Indonesian language

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Indonesian
Bahasa Indonesia
Native toIndonesia
East Timor
Native speakers
23 million  (2000)[1]
Over 140 million L2 speakers (no date)
Latin (Indonesian alphabet)
Indonesian Braille
Sistem Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia
Official status
Official language in
Indonesia
Regulated byBadan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Language codes
ISO 639-1id
ISO 639-2ind
ISO 639-3ind
Glottologindo1316[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
 
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This article is about the official language of Indonesia. For an overview of all languages used in Indonesia, see Languages of Indonesia.
"Phasa" redirects here. For other uses, see Bahasa.
Indonesian
Bahasa Indonesia
Native toIndonesia
East Timor
Native speakers
23 million  (2000)[1]
Over 140 million L2 speakers (no date)
Latin (Indonesian alphabet)
Indonesian Braille
Sistem Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia
Official status
Official language in
Indonesia
Regulated byBadan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Language codes
ISO 639-1id
ISO 639-2ind
ISO 639-3ind
Glottologindo1316[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia [baˈhasa.indoneˈsia]) is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language which has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Most Indonesians also speak one of more than 700 indigenous languages.[3][4]

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.[5]

Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are often fluent in another regional language (examples include Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese) which are commonly used at home and within the local community. Most formal education, and nearly all national media and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. In East Timor, which was an Indonesian province from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.

The Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally "the language of Indonesia"). This term is occasionally found in English. Additionally, English speakers sometimes use "Bahasa" /bəˈhɑːsə/ to refer to both the standard languages of Indonesia (Bahasa Indonesia) and of Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore (Bahasa Melayu), though the Malay word simply means "language".

Speakers and geographic distribution[edit]

Map of where Indonesian is predominantly spoken. Dark blue: as a majority language. Light blue: as a minority language.

Indonesian has 23 million native speakers and 140 million second language speakers,[6] who speak it alongside their local mother tongue. It is used extensively as a first language by Indonesians in urban areas, and as a second language by those residing in more rural parts of Indonesia.

The VOA and BBC use Indonesian as their standard for broadcasting in Malay.[7][8] In Australia, Indonesian is one of three Asian target languages, together with Japanese and Mandarin, taught in some schools as part of the Languages Other Than English programme.[9]

History[edit]

Indonesian is a standardized register of "Riau Malay",[10][11] which despite its common name is not the Malay dialect native to Riau, but rather the Classical Malay of the Malaccan royal courts.[12] Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra,[13] Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium. Although it might be attributed to its ancestor, the Old Malay language (which can be traced back to the 7th century), the Kedukan Bukit Inscription is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the language used by Srivijayan empire. Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language has been used in Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago), marked by Srivijaya inscriptions and in other inscriptions of coastal areas of the archipelago, such as those discovered in Java. Trade contacts carried on by some ethnic peoples at the time was the main vehicle to spread the Old Malay language, as it was the communication device amongst the traders. By that time, the Old Malay language had become a lingua franca and was spoken widely by most people in the archipelago.[14][15]

Indonesian was elevated to the status of official language with the Indonesian declaration of independence in 1945, drawing inspiration from the Sumpah Pemuda (Youth's Oath) event in 1928.[16] Indonesian (in its standard form) is essentially the same language as the official Malaysian and Brunei standards of Malay. However, it does differ from Malaysian in several aspects, with differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. These differences are due mainly to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian. Indonesian was also influenced by the "Melayu pasar" (literally "market Malay") that was the lingua franca of the archipelago in colonial times, and thus indirectly by other spoken languages of the islands. Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. The question of whether High Malay (Court Malay) or Low Malay (Bazaar Malay) was the true parent of the Indonesian language is still in debate. High Malay was the official language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga, while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports in archipelago. Some linguists have argued that it was the more-common Low Malay that formed the base of the Indonesian language.[17]

Whilst Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who reside within the vicinity of Jakarta and other large predominantly Indonesian-speaking cities such as Medan and Balikpapan), over 200 million people regularly make use of the national language, with varying degrees of proficiency. In a nation which boasts more than 300 native languages and a vast array of ethnic groups, it plays an important unifying and cross-archipelagic role for the country. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, amongst members of the Indonesian upper-class or nobility and also in many other formal situations.

