan zoo

Government and Jurisdiction

Collectorate, which serves as the administrative headquarters of the Indore District in Central Indore.

The administration of Indore is formed of two tiers—a city-wide, and a local tier. Most of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Indore Development Authority (IDA). IDA works as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Indore Metropolitan Region (IMR) comprising Indore and its agglomeration covering an area of 398.72 km2.

The IDA consists of two appointed components; the collector of district, who has executive powers, and the IDA Board which includes a chairman appointed by Government of Madhya Pradesh, Municipal Commissioner of Indore and five members form Town and Country Planning Department, Forest Department, Public Health Engineering, Public Works Department and MP Electricity Board who scrutinize the collector's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The headquarters of the IDA is Race Course Road, Indore; the current chairman is Shri Prabhat Parashar.

Indore City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor-council form of government. Indore Municipal Corporation (IMC) was established in 1956 under the Madhya Pradesh Nagar Palika Nigam Adhiniyam. The IMC is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, local planning and welfare services. The mayor and councillors are elected to five-year terms. The Indore Municipal Corporation is a unicameral body consisting of 69 Council members whose districts are divided into 12 zones and these zones have been further divided into 69 wards defined by geographic population boundaries.

Indore is also a seat for one of the two parmanent benches of Madhya Pradesh High Court with Gwalior, the city, its agglomerates and other 12 districts of western Madhya Pradesh falls under the jurisdiction of Indore High Court.

Infrastructure

Health and Medicine

Bombay Hospital is the largest private medical centre in central India

Indore is the centre of health care in central India. India's first medical institution, King Edward Medical School was established in the city in early 1848. The hospital is the first public hospital to be computerised and named after Yashwantrao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore, the last Holkar ruler. When it was re-inaugurated in 1955, it was Asia's largest government hospital with 1200 beds & till now it remained the largest public hospital in state. The 8 storied hospital building is surrounded by a group of its branch hospitals namely 300 bedded Chacha Nehru Children hospitals,100 bedded M.R TB hospital,100 bedded cancer hospital, a mental hospital and a medical college within the hospital campus.

Indore is home to 51 public health institutions, including 1 district hospital, 2 civil hospitals, 8 primary health center, 21 sub-health centers, 13 civil dispensaries, 2 poly clinics, 2 maternity home, 1 TB hospital and 1 TB sanatorium which is higher than any other city in state.[14] The city hosts a good number of private hospitals too. The prominent hospitals of Indore include Maharaja Yeshwantrao Hospital, Bombay Hospital, T. Choithram Hospital, CHL Apollo, and Dr Jafrey's Indore Chest Centre etc. and with the new additions like leading hospital brands including Fortis, Medanta and Max Hospitals it is all set to become a centre for quality health care treatment in years to come.[15]

Indore also has some specialized hospitals located outside of the core city. These hospitals include Choithram Netralaya for comprehensive eye care and the Bombay Hospital which is the largest private hospital in central India.

Transport

Air

Indore is served by the Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport, about 8 km from the city. It is the busiest airport in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and also serves as a hub for international cargo.[16] The new integrated international terminal was inaugurated in February 2012. The airport has been operating services by Air India, Jet Airways Konnect, Jet Airways, Jet Lite, IndiGo, SpiceJet connecting Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna, Pune, Raipur, Srinagar and Visakhapatnam.

The Indore airport has a history of its own. It was commissioned by the erstwhile ruler His Highness Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar II. He gave the construction work of the Indore airport to the pioneers of civil aviation in India - Tata & Sons - in 1935. Indore was connected to New Delhi & Bombay (Mumbai) on July 26, 1946 and was handed over to the central government on April 1, 1950.[citation needed] longest national highway in MadhyaPradesh passing through NH-3 {Agra-bombay} smallest national highway in MadhyaPradesh passing through NH-76 {jaipur-shivpuri}

Rail

The Indore Junction eastern entrance

The Indore Junction is an A-1 grade railway station with a revenue of more than Rs. 50 crore(500 million). The City Railway Division comes under Ratlam Division of the Western Railways. Indore Junction BG is the main and terminal station on the broad gauge line connecting it to the rest of the country. In the Railway budget of 2009 Indore main railway station was listed for upgrade along with other 300 stations across India. Indore is directly connected to the metro cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Lucknow and Jaipur.

