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**Incircle**redirects here. For incircles of non-triangle polygons, see Tangential quadrilateral or Tangential polygon.

In geometry, the **incircle** or **inscribed circle** of a triangle is the largest circle contained in the triangle; it touches (is tangent to) the three sides. The center of the incircle is called the triangle's **incenter**.

An **excircle** or **escribed circle** of the triangle is a circle lying outside the triangle, tangent to one of its sides and tangent to the extensions of the other two. Every triangle has three distinct excircles, each tangent to one of the triangle's sides.

The center of the incircle can be found as the intersection of the three internal angle bisectors. The center of an excircle is the intersection of the internal bisector of one angle and the external bisectors of the other two. Because the internal bisector of an angle is perpendicular to its external bisector, it follows that the center of the incircle together with the three excircle centers form an orthocentric system.

See also Tangent lines to circles.

- 1 Relation to area of the triangle
- 2 Nine-point circle and Feuerbach point
- 3 Gergonne triangle and point
- 4 Nagel triangle and point
- 5 Coordinates of the incenter
- 6 Equations for four circles
- 7 Euler's theorem
- 8 Other incircle properties
- 9 Other excircle properties
- 10 Incircle in a quadrilateral
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links

The radii of the incircles and excircles are closely related to the area of the triangle.^{[1]} Suppose has an incircle with radius *r* and center *I*. Let *a* be the length of *BC*, *b* the length of *AC*, and *c* the length of *AB*. Now, the incircle is tangent to *AB* at some point *C′*, and so is right. Thus the radius *C'I* is an altitude of . Therefore has base length *c* and height *r*, and so has area . Similarly, has area and has area . Since these three triangles decompose , we see that

where is the area of and is its semiperimeter.

The radii in the excircles are called the **exradii**. Let the excircle at side *AB* touch at side *AC* extended at *G*, and let this excircle's radius be and its center be . Then is an altitude of , so has area . By a similar argument, has area and has area . Thus

- .

So, by symmetry,

- .

By the law of cosines, we have

Combining this with the identity , we have

But , and so

which is Heron's formula.

Combining this with , we have

- .

Similarly, gives

- .

From these formulas one can see that the excircles are always larger than the incircle and that the largest excircle is the one tangent to the longest side and the smallest excircle is tangent to the shortest side. Further, combining these formulas formula yields:^{[2]}

The ratio of the area of the incircle to the area of the triangle is less than or equal to , with equality holding only for equilateral triangles.^{[3]}

The circle tangent to all three of the excircles as well as the incircle is known as the nine-point circle. The point where the nine-point circle touches the incircle is known as the Feuerbach point.

The **Gergonne triangle**(of *ABC*) is defined by the 3 touchpoints of the incircle on the 3 sides. Those vertices are denoted as *T _{A}*, etc. The point that

This **Gergonne triangle** *T _{A}T_{B}T_{C}* is also known as the

The three lines *AT _{A}*,

Interestingly, the Gergonne point of a triangle is the symmedian point of the Gergonne triangle. For a full set of properties of the Gergonne point see.^{[4]}

The touchpoints of the three excircles with segments *BC,CA and AB* are the vertices of the extouch triangle. The points of intersection of the interior angle bisectors of *ABC* with the segments *BC,CA,AB* are the vertices of the **incentral triangle**.

The **Nagel triangle** of *ABC* is denoted by the vertices *X _{A}*,

Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the intouch triangle are given by

Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the extouch triangle are given by

Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the incentral triangle are given by

Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the excentral triangle are given by

Trilinear coordinates for the Gergonne point are given by

- ,

or, equivalently, by the Law of Sines,

- .

Trilinear coordinates for the Nagel point are given by

- ,

or, equivalently, by the Law of Sines,

- .

It is the isotomic conjugate of the Gergonne point.

The Cartesian coordinates of the incenter are a weighted average of the coordinates of the three vertices using the side lengths of the triangle as weights. (The weights are positive so the incenter lies inside the triangle as stated above.) If the three vertices are located at , , and , and the sides opposite these vertices have corresponding lengths , , and , then the incenter is at

where

Trilinear coordinates for the incenter are given by

Barycentric coordinates for the incenter are given by

or equivalently

Let x : y : z be a variable point in trilinear coordinates, and let u = cos^{2}*(A/2)*, v = cos^{2}*(B/2)*, w = cos^{2}*(C/2)*. The four circles described above are given by these equations:

- Incircle:

*A-*excircle:

*B-*excircle:

*C-*excircle:

Euler's theorem states that in a triangle:

where *R* and *r*_{in} are the circumradius and inradius respectively, and *d* is the distance between the circumcenter and the incenter.

