Indian martial arts

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Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia. This includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Although South Asian martial arts is sometimes preferred for neutrality, the fighting styles of all the aforementioned countries are generally accepted as "Indian" due to shared history and culture. In Sanskrit they may be collectively referred to as śastra-vidyā ("science of blades"), viravidyā ("warrior science") ayudha-vidyā ("science of weaponry") or dhanurveda ("knowledge of the bow"). The former is a compound of the words śastra (weapon) and vidyā (knowledge), meaning "knowledge of weapons" with the implication of bladed weapons used for war.[1] The latter term derives from the words for bow (dhanushya) and knowledge (veda), the "science of archery" in Puranic literature, later applied to martial arts in general.[2] The Vishnu Purana text describes dhanurveda as one of the traditional eighteen branches of "applied knowledge" or upaveda.[3]

In Tamil they are known by the umbrella terms kaḷarik kalai (Tamil: களரிக் கலை) meaning "art of the battleground", or taṟkāppuk kalai (தற்காப்புக் கலை) meaning "art of self-defence".

History[edit]

Antiquity (pre-Gupta)[edit]

Indian epics contain the earliest accounts of combat, both armed and bare-handed. The Mahabharata tells of fighters armed only with daggers besting lions, and describes a prolonged battle between Arjuna and Karna using bows, swords, trees, rocks and fists.[3] Another unarmed battle in the Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts.[4] Most deities of the Hindu pantheon are armed with their own personal weapon, and are revered not only as master martial artists but often as originators of those systems themselves. Krishna Maharaja, who single-handedly overcame an elephant according to the Mahabharata, is credited with developing the sixteen principles of śastravidyā.

The oldest recorded organized unarmed fighting art in South Asia is malla-yuddha or combat-wrestling, codified into four forms and pre-dating the Indo-Aryan migrations.[5] Stories describing Krishna report that he sometimes engaged in wrestling matches where he used knee strikes to the chest, punches to the head, hair pulling, and strangleholds.[6] Based on such accounts, Svinth (2002) traces press ups and squats used by South Asian wrestlers to the pre-classical era.[6]

In Sanskrit literature the term dwandwayuddha referred to a duel, such that it was a battle between only two warriors and not armies. Epics often describe the duels between deities and god-like heroes as lasting a month or more. The malla-yuddha (wrestling match) between Bhima and Jarasandha lasts 27 days. Similarly, the dwandayuddha between Parasurama and Bhishma lasts for 30 days, while that between Krishna and Jambavan lasts for 28 days. Likewise, the dwandwayudda between Bali and Dundubhi, a demon in the form of a water buffalo, lasts for 45 days.

Many of the popular sports mentioned in the Vedas and the epics have their origins in military training, such as boxing (musti-yuddha), wrestling (maladwandwa), chariot-racing (rathachalan), horse-riding (aswa-rohana) and archery (dhanurvidya).[7] Competitions were held not just as a contest of the players' prowess but also as a means of finding a bridegroom. Arjuna, Rama and Siddhartha Gautama all won their consorts in such tournaments.

In the 3rd century, elements from the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, as well as finger movements in the nata dances, were incorporated into the fighting arts.[6] A number of South Asian fighting styles remain closely connected to yoga, dance and performing arts. Some of the choreographed sparring in kalaripayat can be applied to dance[8] and kathakali dancers who knew kalaripayat were believed to be markedly better than other performers. Until recent decades, the chhau dance was performed only by martial artists. Some traditional Indian classical dance schools still incorporate martial arts as part of their exercise regimen.[9]

Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Tamil Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. The Akananuru and Purananuru describe the use of spears, swords, shields, bows and silambam in the Sangam era. The word kalari appears in the Puram (verses 225, 237, 245, 356) and Akam (verses 34, 231, 293) to describe both a battlefield and combat arena. The word kalari tatt denoted a martial feat, while kalari kozhai meant a coward in war.[10] Each warrior in the Sangam era received regular military training[11] in target practice and horse riding. They specialized in one or more of the important weapons of the period including the spear (vel), sword (val), shield (kedaham), and bow and arrow (vil ambu). The combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to kalaripayat.[3] References to "Silappadikkaram" in Sangam literature date back to the 2nd century. This referred to the silambam staff which was in great demand with foreign visitors.[12][13]

The ten fighting styles of northern sastra-vidya were said to have been created in different areas based on animals and gods, and designed for the particular geography of their origin. Tradition ascribes their convergence to the 6th-century Buddhist university of Takshashila, ancient India's intellectual capital. Located in present-day Panjab, Pakistan, the Ramayana ascribes the city's founding to Bharata who named it after his son Taksha. From the 7th to the 5th century BC it was held in high regard as a great centre of trade and learning, attracting students from throughout northern India. Among the subjects taught were the "military sciences", and archery was one of its prime arts.