Indore is one of the several places in India with both meter gauge and broad gauge railways operational. Regular train services connect Indore to most parts of the country. Electrification of the Indore – DewasUjjain is completed in June 2012.

Indore lies on the Ratlam and Akola metre gauge railway line, the longest remaining functional meter gauge line in India. This section is scheduled for conversion to standard broad gauge under Indian Railways' projected Unigauge system.

The Indore Junction western entrance

The city of Indore has 10 other railway stations which are:

Station NameStation CodeRailway ZoneTotal Platforms
Indore Junction MGINDMWest Central Railway5
Indore Lakshmibai NagarILBNWestern Railway3
Indore Rajendra NagarRJQWestern Railway3

Road

Indore is connected to other parts of India through national and state highways. The major national highways passing through the city are:

The Mumbai- Indore section of the National Highway No. 3 and the Ahmedabad – Indore section of the National Highway No. 59 are undergoing multi laning under the NHDP program.

Other important regional highways passing through the city are:

Local transport

Metro Taxi in Indore

Indore has a well developed transport system. Atal Indore City Transport Services Ltd, a PPP scheme operates buses and radio taxis in the city. The buses – designated as City Bus today operate on 36 Routes, with around 170 bus stop stations. The buses are color coded according to their route.

Indore BRTS is a bus rapid transit system under construction (as of 2012). It has 6 corridors, which will have air-conditioned (AC) and non-AC buses. Some of these buses are also equipped with services like GPS and IVR (around 300) which are used to track the position of the bus with information displayed on LED displays installed on the bus stops. Noted writer Gurcharan Das wrote in his blog on how Indore's bus service could prove to be helpful in solving New Delhi's bus transport problems.[17] Gurcharan writes "Indore is now quoted (with Bogota) as having the best bus service in the world".

Taxis

Metro Taxi service of Indore is supposed to be best in India. It includes Government run Maruti Suzuki SX4 Cars, which are GPS enabled and air conditioned. These taxis can always be found outside the major stations, at the central station, the bus stations, the airport and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets. The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.

Local transport also includes auto rickshaw, vans and local buses called Nagar Seva. Many cab services serve the city, including City Cabs and Star Cab. The major bus terminals are Sarwate bus terminal, Gangwal bus terminal, Navlakha bus stand and Vijaya Nagar bus stand.

Economy

By virtue of its population and role as the administrative center for business, Indore dominates the Central Indian economy. With a bulk of its trade coming from Small, Mid and Large scale manufacturing & service industries, Indore’s function as the State’s commercial capital, its economic base and population size have also created development opportunities for many other businesses oriented to local or more diversified markets. Industries in Indore range from Automobile to Pharmaceutical and from Software to Retail and from Textile trading to Real estate. The city also host prestigious Global Investors' Summit which attract investors from 21 countries, including the US, Australia, Japan, Singapore, the UK, Germany and Finland.

Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange (MPSE) originally set up in 1919 is the only exchange in Central India and the third oldest stock exchange in India is located in Indore an now the National Stock Exchange (NSE) established an Investor Service Center in the city.[18] Industrial employment influenced the economic geography of Indore. After 1956 merger, Indore experienced suburban expansion aided by high levels of car ownership. Workforce decentralization and transport improvements made it possible for the establishment of small-scale manufacturing in the suburbs. Many firms took advantage of relatively cheap land to build spacious, single-storey plants in suburban locations where parking, access and traffic congestion were minimal.

Major industrial areas surrounding the city include the Pithampur Special Economic Zone and the Sanwer Industrial belt. Pithampur is also known as the Detroit of India.[19][20] Pithampur industrial area houses many production plants of various Pharmaceutical companies like Ipca Laboratories, Cipla, Lupin, Glenmark, Unichem and big auto companies prominent among these are Force Motors, Volvo Eicher commercial, Avtec, Mahindra 2 wheelers Ltd.