For excircles the equation is similar:

where *r*_{ex} is the radius of one of the excircles, and *d* is the distance between the circumcenter and this excircle's center. ^{[5]} ^{[6]} ^{[7]}

Suppose the tangency points of the incircle divide the sides into lengths of *x* and *y*, *y* and *z*, and *z* and *x*. Then the incircle has the radius^{[8]}

and the area of the triangle is

If the altitudes from sides of lengths *a*, *b*, and *c* are *h _{a}*,

The product of the incircle radius *r* and the circumcircle radius *R* of a triangle with sides *a*, *b*, and *c* is^{[9]}

Some relations among the sides, incircle radius, and circumcircle radius are:^{[10]}

Any line through a triangle that splits both the triangle's area and its perimeter in half goes through the triangle's incenter (the center of its incircle). There are either one, two, or three of these for any given triangle.^{[11]}

The distance from the incenter to the centroid is less than one third the length of the longest median of the triangle.^{[12]}

Denoting the distance from the incenter to the Euler line as *d*, the length of the longest median as *v*, the length of the longest side as *u*, and the semiperimeter as *s*, the following inequalities hold:^{[12]}

Denoting the center of the incircle of triangle *ABC* as *I*, we have^{[13]}

The circular hull of the excircles is internally tangent to each of the excircles, and thus is an Apollonius circle.^{[14]} The radius of this Apollonius circle is where *r* is the incircle radius and *s* is the semiperimeter of the triangle.^{[15]}

The following relations hold among the inradius *r*, the circumradius *R*, the semiperimeter *s*, and the excircle radii *r*_{'a}*,* r_{b}*,* r_{c}*: ^{[10]}*

The circle through the centers of the three excircles has radius 2*R*.^{[10]}

If *H* is the orthocenter of triangle *ABC*, then^{[10]}

Some (but not all) quadrilaterals have an incircle. These are called tangential quadrilaterals. Among their many properties perhaps the most important is that their opposite sides have equal sums. This is called the Pitot theorem.

- Altitude (triangle)
- Circumscribed circle
- Ex-tangential quadrilateral
- Harcourt's theorem
- Inscribed sphere
- Power of a point
- Steiner inellipse
- Tangential quadrilateral
- Triangle center

**^**Coxeter, H.S.M. "Introduction to Geometry*2nd ed. Wiley, 1961.***^**Baker, Marcus, "A collection of formulae for the area of a plane triangle,"*Annals of Mathematics*, part 1 in vol. 1(6), January 1885, 134-138. (See also part 2 in vol. 2(1), September 1885, 11-18.)**^**Minda, D., and Phelps, S., "Triangles, ellipses, and cubic polynomials",*American Mathematical Monthly*115, October 2008, 679-689: Theorem 4.1.**^**Dekov, Deko (2009). "Computer-generated Mathematics : The Gergonne Point".*Journal of Computer-generated Euclidean Geometry***1**: 1–14.**^**Nelson, Roger, "Euler's triangle inequality via proof without words,"*Mathematics Magazine*81(1), February 2008, 58-61.**^**Johnson, R. A.*Modern Geometry*, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1929: p. 187.**^**Emelyanov, Lev, and Emelyanova, Tatiana. "Euler’s formula and Poncelet’s porism",*Forum Geometricorum*1, 2001: pp. 137–140.**^**Chu, Thomas,*The Pentagon*, Spring 2005, p. 45, problem 584.**^**Johnson, Roger A.,*Advanced Euclidean Geometry*, Dover, 2007 (orig. 1929), p. 189, #298(d).- ^
^{a}^{b}^{c}^{d}Bell, Amy, "Hansen’s right triangle theorem, its converse and a generalization",*Forum Geometricorum*6, 2006, 335–342. **^**Kodokostas, Dimitrios, "Triangle Equalizers,"*Mathematics Magazine*83, April 2010, pp. 141-146.- ^
^{a}^{b}Franzsen, William N.. "The distance from the incenter to the Euler line",*Forum Geometricorum*11 (2011): 231–236. **^**Allaire, Patricia R.; Zhou, Junmin; and Yao, Haishen, "Proving a nineteenth century ellipse identity",*Mathematical Gazette*96, March 2012, 161-165.**^**Grinberg, Darij, and Yiu, Paul, "The Apollonius Circle as a Tucker Circle",*Forum Geometricorum*2, 2002: pp. 175-182.**^**Stevanovi´c, Milorad R., "The Apollonius circle and related triangle centers",*Forum Geometricorum*3, 2003, 187-195.

- Clark Kimberling, "Triangle Centers and Central Triangles,"
*Congressus Numerantium*129 (1998) i-xxv and 1-295. - Sándor Kiss, "The Orthic-of-Intouch and Intouch-of-Orthic Triangles,"
*Forum Geometricorum*6 (2006) 171-177.

- Derivation of formula for radius of incircle of a triangle
- Weisstein, Eric W., "Incircle",
*MathWorld*.

- Triangle incenter Triangle incircle Incircle of a regular polygon With interactive animations
- Constructing a triangle's incenter / incircle with compass and straightedge An interactive animated demonstration
- Equal Incircles Theorem at cut-the-knot
- Five Incircles Theorem at cut-the-knot
- Pairs of Incircles in a Quadrilateral at cut-the-knot
- An interactive Java applet for the incenter