Some measures were put into place to discourage martial activity during the Buddhist period. The Khandhaka in particular forbids wrestling, boxing, archery, and swordsmanship. However, references to fighting arts are found in early Buddhist texts, such as the Lotus Sutra (c. 1st century AD) which refers to a boxing art while speaking to Manjusri.[14] It also categorised combat techniques as joint locks, fist strikes, grapples and throws. The Lotus Sutra makes further mention of a martial art with dance-like movements called Nara. Another early Buddhist sutra called Hongyo-kyo describes a "strength contest" between Gautama Buddha's half-brother Prince Nanda and his cousin Devadatta.[14] Siddhartha Gautama himself was a champion wrestler and swordsman before becoming the Buddha.[6]

Classical period (3rd to 10th centuries)[edit]

Like other branches of Sanskrit literature, treatises on martial arts become more systematic in the course of the 1st millennium AD. Vajra-musti, an armed grappling style, is mentioned in sources of the early centuries AD.[14]Around this time, tantric philosophers developed important metaphysical concepts such as kundalini, chakra, and mantra.[6]

The Sushruta Samhita (c. 4th century) identifies 107 vital points on the human body[15] of which 64 were classified as being lethal if properly struck with a fist or stick.[6] Sushruta's work formed the basis of the medical discipline ayurveda which was taught alongside various martial arts.[6] With numerous other scattered references to vital points in Vedic and epic sources, it is certain that South Asia's early fighters knew and practised attacking or defending vital points.[16]

Around 630, King Narasimhavarman of the Pallava dynasty commissioned dozens of granite sculptures showing unarmed fighters disarming armed opponents. This is similar to the style described in the Agni Purana.[6]

Martial arts were not exclusive to the kshatriya caste, though the warrior class used them more extensively. The 8th-century text Kuvalaymala by Udyotanasuri recorded fighting techniques being taught at educational institutions, where non-kshatriya students from throughout the subcontinent "were learning and practicing archery, fighting with sword and shield, with daggers, sticks, lances, and with fists, and in duels (niuddham)".[3] Hindu priests of the traditional gurukula still teach unarmed fighting techniques to their students as a way of increasing stamina and training the physical body.

Gurjara dynasty (6th–11th centuries)[edit]

Martial arts were extensively perfected during the Gurjara-Pratihara, a northern kshatriya dynasty that exceeded any Indian empire that came before it. Armed disciplines (sastra-vidya), archery (dhanurvidya), swordsmanship (khadga-vidya), fighting on horseback (aswa-rohana) and fighting on elephants (gaja-rohana) were all widely practised. Unarmed combat arts included combat-wrestling (malla-yuddha), and its sporting form (mallakrida), as well as the striking art of boxing (musti-yuddha) utilising mainly punches. Vajramusti and its variant loh-mushti were only practised by royalty and nobility. Because of their fiercely martial culture and adherence to Kshatriya Dharma as propounded in the Bhagavada Gita and Vedic Dharmaśāstra, they were able to defeat Muslim invasions continuously, particularly in the Battle of Rajasthan.

Emperor Nagabhata I (750–780 AD) and Mihir Bhoja I (836–890) commissioned various texts on martial arts, and were themselves practitioners of these systems. Shiva Dhanurveda was composed in this era. The khadga, a two-handed broad-tipped heavy longsword, was given special preference. Khadga-puja i.e. ritualised worship of the sword on special occasions were performed to unite the warrior's soul with his weapon. The Gurjara people still keep up their tradition of gatka and kushti, and until today there are world-class wrestlers from the community competing at national and international levels.