While the Textile manufacturing and Trading is the oldest business to contribute to economy, the Real Estate has emerged very fast in past few years. National Real Estate Players DLF Limited, Suncity (ZEE Group), Omaxe, Sahara, Parsvnath, Ansal API, Emaar MGF have already launched their residential projects in Indore. These projects are generally on the Indore bypass. This road also houses the projects of many local and regional Real estate players like Silver spring, Kalindi, Milan Heights etc.

Infosys is setting up new development centre at Indore at an investment of Rs 100 crore in phase one at Super corridor.[21] Infosys demanded an area of 2000 Acres to open its new branch in Indore which will employ about 80,000 people. TCS and Collabera have also announced plans to open campuses in Indore. The government of MP has also done the land allotment.[22] Besides these, there are several small and medium size software development firms in Indore.

Education

Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, also known as "DAVV" in popular culture and formerly known as University of Indore is a renowned university in Indore with several colleges operating under its aegis. It has two campuses within the city, one at Takshila Parisar (near Bhavarkuan Square)and another at Rabindra Nath Tagore Road, Indore. The university runs several departments including School of Law (SoL), Educational Multimedia Research Centre (EMRC), International Institute of Professional Studies (IIPS), School of Pharmacy and School of Journalism. The huge campus is replete with several other research and educational departments, many hostels, playgrounds and cafes aiming to provide a fulfilling experience to its students.

Indore is home to several other educational institutions of immense importance and repute. It is the only city in India to house both Indian Institute of Management and Indian Institute of Technology.

The Daly College, founded in 1881, is one of the oldest co-educational boarding school in the world.[23] The Holkar Science College, officially known as Government Model Autonomous Holkar Science College was established in 1891.[24]

The Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College (MGMMC) is another old institution, and was formerly known as the King Edward Medical College.[25] Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science (SGSITS) is an engineering college, established in 1952.

Media

Several state newspapers and national media houses have their regional offices in Indore.

Print media

There are about 20 Hindi dailies, 7 English dailies, 26 weeklies and monthlies, 4 quarterlies, 2 Bi-monthly Magazine, one annual paper, and one monthly Hindi language educational tabloid named "Campus Diary" published from the city.India's only magazine on pump industry Pumps India & valve magazine Valves India is published from here.[26] The major Hindi dailies include the:- Raj Express, Nai Dunia, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Patrika, BPN Times, Agnibaan, & PrabhatKiran and SatyaRaj. The major English dailies are The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Free Press, Business Standard, The Economic Times, and DNA .

Indore is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. There are three fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Reliance and Airtel. There are eight mobile phone companies in which GSM players include BSNL, Reliance, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Videocon Mobile Service while CDMA services offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom, and Reliance.

Electronic media

Doordarshan Tower, Indore

Digicable is one of the largest Cable distribution company with 70% coverage of the city. it's central region head office is in Indore and digi cable having Total 8 channels.

Food and Culture

The Vijay Balla ("Victory Bat") made out of concrete with names of the players of the Indian team who won the test series against England (1971) and West Indies(1972)

Indore has a relatively more cosmopolitan culture, compared to other cities in Madhya Pradesh. Indore was included in holding two Guinness Book of World Records for the largest tea party in the world and for making the largest burger of the world.[27]

Indore has a wide variety of Namkeens, Poha & Jalebi, Chaats (snacks), Kachoris and Samosas, cuisines of various types in different restaurants, and Bengali, Muslim, Mughlai, Rajasthani, continental and confectionery sweets, as well as local delicacies such as Dal-Bafla. Most important place in Indore for Foodies is Sarafa Bazar, where a wide range of Indian Fast food is available. Chhappan Dukan is a major food junction in Indore, where the youth & family gathers on the road side shops for Indian Snacks. Generally, Namkeen is served on top of a variety of food items served in Indore.