Standard and formal Indonesian is used in books and newspapers and on television/radio news broadcasts; however, few native Indonesian speakers use the formal language in their daily conversations. While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to written standards), the degree of "correctness" of spoken Indonesian (in terms of grammar and vocabulary) by comparison to its written form is noticeably low.[citation needed] This is mostly due to[citation needed] Indonesians combining aspects of their own local languages (e.g., Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, and Chinese dialects) with Indonesian. This results in various "regional" Indonesian dialects, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is amplified by the use of Indonesian slang, particularly in the cities.

Official status[edit]

Indonesian is official language in Indonesia, used in all aspects, such as education. Ujian Nasional (national examination) is written in Indonesian and the language itself is one of the examination subjects.
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazine. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use proper Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.

The status of Indonesian language is the official language of the Republic of Indonesia, thus its usage is encouraged throughout Indonesia. The Constitution of Indonesia 1945 Chapter XV specifies the flag, official language, coat of arms, and national anthem of Indonesia.[18] The Indonesian law No. 24 year 2009 Chapter III Section 25 to 45 mentioned specifically about Indonesian language status.[19] The function of Indonesian language is as the national identity, national pride, and unifying language among diverse Indonesian ethnic groups, and also serves as a communication vehicle among Indonesian provinces and different regional cultures in Indonesia.[19] The language is used as national official language, the language for education, communication, transaction and trade documentation, used for the development of national culture, science, technology, and mass media in Indonesia. It has become one of the national symbols of Indonesia.

According to Indonesian law, the Indonesian language is the language proclaimed as the unifying language during Sumpah Pemuda in 28 October 1928, developed further to accommodate the dynamics of Indonesian civilization.[19] It was mentioned that the language was based on Riau Malay,[6][10] though linguists note that this is not the local dialect of Riau, but the Malaccan dialect that was used in the Riau court.[12] Since its conception in 1928 and its official recognition in 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian language has been loaded with nationalist political agenda on unifying Indonesia (former Dutch East Indies). This status has made Indonesian language relatively open to accommodate influences from other Indonesian ethnics' languages, most notably Javanese as the majority ethnic group in Indonesia, and Dutch as the previous colonizer. As a result, Indonesian has wider sources of loanwords, as compared to Malay. It was suggested that the Indonesian language is an artificial language made official in 1928. By artificial it means that Indonesian was designed by academics rather than evolving naturally as most common languages have,[20] in order to accommodate the political purpose of establishing an official unifying language of Indonesia. By borrowing heavily from numerous other languages it expresses a natural linguistic evolution; in fact, it is as natural as the next language, as demonstrated in its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary.[20]

The disparate evolution of Indonesian and Malaysian has led to a rift between the two standards. This has been based more upon political nuance and the history of its standardization than on cultural reasons, and as a result there are asymmetrical views regarding each other's standard among Malaysians and Indonesians. In Malaysia, the national language is Malaysian; in Indonesia, it is Indonesian. The Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely variants of the same language, while the Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit related, languages. The result of this attitude is that the Indonesians feel little need to harmonize their language with Malaysia and Brunei, whereas the Malaysians are keener to coordinate the evolution of the language with the Indonesians.[21] although the 1972 Indonesian alphabet reform was largely a concession of Dutch-based Indonesian to the English-based spelling of Malaysian.

Writing system[edit]

Indonesian is written with the Latin script. It was originally based on the Dutch spelling and still bears some similarities to it. Consonants are represented in a way similar to Italian, although c is always /tʃ/ (like English ch), g is always /ɡ/ ("hard") and j represents /dʒ/ as it does in English. In addition, ny represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/, ng is used for the velar nasal /ŋ/ (which can occur word-initially), sy for /ʃ/ (English sh) and kh for the voiceless velar fricative /x/. Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with e.