Agni Purana[edit]

The earliest extant manual of dhanurveda is in the Agni Purana (dated to between the 8th and the 11th century),[16][17] The dhanurveda section in the Agni Purana spans chapters 248–251, categorizing weapons into thrown and unthrown classes and further divided into several sub-classes.

There follow nine asana or positions of standing in a fight

  1. samapada ("holding the feet even"): standing in closed ranks with the feet put together (248.9)
  2. vaiśākha: standing erect with the feet apart (248.10)
  3. maṇḍala ("disk"): standing with the knees apart, arranged in the shape of a flock of geese (248.11)
  4. ālīḍha ("licked, polished"): bending the right knee with the left foot pulled back (248.12)
  5. pratyālīḍha: bending the left knee with the right foot pulled back (248.13)
  6. jāta ("origin"): placing the right foot straight with the left foot perpendicular, the ankles being five fingers apart (248.14)
  7. daṇḍāyata ("extended staff"): keeping the right knee bent with the left leg straight, or vice versa; called vikaṭa ("dreadful") if the two legs are two palm-lengths apart (248.16)
  8. sampuṭa ("hemisphere") (248.17)
  9. svastika ("well-being"): keeping the feet 16 fingers apart and lifting the feet a little (248.19)

Then there follows a more detailed discussion of archery technique.

The section concludes with listing the names of actions or "deeds" possible with a number of weapons, including 32 positions to be taken with sword and shield (khaḍgacarmavidhau),[18] 11 names of techniques of using a rope in fighting, along with 5 names of "acts in the rope operation" along with lists of "deeds" pertaining to the chakram (war-quoit), the spear, the tomara (iron club), the gada (mace), the axe, the hammer, the bhindipāla or laguda, the vajra, the dagger, the slingshot, and finally deeds with a bludgeon or cudgel.[19]

Middle Ages (11th to 15th centuries)[edit]

Kalaripayat had developed into its present form by the 11th century, during an extended period of warfare between the Chera and Chola dynasties.[8][6] The earliest treatise discussing the techniques of malla-yuddha is the Malla Purana (c. 13th century) unlike the earlier Manasollasa which gives the names of movements but no descriptions.

Over a period of several centuries, invading Muslim armies managed to occupy much of present-day Pakistan and northern India. In response to the spread of Muslim rule, the kingdoms of south India united in the 1300s to found the Vijayanagara Empire. With its capital in present-day Karnataka, the empire was naturally resistant to the foreign influences taking hold in the north. Southern fighting arts like silambam and kalaripayat flourished in this period. European and other foreign writings record that physical culture was given much attention by both royalty and commoners in Vijayanagara. One account describes an akhara in Chandragiri where noblemen practiced jumping exercises, boxing, fencing and wrestling almost everyday before dinner to maintain their health, and observed that "men as old as seventy years look only thirty".[20]

The Portuguese traveller Duarte Barbosa tells that fencing and dueling was a common practice among nobles, and it was the only legal manner in which "murder" could be committed. After fixing a day for the duel and getting permission from the king or minister, the duellists would arrive at the appointed field "with great pleasure".[21] Duellists would wear no armour and were bare from the waist up. From the waist down they wore cotton cloth tightly round with many folds. The weapons used for duelling were swords, shields and daggers which the king would appoint them of equal length. Judges decided what rewards would be given to wrestlers and duellists; the winner may even acquire the loser's estate. According to the Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, it was the custom for soldiers to specialise in their own particular weapon of expertise and never use any other even during war, " thereby becoming very expert and well practised in that which he takes to".[22]

Swordplay and wrestling were commonly practiced by Indian royalty. Krishna Deva Raya is said to have arranged a duel between a champion swordsman and the prince of Odisha who was known for being an expert with both the sword and dagger. The prince accepted the challenge until he learned he would be fighting one not of royal blood and so killed himself rather than having to "soil his hands". Fernao Nunes and the Persian envoy Adbur Razzak relate that Deva Raya II survived an assassination attempt "as he was a man who knew how to use both sword and dagger better than any one in his kingdom, avoided by twists and turns of his body the thrusts aimed at him, freed himself from him, and slew him with a short sword that he had."