The life in Indore starts early with chuskis of 'Chai' (tea) with 'garam garam poha & Jalebi' followed by delicious lunch which invariably includes popular 'besan preparations'. Later in the day one can easily find snacks like 'Khaman', 'Kachori – aaloo kachori, dal kachori etc.', 'samosa', 'petis', 'Baked Samosa', 'Bhel puri',' Pani Puri', 'mathri' etc. Numerous Shops of Sweets have enjoyed nice business in Indore. Late nights another market comes alive at 11:00 pm in Sarafa (the heart of city) where one finds lot of delicacies to enjoy after a nice dinner like – 'Gajak','Bhutta kis', 'Gulab Jamoon', 'garadu', 'Rabri', 'HOT BOILED MILK', 'aalo tikiya', 'Halua : – Gajar, Moong', icecreams, 'shakes' etc. and finally tasty 'paan' to end your day.

Specialities:

Sweets:Moong ka Halwa, Gajar ka Halwa, Rabri, Maalpua, Faluda kulfi, Gulab Jamoon, Ras-Malai, RasGulla, All Bengali Sweets available at Sarafa & 56 Shops at Palasia.

Namkeen : Sev with all its varieties, Mixture, Dhania-Chivda, Dal Moth,Papdi, Gathiya, Khaman, Kachori-Samosa,Petis, Garadu, Aalo Tikiya, Pani-Puri, Bhel-Puri, Saboodana Khichadi, Dahi Bada, Pakoda, Bhutte ka Kis,poha.

Sheetal Pey : Shikanji (milk preparation + dry fruits), Lassi, Cold Milk, Hot Boiled Milk with Malai & dry fruits+keshar, Jal-Jira, Nimboo Shikanji, Fruit Juice,Shakes, Icecream Soda, Santrola.

Arts and theatre

Ravindra Natya Grah, Abhivyakti Centre of Fine Arts & Performing Arts, Deolalikar Kala Vithika and Jal Sabha Grah are major art centres located in the city. There are also various cultural clubs like Sanand Nyas, Ras Bharati, Kala Abhivyakti, Yeshwant Club and Sayaji Club.

Sports

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the city. Indore is also home to the Madhya Pradesh Cricket Association (MPCA) and Madhya Pradesh cricket team team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy. The city is also represented by the Kochi Tuskers in the Indian Premier League. The city has two international cricket grounds, the Nehru Stadium and the Holkar Cricket Stadium. The first cricket ODI match in state was played in Indore at Nehru Stadium. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the 2011 ODI which was played at the Holkar Stadium.[28]

Beside cricket, Indore is also a center for many national and international championships. The city hosted the South Asian Billiard Championship and is a host to the three-day-long National Triathlon Championship, in which nearly 450 players and 250 sports officials belonging to 23 states take part in the action.[29] The city has many sports stadium and sports complexes: a basketball complex, opposite Holkar cricket stadium, a table-tennis hall, a Small stadium near Nehru stadium, the Khalsa school stadium, the Maharajah school stadium and others.

Festivals

All national festivals such as Holi, Gangaur, Teej, Rangpanchmi, Baisakhi, Raksha Bandhan, Mahavir jayanti, Navratri, Durga puja, Dussehra, Ganesh Utsav, Deepavali, Ramzan, Gudi Padwa, Bhaidooj, Eid, Christmas, Bahai Navruz on 21 March and others like Nagpanchmi, Ahilya Utsav, are celebrated with equal enthusiasm. There are many shiva temples in Indore; Mahashivratri is celebrated to a large extent in Indore.

Entertainment

Indore has many malls and cinema halls. Much new entertainment will be seen in Indore in the coming months when the city will gain a roller-coster ride, a drop tower, and go-karting track along with many new sources of entertainment. Often there are circuses and magic shows set up at different places which are good sources of entertainment.[30]

Cinema

Cinema is the most popular medium of entertainment in Indore as well as in the whole country. There are a number of cinema halls in the city, namely PVR, Mangal BIG, INOX Central, INOX sapna-sangeeta, Broadway, Satyam, K sera sera, Velocity, Regal, and others.

Malls

Treasure Island Mall, the first mall in Madhya Pradesh

Indore is host to many malls, which provide variety and comfort to the visitors. Treasure Island, Mangal City mall, Indore Central mall, C21 mall, Malhar mega mall, Orbit mall are very well known. In 2011, a branch of bharti wallmart, named Best Price, also opened for shopkeepers to buy goods at cheaper prices. It has received a good response from shopkeepers of the nearby districts such as Dewas, Ujjain and Dhar.