Spelling changes in the language that have occurred since Indonesian independence include:

PhonemeObsolete
spelling
Current
spelling
/u/oeu
//tjc
//djj
/j/jy
/ɲ/njny
/ʃ/sjsy
/x/chkh

Introduced in 1901, the van Ophuijsen system, (named from the advisor of the system, Charles Adriaan van Ophuijsen) was the first standardization of romanized spelling. It was most influenced by the then current Dutch spelling system. In 1947, the spelling was changed into Republican Spelling or Soewandi Spelling (named by at the time Minister of Education, Soewandi). This spelling changed formerly-spelled oe into u (however, the spelling influenced other aspects in orthography, for example writing reduplicated words). All of the other changes were a part of the Perfected Spelling System, an officially-mandated spelling reform in 1972. Some of the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography) do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia is still sometimes written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta.

Vocabulary[edit]

A modern dialect of Malay, Indonesian has also borrowed from other languages, including other Austronesian languages, Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, and Chinese. It is estimated that there are some 750 Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indonesian, 1,000 Arabic loans, some of Persian and Hebrew origin, some 125 words of Portuguese (also Spanish and Italian) origin and 10,000 loanwords from Dutch[22] The vast majority of Indonesian words, however, come from the root lexical stock of its Austronesian (incl. Old Malay) heritage.[citation needed]

Loan words[edit]

The study of Indonesian etymology and loan words reveals both its historical and social contexts. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings (probably during the Srivijaya period), the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and the ones from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked.[23]

Loan words of Sanskrit origin[edit]

The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India since ancient times. The words were either borrowed directly from India or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit which was the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem and is comparable with the status of Latin in English and other Western European languages. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms, these are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived as foreign. From Sanskrit came such words as भाषा bahasa (language), काच kaca (glass, mirror), राज- raja (king), मनुष्य manusia (mankind), भूमि bumi (earth/ world), आगम agama (religion), स्त्री Istri (wife/woman), जय Jaya (victory/victorious), पुर Pura (city/temple/place), रक्षस Raksasa (giant/monster), धर्म Dharma (rule/regulations), मन्त्र Mantra (words/poet/spiritual prayers), क्षत्रिय Satria (warrior/brave/soldier), विजय Wijaya[disambiguation needed] (greatly victorious/great victory), etc. Sanskrit words and sentences are also used in names, titles, and mottoes of the Indonesian National Police and Indonesian Armed Forces such as: Bhayangkara, Laksamana, Jatayu, Garuda, Dharmakerta Marga Reksyaka, Jalesveva Jayamahe, Kartika Eka Paksi, Swa Bhuwana Paksa, Rastra Sewakottama, Yudha Siaga, etc. The Sanskrit words also still makes the Indonesian language more powerful in meaning from the usage of the National Armed Forces titles such as (above) and more meanings that also contributes to official and formal languages of Indonesia.

Loan words of Arabic origin[edit]

The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam, and with, by extension, greetings:for example, the word, "selamat" (from Arabic: السلامsalaam = peace) means "safe" or "lucky". Words of Arabic origin include dunia (from Arabic: دنياdunya = the present world), names of days (except Minggu), such as Sabtu (from Arabic: السبتas-sabt = Saturday), iklan (آعلان i'lan = advertisement), kabar (خبر ḵabar = news), Kursi (كرسي kursiiy = a chair), selamat/ salam (سلام salām = a greeting), jumat (الجمعة al-jumʿa = Friday), ijazah (إجازة ijāza = vacation), kitab (كتاب kitāb = book), tertib (ترتيب tartīb = orderly) and kamus (قاموس qāmūs = dictionary). Allah (Arabic: الله‎), as it is mostly the case for Arabic speakers, is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations this practice is discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa (Arabic: عيسى‎), but is now spelt as Yesus. Several ecclesiastical terms derived from Arabic still exist in Indonesian language. Indonesian word for bishop is uskup (from Arabic: اسقفusquf = bishop). This in turn makes the Indonesian term for archbishop uskup agung (literally great bishop), which is combining the Arabic word with an Old Javanese word. The term imam (from Arabic: امامimām = leader, prayer leader) is used to translate a Catholic priest, beside its more common association with an Islamic prayer leader. Some Protestant denominations refer to their congregation jemaat (from Arabic: جماعةjamā'a = group, community). Even the name of the Bible in Indonesian translation is Alkitab (from Arabic: كتابkitāb = book), which literally means "the Book".