Other scattered references to fighting arts in medieval texts include the Kamandakiya Nitisara (c. 8th century[citation needed], ed. Dutt, 1896), the Nitivakyamrta by Somadeva Suri (10th century), the Yuktikalpataru of Bhoja (11th century) and the Manasollasa of Somesvara III (12th century) There is an extant dhanurveda-samhita dating to the mid 14th century, by Brhat Sarngadhara Paddhati (ed. 1888).[citation needed]

Mughal era (1526–1857)[edit]

Mughal warriors practicing horseback archery, a skill they were highly renowned for

After a series of victories, the Central Asian conqueror Babur established Mughal rule in north India during the 16th century. The Mughal tribe, Persians of Mongol descent, practised martial skills such as wrestling and mounted archery. As a result of the conquest, Central Asian and Middle Eastern arms and armour were introduced to the subcontinent and adopted by the Indian population. The most notable example, the talwar or scimitar, became the primary weapon of shastar vidiya, and has remained the most common type of sword in the region. The Indian application of these weapons tended to favour more agile moves compared to the direct and straightforward Middle Eastern fighting styles.

The Mughals appear to have been patrons of India's native arts, not only recruiting akhara-trained Rajput fighters for their armies but even practicing these systems themselves. The Ausanasa Dhanurveda Sankalanam dates to the late 16th century, compiled under the patronage of Akbar.[citation needed] Perhaps their most enduring legacy was in bringing Persian influences to the native form of wrestling which has remained popular to this day.

In the 16th century, Madhusudana Saraswati of Bengal organised a section of the Naga tradition of armed sannyasi in order to protect Hindus from the intolerant Mughal rulers. Although generally said to abide by the principle of non-violence (ahimsā), these Dashanami monks had long been forming akhara for the practice of both yoga and martial arts. Such warrior-ascetics have been recorded from the 1500 to as late as the 18th century[23] although tradition attributes their creation to the 8th-century philosopher Sankaracharya[web 1] They began as a stratum of Rajput warriors who would gather after harvest and arm peasants into militarised units, effectively acting as a self-defense squad. Prevalent in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Bengal, they would give up their occupations and leave their families to live as mercenaries. Naga sadhu today rarely practice any form of fighting other than wrestling but still carry trishula, swords, canes and spears. To this day their retreats are called chhaavni or armed camps, and they have been known to hold mock jousts among themselves.

There is also a 17th-century Dhanurveda-samhita attributed to Vasistha.

Maratha dynasty (1674–1859)[edit]

Statue of Shivaji, who brought the Marathas and their fighting style to prominence.

Coming from a hilly region characterized by valleys and caves, the Marathas became expert horsemen who favoured light armour and highly mobile cavalry units during war. Known especially as masters of swords and spears, their heavily martial culture and propensity for the lance is mentioned as early as the 7th century by the Chinese monk Xuanzang.[24] After serving the Dakhin sultanates of the early 1600s, the scattered Marathas united to found their own kingdom under the warrior Shivaji Raje. Having learned the native art of mardani khela from a young age, Shivaji was a master swordsman and proficient in the use of various weapons.[25] He took advantage of his people's expertise in guerilla tactics (Shiva sutra) to re-establish Hindavi Swarajya (Hindu self-rule) at a time of Muslim supremacy and increasing intolerance.[26] Utilizing speed, focused surprise attacks (typically at night and in rocky terrain), and the geography of Maharashtra, the Maratha rulers were successfully able to defend their territory from the more numerous and heavily armed Mughals.[27] The still-existing Maratha Light Infantry is one of the "oldest and most renowned" regiments of the Indian Army, tracing its origins to 1768.[28]

Paika Rebellion[edit]

Paika is the Oriya word for fighter or warrior. Their style of fighting, known as paika akhada, can be traced back to ancient Kalinga and was at one time patronised by King Kharavela.[29] In March 1817, under the leadership of Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra, nearly 400 Khanda of Ghumusar in Ganjam marched towards Khurda in protest against British colonial rule. Many government buildings were burnt down and all the officials fled. The British commander of one detachment was killed during a battle at Gangpada. The paika managed to capture two bases at Puri and Pipli before spreading the rebellion further to Gop, Tiran, Kanika and Kujang. The revolt lasted a year and a half before being quelled by September 1818.[30][31][32] With the rebellion put down, the colonists were more vigorous in their attempts to stamp out the martial practices of Odisha. Today, paika akhada has been preserved in the form of a dance meant purely for performance, but recent government efforts aim to revive the art in its original martial form.