Tourism

Religious places

Citizens of Indore city and other nearby cities have great faith in the Khajrana Temple. This temple is made by Ahilyabai Holkar. This is an important place of Hindus.

Indore is historically attached to Sikhism. It has numerous Gurudwaras. Gurdwara Imli Sahib is Sikh shrine situated in Indore. In the year, 1568 Guru Nanak Dev Ji in the way of his itinerary diverted from southern states to the north-west and reached Indore. It is centrally located and innumerable devotees assure spiritual knowledge, peace and bliss here.

Gurdwara Charan Paduka Betma Sahib is situated in the small village of Betma. Betma is a town and a nagar panchayat in Indore district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Betma Sahib is one of the pious gurudwaras of historical significance for Sikhs, as it is believed that Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited this place during his southern Udasi.

Annapurna is a very beautiful and one of the oldest temples in Indore. Dedicated to the goddess Annapoorna, this temple is one among the famous pilgrimage centres in Indore. Not only devotees, but also tourists come to see this majestic shrine. This temple bears a resemblance to the famous Madurai Meenakshi Temple of Madurai. Inside the temple premises there exist shrines of Sivan, Hanuman, and Kalabhairava. The Pravachan Hall of the temple is also very famous. Four full sized elephants embrace this temple’s highly ornamented gate. An architectural splendor, the outer wall of the temple is brightly decorated with beautiful images of legendary characters. An architectural marvel, Annapoorna Temple in Indore is a worthy for a short visit. This temple is situated Near DashaHara Maidan, Annapurna Road, Indore.

Bada Ganapati

The Bada Ganpati temple is a very ancient temple and widely known for the size of the Ganesh idol. This temple was built in 1875 by Shri Dadhich. The idol is said to be the size of 25 Foot from head to crown. This temple is located near the heart of the city Rajwada also known as Holkar Palace.

This is an excellent set of Jain temples built on the top of Gommatesher Hill. The main attraction is 24 feet tall statue of Lord Bahubali, and 24 others temples for each of the 24 jain tirthankars.

The Kanch Mandir also known as Glass Temple is an exquisite example of a marvel in glass. This Jain Temple also known as Jain Mandir was built by Sir Seth Hukum Chand Jain (Kasliwal) in the early 20th century.It is located in the Itwaria Market. The speciality of this temple is that its doors, pillars, ceilings and walls are entirely inlaid with glass with minute detailing. It is one of the most famous tourist attraction of the city. The temple also has paintings which are depicting stories from the Jain scriptures. The top of the temple multiplies the three statues of Lord Mahavir which makes this temple more beautiful place.

Nearby attractions

Patalpani waterfall

There are various places which tourists and citizens of Indore like to visit for weekends and occasion or Holidays.

Paatal Paani

This tourist attraction is famous for its beauty in Monsoon Season. It is 36 km from Indore towards Mhow. It is very beautiful place for enjoying the weekend.

Sitala mata fall

This tourist attraction is famous for its Water Falls in Monsoon Season. It is very beautiful place for enjoying the weekend.

Choral Fall

Choral has the wonderful Water Falls in Monsoon Season. People go there specially in Mansoon Sesson for enjoying the weekend. Its situated on Khandwa Road, near Gram Simrol.

-:Chambal River-:

    Chambal river originates from Janapao hills near Indore, which is the 2nd longest river of Madhya Pradesh after Narmada. 

Notable people from Indore

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Literacy rate". Web.archive.org. 16 June 2004. http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/306-indore.html. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
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  20. ^ Trivedi, Shashikant (9 July 2004). "Pithampur units face bleak future". Business Standard. http://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?autono=153051. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
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  22. ^ "TCS Indore campus". Dainik Bhaskar. http://daily.bhaskar.com/article/MP-IND-tcs-indore-campus-gathers-momentum-three-quarters-land-acquired-2238693.html. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
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Further reading

External links