Loan words of Chinese origin[edit]

The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just things exclusively Chinese.[citation needed] Words of Chinese origin (presented here with accompanying Hokkien/ Mandarin pronunciation derivatives as well as traditional and simplified characters) include pisau (匕首 bǐshǒu  – knife), loteng, (樓/層 = lóu/céng – [upper] floor/ level), mie (麵 > 面 Hokkien mī – noodles), lumpia (潤餅 (Hokkien = lūn-piáⁿ) – springroll), cawan (茶碗 cháwǎn – teacup), teko (茶壺 > 茶壶 = cháhú [Mandarin], teh-ko [Hokkien] = teapot), 苦力 kuli = 苦 khu (bitter) and 力 li (energy) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu (from the Hokkien 'goa' 我 and 'lu/li' 你 – meaning 'I/ me' and 'you').

Loan words of Portuguese origin[edit]

Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail eastwards to the "Spice Islands". Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia.[citation needed] Indonesian words derived from Portuguese include meja (from mesa = table), boneka (from boneca = doll), jendela (from janela = window), gereja (from igreja = church), bendera (from bandeira = flag), sepatu (from sapato = shoes), keju (from queijo = cheese), mentega (from manteiga = butter), and Minggu (from domingo = Sunday).[24]

Loan words of Dutch origin[edit]

The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left a sizable amount of vocabulary that can be seen in words such as polisi (from politie = police), kualitas (from kwaliteit = quality), rokok (from roken = smoking cigarettes), korupsi (from corruptie = corruption), kantor (from kantoor = office), resleting (from ritssluiting = zipper) and gratis (from gratis = free). These Dutch loanwords, and many other non-Italo-Iberian, European language loanwords which came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by insertion of the schwa. For example Dutch schroef [ˈsxruf] > sekrup [səˈkrup] (screw (n.)).

As modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there are many synonyms. For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i.e. pustaka (from Sanskrit), kitab (from Arabic) and buku (from Dutch boek); however, each has a slightly different meaning.[citation needed] A pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or sometimes with esoteric knowledge. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral guidance. The Indonesian words for the Bible and Gospel are Alkitab and Injil, both directly derived from Arabic. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab. Buku is the most common word for books.

There are direct borrowings from various other languages of the world, such as "karaoke" (カラオケ) from Japanese, and "modem" from English.

Gender[edit]

Generally Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only selected words that use natural gender. For instance, the same word is used for he/him and she/her (dia/ia) or for his and her (dia/ia/-nya). No real distinction is made between "girlfriend" and "boyfriend", both pacar (although more colloquial terms as cewek girl/girlfriend and cowok boy/boyfriend can also be found). A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. However, unlike English, distinction is made between older or younger. For example, adik refers to a younger sibling of either sex and kakak refers to an older sibling, again, either male or female. In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an adjective must be added. Thus, adik laki-laki corresponds to "younger brother" but really means "male younger sibling".

There are some words that have gender, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son" and also pramugara means "air steward" (male flight attendant) and pramugari meaning "air stewardess" (female flight attendant). Another example would be olahragawan, which equates to "sportsman", and olahragawati, meaning sportswoman. Often, words like these (or certain suffixes such as "-a" and "-i" or "-wan" and "wati") are absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit through the Old Javanese language). In some regions of Indonesia such as Sumatera and Jakarta, abang (a gender-specific term meaning "older brother") is commonly used as a form of address for older siblings/ males, whilst kakak (a non-gender specific term meaning "older sibling") is often used to mean "older sister". Similarly, more direct influences from dialects such as Javanese and Chinese languages have also seen further use of other gendered words in Indonesian. For example: Mas (Jav. = older brother), M'bak (Jav. = older sister), Koko (older brother) and Cici (older sister).

Colloquial Indonesian[edit]

Further information: Indonesian slang language

The most common and widely-used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by Betawi language, a Malay-based creole of Jakarta, amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital. In informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less formal nature. For example tidak (no) is often replaced with the Javanese nggak whilst seperti (like, similar to) is often replaced with kayak (pronounced kai-yah). Sangat or amat (very), the term to express intensity, is often being replaced with Javanese-influenced banget.