Modern period (1857 to present)[edit]

South Asian martial arts underwent a period of decline after the full establishment of British colonial rule in the 19th century.[16] More European modes of organizing kings, armies and governmental institutions, and the increasing use of firearms, gradually eroded the need for traditional combat training associated with caste-specific duties.[8] The British colonial government banned kalaripayat in 1804 in response to a series of revolts.[33] Silambam was also banned and became more common in the Malay Peninsula than its native Tamil Nadu. Nevertheless, traditional fighting systems persisted, sometimes even under the patronage of enthusiastic British spectators who tended to remark on the violence of native boxing and the acrobatic movements characteristic of South Asian fighting styles. A foreign account describes the palace fighters as follows:[34]

"There are several kinds of gladiators, each performing astonishing feats. In fighting they show much speed and agility and blend courage and skill in squatting and rising. Some use shields in fighting, others (called Lakrait) use cudgels. Others use no means of defense and fight with one hand only. . . . The Banaits use a long sword, and seizing it with both hands they perform extraordinary feats. The Bankulis . . . use a peculiar sword which, though curved towards the point, is straight near the handle. But they make no use of a shield. The skill that they exhibit passes all description. Others use various kinds of daggers and knives. Each class has a different name; they also differ in their performances. At court there are a thousand gladiators always in readiness."

The British took advantage of communities with a heavily militaristic culture, characterising them as "Martial Races" and employing them in the armed forces. Sikhs - already known among Indians for their martial practices - were particularly valued by the colonists as soldiers and guards, and were posted throughout not only India but Southeast Asia and other parts of the British Empire. Members of the army were allowed to box as a way of settling disputes, provided that they were still able to carry out their duties as soldiers after a match. This was considered a safer alternative to dueling with sticks or knives, which were more likely to result in lasting injuries or fatalities. The particular form of boxing used by the Panjabi soldiers was loh-musti, as the kara worn by Sikhs could be wielded like brass knuckles.

The resurgence of public interest in kalaripayat began in the 1920s in Tellicherry as part of a wave of rediscovery of the traditional arts throughout south India which characterised the growing reaction against British colonial rule.[8] During the following three decades, other regional styles were subsequently revived such as silambam in Tamil Nadu, thang-ta in Manipur[35] and paika akhada in Orissa.[36]

Weapons[edit]

A wide array of weapons are used in South Asia, some of which are not found anywhere else. According to P.C. Chakravati in The Art of War in Ancient India, armies used standard weapons such as wooden or metal tipped spears, swords, thatched bamboo, wooden or metal shields, axes, short and long bows in warfare as early as the 4th century BC. Military accounts of the Gupta Empire (c. 240–480) and the later Agni Purana identify over 130 different weapons.

The Agni Purana divides weapons into thrown and unthrown classes. The thrown (mukta) class includes twelve weapons altogether which come under four categories, viz.

The katara, the most characteristic of South Asian daggers

These were opposed to the much larger unthrown class of three categories.

The duel with bow and arrows is considered the most noble, fighting with the spear ranks next, while fighting with the sword is considered unrefined, and wrestling is classed as the meanest or worst form of fighting. Only a kshatriya could be an acharya (teacher) of dhanurveda, Brahmins and vaishya should learn from the kshatriya, while a shudra could not take a teacher, left to "fight of his own in danger".

Over time, weaponry evolved and India became famed for its flexible wootz steel. Armed forces were largely standardised and it is unclear if regular infantry were trained in any recognisable martial system other than standard military drills. More sophisticated techniques and weapons were employed by fighters trained in the warrior jāti.

Aside from exceptions like wrestling and boxing, most of the well-known South Asian fighting systems prioritize or put strong emphasis on armed fighting. The most commonly taught weapons today are types of swords, daggers, spears, staffs, cudgels and maces.

