Indigenous peoples of Mexico

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Indigenous peoples of Mexico
CuauhtémocBenito Juárez
Francisco Luna Kan
CajeméComandante Ramona
Lila Downs
Total population
15,700,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
Mexico
Languages
Nahuatl, Yucatec, Tzotzil, Mixtec, Zapotec, Otomi, Huichol, Totonac and other living 54 languages along the Mexican territory, as well as Spanish.
Religion
Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with an Amerindian religious elements, including Aztec and Mayan religion.)
Related ethnic groups
Other Indigenous peoples of the Americas
 
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This article is about the indigenous peoples of Mexico. For other indigenous peoples see Indigenous peoples (disambiguation)
Indigenous peoples of Mexico
CuauhtémocBenito Juárez
Francisco Luna Kan
CajeméComandante Ramona
Lila Downs
Total population
15,700,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
Mexico
Languages
Nahuatl, Yucatec, Tzotzil, Mixtec, Zapotec, Otomi, Huichol, Totonac and other living 54 languages along the Mexican territory, as well as Spanish.
Religion
Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with an Amerindian religious elements, including Aztec and Mayan religion.)
Related ethnic groups
Other Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Mexico, in the second article of its Constitution, is defined as a "pluricultural" nation in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it and in which the indigenous peoples[2] are the original foundation.[3] According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (official census institute), there are 15.7 million indigenous people in Mexico,[4] of many different ethnic groups,[5] which constitute 14.9% of the population in the country. The number of indigenous Mexicans is judged using the political criteria found in the 2nd article of the Mexican constitution. The Mexican census does not report racial-ethnicity but only the cultural-ethnicity of indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures.[6]

The indigenous peoples in Mexico have the right of free determination under the second article of the constitution. According to this article the indigenous peoples are granted:

amongst other rights. Also, the Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Languages recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages", which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken.[7] According to the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing (INEGI), approximately 5.4% of the population speaks an indigenous language - that is, approximately half of those identified as indigenous.[8] The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States[9] in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s.[10]

History of the indigenous peoples[edit]

Pre-Columbian civilizations[edit]

The pre-Columbian civilizations of what now is known as Mexico are usually divided in two regions: Mesoamerica, in reference to the cultural area in which several complex civilizations developed before the arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Aridoamerica (or simply "The North")[11] in reference to the arid region north of the Tropic of Cancer in which few civilizations developed and was mostly inhabited by nomadic or semi-nomadic groups.[citation needed] Mesoamerica was densely populated by diverse indigenous ethnic groups[11][12] which, although sharing common cultural characteristics, spoke different languages and developed unique civilizations.

One of the most influential civilizations that developed in Mesoamerica was the Olmec civilization, sometimes referred to as the "Mother Culture of Mesoamerica".[12] The later civilization in Teotihuacán reached its peak around 600 AD, when the city became the sixth largest city in the world,[12] whose cultural and theological systems influenced the Toltec and Aztec civilizations in later centuries. Evidence has been found on the existence of multiracial communities or neighborhoods in Teotihuacan (and other large urban areas like Tenochtitlan).[13][14]

The Maya civilization, though also influenced by other Mesoamerican civilizations, developed a vast cultural region in south-east Mexico and northern Central America, while the Zapotec and Mixtec culture dominated the valley of Oaxaca, and the Purepecha in western Mexico.

Colonial Era[edit]

See also: New Spain
A 16th-century manuscript illustrating La Malinche and the contact of Spaniards and Aztecs

By the time of the arrival of the Spanish in central Mexico, many of the diverse ethnic civilizations (with the notable exception of the Tlaxcaltecs and the Tarascan Kingdom of Michoacán) were loosely joined under the Aztec empire, the last Nahua civilization to flourish in Central Mexico. The capital of the empire, Tenochtitlan, became one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population of 350,000 inhabitants.[11]