As for pronunciation, the diphthongs ai and au on the end of base words are typically pronounced as /e/ and /o/. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. For example, capai becomes cape or capek, pakai becomes pake, kalau becomes kalo.

In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal consonant is often retained, as when mengangkat becomes ngangkat (the basic word is angkat). The suffixes -kan and -i are often replaced by -in. For example, mencarikan becomes nyariin, menuruti becomes nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to the Indonesian spoken in Jakarta and its surrounding areas.

Indonesian for speakers of other languages[edit]

Over the past few years, interest in learning Indonesian has grown among non-Indonesians.[25] Various universities have started to offer courses which emphasise the teaching of the language to non-Indonesians. In addition to National Universities, private institutions have also started to offer courses, like the Indonesia Australia Language Foundation and the Lembaga Indonesia Amerika.

As early as 1988, teachers of the language have expressed the importance of a standardised Bahasa Indonesia bagi Penutur Asing (also called BIPA) materials (mostly books), and this need became more evident during the 4th International Congress on the Teaching of Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages held in 2001.[26]

Since 2013, the Indonesian Embassy in the Philippines has given basic Indonesian language courses to 16 batches of Filipino students, as well as training to members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Due to increasing demand among students, the Embassy will open an intermediate Indonesian language course later in the year.

In an interview, Department of Education Secretary Armin Luistro [27] said that the country's government should promote Indonesian or Malay, which are related to Filipino. Thus, the possibility of offering it as an optional subject in public schools is being studied.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Indonesian at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Indonesian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Setiono Sugiharto (October 28, 2013). "Indigenous language policy as a national cultural strategy". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Hammam Riza (2008). "Resources Report on Languages of Indonesia". Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  5. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 14."
  6. ^ a b "Indonesian, A language of Indonesia". Ethnologue Languages of the World. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Voice of America Bahasa Indonesia". Voice of Indonesia. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "Languages: News and Analysis in your Language". BBC World Service. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  9. ^ "Building an Asia-literate Australia: an Australian strategy for Asian language proficiency". Australian Policy Online. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "Bahasa dan dialek" (in Indonesian). Republic of Indonesia Embassy in Astana. 
  11. ^ "Bahasa Melayu Riau dan Bahasa Nasional". Melayu Online. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Sneddon 2003, The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society, p. 70
  13. ^ Ethnologue – An encyclopedic reference work cataloging all of the world’s 6,909 known living languages.
  14. ^ rmz (5 June 2007). "Sriwijaya dalam Tela'ah". Melayu Online. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Bambang Budi Utomo (23 January 2008). "Risen Up Maritime Nation!". Melayu Online. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  16. ^ "Bahasa Indonesia: The Indonesian Language," George Quinn, Australian National University
  17. ^ "Bahasa Indonesia: Memasyarakatkan Kembali 'Bahasa Pasar'?". Melayu Online. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  18. ^ Republic of Indonesia. "Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia". Wikisource. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c "Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 24 Tahun 2009 2009 Tentang Bendera, Bahasa, dan Lambang Negara, serta Lagu Kebangsaan". Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  20. ^ a b "Bahasa Indonesia, The complex story of a simple language". Interesting Thing of the Day. 17 September 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  21. ^ Who is Malay?, July 2005
  22. ^ This is a research led by Prof. Dr. J.W. de Vries of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands
  23. ^ C. D. Grijns et al. (eds). "Loan-words in Indonesian and Malay". ASEASUK, Association of South-East Asian Studies in the United Kingdom. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  24. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  25. ^ Departmen Pendidikan Nasiona (2006). Lentera Indonesia 1. Jakarta: Departmen Pendidikan Nasiona. p. v. ISBN 979-685-403-1. 
  26. ^ Conference Report: The Fourth International Conference on Teaching Indonesian to Speakers of Other Languages
  27. ^ Rainier Alain, Ronda (22 March 2013). "Bahasa in schools? DepEd eyes 2nd foreign language". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 

External links[edit]

English to Bahasa Indonesia translator
Dictionary software English and Bahasa Indonesia