Swordsmanship[edit]

Sword-fighting (khadga-vidya) is perhaps the most common system of armed combat in South Asia, found in every regional Indian fighting style. Varieties include the curved single-edge sword, the straight double-edge sword, the two-handed longsword, the gauntlet-sword, and the urumi or flexible sword. Techniques differ from one state to another but all make extensive use of circular movements, often circling the weapon around the user's head. The flexible nature and light weight of Indian swords allows for speed but provides little defensive ability, so that the swordsman must instead rely on body maneuvers to dodge attacks. Entire systems exist focusing on drawing the sword out of the opponent's body. Stances and forms traditionally made up the early training before students progress to free sparring with sticks to simulate swords in an exercise called gatka, although this term is more often used in English when referring to the Panjabi-Sikh fighting style. A common way to practice precision-cutting is to slice cloves or lemons, eventually doing so while blindfolded. Pairing two swords of equal length, though considered impractical in some parts of the world, is common in South Asia and was considered highly advantageous by Rajput swordsmen.

Staffplay[edit]

Stick-fighting (lathi khela) may be taught as part of a wider system like silambam or on its own. In the Kama Sutra the sage Vātsyāyana enjoins all women to practice fighting with single-stick, quarterstaff, sword and bow and arrow in addition to the art of love-making. The stick (lathi in Prakrit) is typically made of bamboo with steel caps at the ends to prevent it from splintering. Wooden sticks made from Indian ebony may also be used. It ranges from the length of a cudgel to a staff equal to the wielders hight. The stick used during matches is covered in leather to cushion the impact. Points are awarded based on which part of the body is hit. Techniques differ from system to system, but northern styles like mardani khel tend to primarily use only one end of the staff for attacking while the other end is held with both hands. Southern styles like kalaripayat also make use of this technique but will more often use both ends of the staff to strike. The latter is the more common method of attacking in the eastern states and Bangladesh, combined with squatting and frequent changes in height.

Spearplay[edit]

The South Asian spear is typically made of bamboo with a steel blade. It can be used in hand-to-hand combat or thrown when the fighters are farther apart. Despite primarily being a thrusting weapon, the wide spearhead also allows for many slashing techniques. By the 1600s, Rajput mercenaries in the Mughal army were using a type of spear which integrated a pointed spear butt and a club near the head, making it similar to a mace. On the other hand, the longer cavalry spear was made of wood, with red cloth attached near the blade to prevent the opponent's blood from dripping to the shaft. The Marathas were revered for their skill of wielding a ten-foot spear called bothati (ਬੋਥਾਟੀ) from horseback. Bothati fighting is practiced with a ball-tipped lance, the end of which is covered in dye so that hits may easily be confirmed.[34] In solo training, the spear is aimed at a pile of stones.[37] From this was eventually developed the uniquely Indian vita which has a five foot length of cord attached to the butt end of the weapon and tied around the spearman's wrist. Using this cord the spear can be pulled back after it has been thrown.

Archery[edit]

Archery (dhanurvidya) was once considered the noblest form of fighting and the one most suited to the Brahmin caste. Siddharta Gautama was a champion with the bow, while Rama, Arjuna, Karna, Bhishma and Drona of the epics were all said to be peerless archers. Traditional archery is today practiced mainly in the far northern states of Ladakh and Arunachal. One sport which has persisted into the present day is thoda from Himachal Pradesh, in which a team of archers attempt to shoot blunt arrows at the legs of the opposing team.

Mace-fighting[edit]

Mace combat (gada-yuddha) is first mentioned in the Mahabharata wherein the warriors Bhima and Duryodhana learn the art from the master Balarama. Bhima wins the final battle against Duryodhana by hitting his inner thigh. Such an attack below the waist was said to be against the etiquette of mace duels, implying a degree of commonality to this type of fighting. According to the Agni Purana, the mace can be handled in twenty different ways. Due to its weight, the gada is said to be best suited to fighters with a large build or great strength. It was and still is used as training equipment by wrestlers.

Systems[edit]

As in other respects of Indian culture, South Asian martial arts can be roughly divided into northern and southern styles. The main difference is that the north was more exposed to Persianate influence during the Mughal period, while the south is more conservative in preserving ancient and medieval traditions. The exception to this rule are the northeastern states which, due to their geographic location, were closed off from most pre-European foreign invaders. Northeast Indian culture and fighting methods are also closely related to that of Southeast Asia. In addition to the major division between north and south, martial systems in South Asia tend to be associated with certain states, cities, villages or ethnic groups.