During the conquest of the Aztec Empire, the Spanish conquistadors, vastly outnumbered by indigenous peoples, used the ethnic diversity of the country and exploited the discontentment of the subjugated groups, making important alliances with rivals of the Aztecs.[11] While the alliances were decisive to the Europeans' victory, the indigenous peoples were soon subjugated by an equally impressive empire. However, as the Spanish consolidated their rule in what became the viceroyalty of New Spain, the crown recognized the indigenous nobility in Mesoamerica as nobles and kept the existing basic structure of indigenous city-states. Indigenous communities were incorporated as communities under Spanish rule and with the indigenous power structure largely intact.[15] As part of the Spanish incorporation of indigenous into the colonial system, the friars taught indigenous scribes to write their languages in Latin letters so that there are huge corpus of colonial-era documentation in the Nahuatl language, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Yucatec Maya as well as others. Such a written tradition likely took hold because there was an existing tradition of pictorial writing found in many indigenous codices. Scholars have utilized the colonial-era alphabetic documentation in what is currently called the New Philology to illuminate the colonial experience of Mesoamerican peoples from their own viewpoints.[16] Since Mesoamerican peoples had an existing requirement of labor duty and tribute in the pre-conquest era, Spaniards who were awarded the labor and tribute of particular communities in encomienda could benefit financially. Indigenous officials in their communities were involved in maintaining this system. There was a precipitous decline in indigenous populations due to the spread of European diseases previously unknown in the New World. Pandemics wrought havoc, but indigenous communities recovered with fewer members.[11][17][18]

With contact between Europeans, the black slaves that they brought, and indigenous populations, there was intermingling of the groups, with mixed-race castas,particularly mestizos, becoming a component of Spanish cities and to a lesser extent indigenous communities. The Spanish legal structure formally separated what they called the república de indios (the republic of Indians) from the república de españoles (republic of Spaniards), the latter of which encompassed all those in the Hispanic sphere: Europeans, Africans, and mixed-race castas. Although in many ways indigenous peoples were marginalized in the colonial system,[19] the paternalistic structure of colonial rule supported the continued existence and structure of indigenous communities. The Spanish crown recognized the existing ruling group, gave protection to the land holdings of indigenous communities, and communities' and individuals had access to the Spanish legal system.[20][21][22] In practice in central Mexico this meant that until the nineteenth-century liberal reform that eliminated the corporate status of indigenous communities, indigenous communities had a protected status.

Although the crown recognized the political structures and the ruling elites in the civil sphere, in the religious sphere indigenous men were banned from the Christian priesthood, following an early Franciscan experiment that included fray Bernardino de Sahagún at the Colegio de Santa Cruz Tlatelolco to train such a group. Mendicants of the Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian orders initially evangelized indigenous in their own communities in what is often called the "spiritual conquest".[23] Later on the northern frontiers where nomadic indigenous groups had no fixed settlements, the Spanish created missions and settled indigenous populations in these complexes. The Jesuits were prominent in this enterprise until their expulsion from Spanish America in 1767. Catholicism with particular local aspects was the only permissible religion in the colonial era.

Independence from Spain[edit]

Tzotzil Maya women from San Juan Chamula, Chiapas.

As the New Spain became independent from Spain, the new country was named after its capital city, Mexico City. Mexico declared the abolition of black slavery in 1829 and the equality of all citizens under the law. However, indigenous communities continued to have rights as corporations to maintain land holdings until the liberal Reforma. Some indigenous individuals integrated into the Mexican society, like Benito Juárez of Zapotec ethnicity, the first indigenous president of a country in the New World.[24] As a political liberal, however, Juárez supported the removal of protections of indigenous community corporate land holding.

The greatest change, however, came about as a result of the Mexican Revolution, a violent social and cultural movement that defined 20th century Mexico. The Revolution produced a national sentiment that the indigenous peoples were the foundation of Mexican society. Several prominent artists promoted the "Indigenous Sentiment" (sentimiento indigenista) of the country, including Frida Kahlo, and Diego Rivera. Throughout the twentieth century, the government established bilingual education in certain indigenous communities and published free bilingual textbooks.[25] Some states of the federation appropriated an indigenous inheritance in order to reinforce their identity.[26]

In spite of the official recognition of the indigenous peoples, the economic underdevelopment of the communities, accentuated by the crises of the 1980s and 1990s, has not allowed for the social and cultural development of most indigenous communities.[27] Thousands of indigenous Mexicans have emigrated to urban centers in Mexico as well as in the United States. In Los Angeles, for example, the Mexican government has established electronic access to some of the consular services provided in Spanish as well as Zapotec and Mixe.[28] Some of the Maya peoples of Chiapas have revolted, demanding better social and economic opportunities, requests voiced by the EZLN.[citation needed]

The government has made certain legislative changes to promote the development of the rural and indigenous communities and the preservation and promotion of their languages. The second article of the Constitution was modified to grant them the right of self-determination and requires state governments to promote and ensure the economic development of the indigenous communities as well as the preservation of their languages and traditions.