Northern regional styles[edit]

Southern regional styles[edit]

Wrestling[edit]

Wrestling match in Davangere (2005)

Grappling arts (malla-vidya), practiced either as sport or fighting style, are found throughout the entirety of South Asia. True combat-wrestling is called malla-yuddha, while the term malakhra refers to wrestling for sport. Malla-yuddha was codified into four forms which progressed from purely sportive contests of strength to actual full-contact fights known as yuddha.[34] Due to the extreme violence, this final form is generally no longer practised. The second form, wherein the wrestlers attempt to lift each other off the ground for three seconds, persists in Karnataka. Under Mughal influence, malla-yuddha incorporated new training methods and became known as kusti, which soon came to dominate most of South Asia. Traditional malla-yuddha is virtually extinct in the north where it has been supplanted by kusti, but another form called malakhra still exists in parts of India and Sindh, Pakistan. Vajra-musti was another old grappling art in which the competitors wrestled while wearing a horned knuckleduster. In a later style called naki ka kusti (claw wrestling), the duellists fought with bagh nakha.

Numerous styles of folk wrestling are also found in India's countryside, such as mukna from Manipur and Inbuan wrestling from Mizoram.

Boxing[edit]

Boxing (musti-yuddha) is traditionally considered the roughest form of South Asian unarmed combat. In ancient times it was popular throughout what are now Pakistan and northern India, but the art is now confined to Varanasi. Boxers harden their fists by striking stone and other hard objects. Matches may be either one-on-one or group fights. Any part of the body may be targeted except the groin. Another form of boxing was loh-musti (meaning "iron fist"), said to have been practiced by the god Krishna. In this variation, boxers fought while wielding a steel ring like a knuckleduster. Grabbing, biting and attacks to the groin were all legal, the only prohibition being spitting on the opponent which was considered crude and dishonourable. The ring used for regular matches was unadorned, but the form employed during war had one or more spikes around its edge. The ring may be paired with one on each hand, but it was generally only worn on one hand so the other hand could be left free. In some cases the free hand could be paired with another weapon, most commonly the bagh nakha. Although loh-musti is still taught today, it no longer includes sparring.

Kicking[edit]

Kick-fighting (aki kiti) is the preserve of tribes from Nagaland. While the entire Naga population of northeast India and northwest Myanmar was traditionally known for their skill with broadswords (dao) and other weapons, disputes among tribesmen and between tribes were settled with a solely kick-based form of unarmed fighting. The goal is to either drive the opponent to their knees or outside of the ring. Only the feet are used to strike, and even blocking must be done with the legs.

Pugilism[edit]

Many forms of unarmed combat (bāhu-yuddha) incorporate too wide an array of techniques to be accurately categorized. In modern times when the carrying of weapons is no longer legal, teachers of the martial arts often emphasise the unarmed techniques as these are seen to be more practical for self-defense purposes. The bare-handed components of Indian fighting arts are typically based on the movements of animals or Hindu deities. Binot, which focuses on defending against both armed and unarmed opponents, may be the earliest system of its kind.[34] In the Mughal era, such fighters were known as ek hath (lit. "one hand"), so named because they would demonstrate their art using only one arm.

References[edit]