Demographics[edit]

Indigenous people from all parts of Mexican state of Oaxaca, participate wearing traditional clothes and artifacts, in a celebration known as Guelaguetza.

Definition[edit]

The number of indigenous Mexicans is judged using the political criteria found in the 2nd article of the Mexican constitution. The Mexican census does not report racial-ethnicity but only the cultural-ethnicity of indigenous communities that preserve their indigenous languages, traditions, beliefs, and cultures.[6]

Languages[edit]

Main article: Languages of Mexico

The Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Languages recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken.[7] According to the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing (INEGI), approximately 5.4% of the population speaks an indigenous language – that is, approximately half of those identified as indigenous.[8]

The recognition of indigenous languages and the protection of indigenous cultures is granted not only to the ethnic groups indigenous to modern-day Mexican territory, but also to other North American indigenous groups that migrated to Mexico from the United States[9] in the nineteenth century and those who immigrated from Guatemala in the 1980s.[10]

Population statistics[edit]

A Huichol woman and child.

According to the National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples (CDI) there are 14,850,000 indigenous people reported in Mexico in 2010,[29] which constitute 13% of the population in the country. Most indigenous communities have a degree of financial, political autonomy under the legislation of "usos y costumbres", which allows them to regulate internal issues under customary law.

The absolute indigenous population is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population so that the percentage of indigenous peoples is nonetheless falling.[8][30][31] Indigenous peoples are more likely to live in more rural areas, than the Mexican average, but many do reside in urban or suburban areas, particularly, in the central states of Mexico, Puebla, Tlaxcala, the Federal District and the Yucatan peninsula.

According to the CDI, the states with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are:[32] Yucatán, with 62.7%, Quintana Roo with 33.8% and Campeche with 32% of the population being indigenous, most of them Maya; Oaxaca with 58% of the population, the most numerous groups being the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples; Chiapas has 32.7%, the majority being Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo with 30.1%, the majority being Otomi; Puebla with 25.2%, and Guerrero with 22.6%, mostly Nahua people and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz both home to a population of 19% indigenous people, mostly from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups.[33]

The majority of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central and southern states. According to the CDI, the states with the greatest percentage of indigenous population are:[34]

Development and Socio-economic indicators[edit]

A private school, run by the Tarascan community of Janitzio, Michoacan.

Generally, indigenous Mexicans live more poorly than non-indigenous Mexicans however, social development varies between states, different indigenous ethnicities and between rural and urban areas. In all states indigenous people have higher infant mortality, in some states almost double of the non-indigenous populations.[33]

Some indigenous groups, particularly the Yucatec Maya in the Yucatán peninsula[35][36] and some of the Nahua and Otomi peoples in central states have maintained higher levels of development while indigenous peoples in states such as the Guerrero[37] or Michoacan[38] are ranked drastically lower than the average Mexican citizen in these fields. Despite certain indigenous groups such as the Maya or Nahua retaining high levels of development, the general indigenous population lives at a lower level of development than the general population.

Literacy rates are much lower for the indigenous, particularly in the southwestern states of Guerrero and Oaxaca due lack of access to education and a lack of the educational literature available in indigenous languages. Literacy rates are also much lower, with 27% of indigenous children between 6 and 14 being illiterate compared to a national average of 12%.[33] The Mexican government is obligated to provide education in indigenous languages, but many times fails to provide schooling in languages other than Spanish. As a result, many indigenous groups have resorted to creating their own small community educational institutions.

The indigenous population participate in the workforce longer than the national average, starting earlier and continuing longer. A major reason for this is that significant number of the indigenous practice economically under productive agriculture and receive no regular salaries. Indigenous people also have less access to health care.[33]

Indigenous groups with a population of more than 100,000[edit]

Indigenous peoples of Mexico
GroupPopulationSpeakers¹
Nahuatl (Nāhuatlācah [naːwaˈt͡ɬaːkaʔ])2,445,9691,659,029
(Yucatec) Maya (Maya’wiinik)1,475,575892,723
Zapotec (Binizaa)777,253505,992
Mixtec (Tu'un savi)726,601510,801
Otomi (Hñähñü)646,875327,319
Totonac (Tachiwin)411,266271,847
Tzotzil (Batzil k'op)406,962356,349
Tzeltal (K'op o winik atel)384,074336,448
Mazahua (Hñatho)326,660151,897
Mazatec (Ha shuta enima)305,836246,198
Huastec (Téenek)296,447173,233
Ch'ol (Winik)220,978189,599
Chinantec (Tsa jujmí)201,201152,711
Purépecha (P'urhépecha)202,884136,388
Mixe (Ayüükjä'äy)168,935135,316
Tlapanec (Me'phaa)140,254119,497
Tarahumara (Rarámuri)121,83587,721
Source: CDI (2000) [39]
Indigenous groups and languages of Mexico, only including groups with more than 100,000 speakers of a native language.


¹Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language

Indigenous groups with a population of more than 20,000 and less than 100,000[edit]

Indigenous Languages of Mexico
GroupPopulationSpeakers1
Mayo (Yoreme)91,26160,093
Zoque (O'de püt)86,58934,770
Chontal Maya (Yokot)79,43843,850
Popoluca (Tuncápxe)62,30644,237
Chatino (Cha'cña)60,00347,762
Amuzgo (Tzañcue)57,66648,843
Tojolabal (Tojolwinik)54,50544,531
Huichol (Wixárika)43,92936,856
Tepehuan (O'dami)37,54830,339
Triqui (Tinujéi)29,01824,491
Popoloca26,24918,926
Cora (Nayeeri)24,39019,512
Mame (Qyool)23,8128,739
Yaqui (Yoeme)23,41115,053
Cuicatec (Nduudu yu)22,98415,078
Huave (Ikoods)20,52816,135
Source: CDI (2000) [39]
Indigenous groups and languages of Mexico. Displaying groups with more than 20,000 and less than 100,000 speakers of a native language.


1Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language

Indigenous groups with a population of less than 20,000[edit]

Indigenous Languages of Mexico
GroupPopulationSpeakers1
Tepehua (Hamasipini)16,05110,625
Kanjobal (K'anjobal)12,97410,833
Chontal of Oaxaca (Slijuala sihanuk)12,6635,534
Pame (Xigüe)12,5729,768
Chichimeca Jonaz (Uza)3,1691,987
Huarijio (Makurawe)2,8441,905
Chuj2,7192,143
Chocho (Runixa ngiigua)2,5921,078
Tacuate2,3792,067
Ocuiltec (Tlahuica)1,759522
Pima Bajo1,540836
Jacaltec (Abxubal)1,478584
Kekchí (K'ekchí)987835
Lacandon (Hach t'an)896731
Ixcatec816406
Seri (Comcáac)716518
K'iche' (Quiché, Q'iché)524286
Motocintleco (Qatok)692186
Kaqchikel (K'akchikel)675230
Paipai (Akwa'ala)418221
Tohono O'odham (Papago)363153
Cocopah (Es péi)344206
Kumiai (Ti'pai)328185
Kikapú (Kikapooa)251144
Cochimi (Laymón, mti'pá)22696
Ixil224108
Kiliwa (Ko'lew)10755
Aguacatec5927
Other groups2728337

2 Includes Opata, Soltec and Papabuco

Source: CDI (2000) [39]
Indigenous groups and languages of Mexico. Displaying groups with less than 20,000 speakers of a Native language.