  1. ^ attested in Classical Sanskrit only, specifically in the Anargharāghava.
  2. ^ attested from Epic Sanskrit; see Luijendijk, D.H. (2008). Kalarippayat: The Essence and Structure of an Indian Martial Art. Oprat (LuLu.com). ISBN 1-58160-480-7. 
  3. ^ a b c d Zarrilli, Phillip B. A South Indian Martial Art and the Yoga and Ayurvedic Paradigms. University of Wisconsin–Madison.
  4. ^ Section XIII: Samayapalana Parva, Book 4: Virata Parva, Mahabharata.
  5. ^ R. Venkatachalam (September 1999). Mallayuddha.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i J. R. Svinth (2002). A Chronological History of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports. Electronic Journals of Martial Arts and Sciences.
  7. ^ The Timechart History of India. Robert Frederick Ltd. 2005. ISBN 0-7554-5162-7. 
  8. ^ a b c d Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1998). When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  9. ^ Luijendijk 2008
  10. ^ Suresh, P. R. (2005). Kalari Payatte – The martial art of Kerala.
  11. ^ Subramanian, N. (1966). Sangam polity. Bombay: Asian Publishing House.
  12. ^ Raj, J. David Manuel (1977). The Origin and the Historical Development of Silambam Fencing: An Ancient Self-Defence Sport of India. Oregon: College of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Univ. of Oregon. pp. 44, 50, & 83. 
  13. ^ Sports Authority of India (1987). Indigenous Games and Martial Arts of India. New Delhi: Sports Authority of India. pp. 91 & 94. 
  14. ^ a b c Bruce A. Haines (1995). Karate's History and Traditions (p. 23-25). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-1947-5.
  15. ^ G. D. Singhal, L. V. Guru (1973). Anatomical and Obstetrical Considerations in Ancient Indian Surgery Based on Sarira-Sthana of Susruta Samhita.
  16. ^ a b c Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1992). "To Heal and/or To Harm: The Vital Spots (Marmmam/Varmam) in Two South Indian Martial Traditions Part I: Focus on Kerala's Kalarippayattu". Journal of Asian Martial Arts 1 (1). 
  17. ^ P. C. Chakravarti (1972). The art of warfare in ancient India. Delhi.
  18. ^ (1.) bhrāntam (2.) udbhrāntam (3.) āviddham (4.) āplutaṃ (5.) viplutaṃ (6.) sṛtaṃ (7.) sampātaṃ (8.) samudīśañca (9.-10.) śyenapātamathākulaṃ (251.1) (11.) uddhūtam (12.) avadhūtañca (13.) savyaṃ (14.) dakṣiṇam eva ca (15.-16.) anālakṣita-visphoṭau (17.-18.) karālendramahāsakhau (251.2) (19.-20.) vikarāla-nipātau ca (21.-22.) vibhīṣaṇa-bhayānakau (23–24.) samagrārdha (25.) tṛtīyāṃśapāda (26.-28.) pādardhavārijāḥ (251.3) (29.) pratyālīḍham (30.) athālīḍhaṃ (31.) varāhaṃ (32.) lulitan tathā (251.4ab)
  19. ^ Parmeshwaranand Swami, Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Purāṇas, Sarup & Sons, 2001, ISBN 978-81-7625-226-3, s.v. "dhanurveda"; Gaṅgā Rām Garg, Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Concept Publishing Company, 1992 ISBN 978-81-7022-376-4, s.v. "archery".
  20. ^ Henry Heras (1927). The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara. Madras. 
  21. ^ M.L. Dames (1918). Travels of Duerte Barbosa. London. 
  22. ^ Edward Grey (1892). Pietro Della Valle - The Travels. 
  23. ^ A history of Dasnami Naga Sanyasis, Sir Jadunath Sarkar, Sri Panchayati Akhara Mahanirvani, Allahabad, http://dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10689/9526/5/Chapter%201_1%20-%20108p.pdf
  24. ^ Destruction of Maharashtra and the Marathas in the first half of seventh century "Travels of Hsuen Tsang, " Vol. IV, Samual Beal, P, 449.
  25. ^ K. L. Khurana (1993). Medieval India. Agra: Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. ISBN 81-85778-15-9. 
  26. ^ John Keay (2000). India: A History. New Delhi: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255717-7. 
  27. ^ A History of Warfare: Field-Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, William Morrow & Co; 1st edition (January 1983), ISBN 978-0688016456
  28. ^ The Gaysh: A History of the Aden Protectorate Levies 1927-61 and the Federal ... - Frank Edwards - Google Books
  29. ^ http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/orissaannualreference/ORA-2004/pdf/martial_tradition_of_orissa.pdf
  30. ^ "Reminiscences of Paika Vidroha". Orissatoday.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  31. ^ "Welcome to". Iakoweb.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  32. ^ http://orissadiary.com/Shownews.asp?id=5299
  33. ^ Luijendijk, D.H. (2005). Kalarippayat: India's Ancient Martial Art. Boulder: Paladin Press. ISBN 1-58160-480-7. 
  34. ^ a b c d Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. Kondansha International Limited. 
  35. ^ http://sports.indiapress.org/thang_ta.php
  36. ^ http://www.iakoweb.com/pakhada.html
  37. ^ Desai, Sudha Vishwanath (1980). Social life in Maharashtra under the Peshwas. Popular Prakashan. p. 131. OCLC 8243834. 

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