1Number of indigenous peoples that still speak their Indigenous language

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Población de 3 años y más en entidades federativas seleccionadas y su distribución porcentual según condición de autoadscripción étnica para cada entidad federativa, sexo y condición de habla indígena". Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010. Cuestionario ampliado (in Spanish). INEGI. 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  2. ^ "Indigenous peoples" is the preferred term in Mexico to refer to the Amerindian ethnic groups in North America
  3. ^ Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos Art. 2
  4. ^ Defined as persons who live in a household where an indigenous language is spoken by one of the adult family members, and or people who self identified as indigenous ("Criteria del hogar: De esta manera, se establece, que los hogares indígenas son aquellos en donde el jefe y/o el cónyuge y/o padre o madre del jefe y/o suegro o suegra del jefe hablan una lengua indígena y también aquellos que declararon pertenecer a un grupo indígena."[1])AND persons who speak an indigenous language but who do not live in such a household (Por lo antes mencionado, la Comisión Nacional Para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas de México (CDI) considera población indígena (PI) a todas las personas que forman parte de un hogar indígena, donde el jefe(a) del hogar, su cónyuge y/o alguno de los ascendientes (madre o padre, madrastra o padrastro, abuelo(a), bisabuelo(a), tatarabuelo(a), suegro(a)) declaro ser hablante de lengua indígena. Además, también incluye a personas que declararon hablar alguna lengua indígena y que no forman parte de estos hogares [2])
  5. ^ "Síntesis de Resultados". Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. 2006. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  6. ^ a b [dead link]National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples
  7. ^ a b "Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  8. ^ a b c "Indicadores seleccionados sobre la población hablante de lengua indígena, 1950 a 2005". Inegi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  9. ^ a b "Kikapú". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  10. ^ a b "Aguacatecos, cakchiqueles, ixiles, kekchíes, tecos, quichés. (Chiapas)". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Hamnett, B (1999), A Concise History of MEXICO, Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK
  12. ^ a b c Manuel Aguilar-Moreno (2004) A Handbook to Life in the Aztec World Facts of Life, Inc., USA
  13. ^ The Quest for Aztlan[dead link]
  14. ^ "New Tomb at Teotihuacan". Archaeology.org. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  15. ^ Charles Gibson, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519-1810, Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964.
  16. ^ James Lockhart, The Nahuas After the Conquest, Stanford: Stanford University Press 1992.
  17. ^ Gibson, ibid.
  18. ^ Lockhart, ibid.
  19. ^ Colonialismo y modernidad: la enseñanza del español en la Nueva España, "...El racismo y la estratificación de la población de la Nueva España fueron las características de la organización social del Virreinato..."
  20. ^ Gibson, ibid.
  21. ^ Lockhart, ibid.
  22. ^ Woodrow Borah, Justice by Insurance: The General Indian Court of Colonial Mexico and the Legal Aides of the Half-Real, Berkeley: University of California Press 1983.
  23. ^ Robert Ricard, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, translated by Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press 1966.
  24. ^ "Seminario sobre Participación y políticas públicas para pueblos indígenas". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  25. ^ "Programa Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas 2001–2006". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  26. ^ Hamnett, Brian (1999) A Concise History of Mexico, Cambridge University Press, UK, p. 3, "... the Maya inheritance has been appropriated by the national states to reinforce their historical identity and legitimacy."
  27. ^ Pobreza y patrones de exclusión social en México[dead link]
  28. ^ Oaxaca se moderniza, p. 56, "Se trata de una terminal de cómputo, parecida a un cajero automático, que en español, mixe y zapoteco ofrece el servicio de..."
  29. ^ "Preliminares.p65" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  30. ^ "INEGI: Cada vez más mexicanos hablan una lengua indígena - Nacional - CNNMéxico.com". Mexico.cnn.com. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  31. ^ "National Commission for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples". Retrieved 2014-05-18. 
  32. ^ "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  33. ^ a b c d http://www.inegi.org.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/censos/poblacion/poblacion_indigena/Pob_ind_Mex.pdf
  34. ^ "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  35. ^ http://www.cdi.gob.mx/cedulas/2010/YUCA/yuca2010.pdf
  36. ^ http://www.cdi.gob.mx/cedulas/2010/QUIN/quin2010.pdf
  37. ^ http://www.cdi.gob.mx/cedulas/2010/GUER/guer2010.pdf
  38. ^ http://www.cdi.gob.mx/cedulas/2010/MICH/mich2010.pdf
  39. ^ a b c "Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. México". Cdi.gob.mx. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 

References[edit]

CIA [US Central Intelligence Agency] (2008). "Mexico". The 2008 World Factbook (online ed.). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. OCLC 34199805. ISSN 1553-8133. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF online reproduction by UAEM). Convergencia (Toluca, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México). Año 12 (38): 185–232. ISSN 1405-1435. OCLC 61659674.  (Spanish)
Martínez Novo, Carmen (2006). Who defines indigenous? Identities, development, intellectuals and the State in Northern Mexico. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 
Martínez-Torres, María Elena; Rosaluz Pérez Espinosa; Aldo González Rojas (2008). "Mexico" (PDF online edition). In Katherin Wessendorf (compilation and ed.). The Indigenous World 2008. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217). Alejandro Parellada (regional ed.). Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers. pp. 78–89. ISBN 978-87-91563-44-7. OCLC 30981676. 
Navarrete Linares, Federico (2008). Los pueblos indígenas de México (PDF online facsimile). Pueblos Indígenas del México Contemporáneo series. México, D.F.: Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. ISBN 978-970-753-157-4. OCLC 319215886.  (Spanish)

External links[edit]