In-N-Out Burger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

In-N-Out Burgers, Inc.
TypePrivate
FoundedBaldwin Park, California, (1948)
HeadquartersIrvine, California
Number of locations290[1]
Area servedCalifornia
Arizona
Nevada
Utah
Texas
Key peopleLynsi Snyder (President)
Mark Taylor (COO)
Roger Kotch (CFO)
RevenueEstimated US$625 million (2012)[2]
Websitein-n-out.com
 
Jump to: navigation, search
"Quality You Can Taste" redirects here. For the album with the slogan as a working title, see Cherry Pie (album).
For other uses, see In and out.
In-N-Out Burgers, Inc.
TypePrivate
FoundedBaldwin Park, California, (1948)
HeadquartersIrvine, California
Number of locations290[1]
Area servedCalifornia
Arizona
Nevada
Utah
Texas
Key peopleLynsi Snyder (President)
Mark Taylor (COO)
Roger Kotch (CFO)
RevenueEstimated US$625 million (2012)[2]
Websitein-n-out.com

In-N-Out Burgers, Inc. is a regional chain of fast food restaurants with locations in[3] California and the American Southwest. Founded in 1948 by Harry Snyder and his wife Esther, establishing the first In-N-Out burger in Baldwin Park, California, and headquartered in Irvine. In-N-Out Burger has slowly expanded outside Southern California into the rest of the state as well as into Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and Texas. The current owner is Lynsi Snyder, the only grandchild of the Snyders. As of December 12, 2013 In-N-Out employed over 18,000 staff and had 290 locations with no location more than a day's drive from a regional distribution center.[1] As the chain has expanded, it has opened several distribution centers in addition to its original Baldwin Park location.

Located in Lathrop, California; Phoenix, Arizona; Draper, Utah; and Dallas, Texas; these new distribution centers will provide for potential future expansion into other parts of the country.[4][5][6] In-N-Out Burger has resisted franchising its operations or going public; one reason is the prospect of quality or customer consistency being compromised by excessively rapid business growth.[7] The company's business practices have been noted for employee-centered personnel policies. For example, In-N-Out is one of the few fast food chains in the United States to pay its employees significantly more than state and federally mandated minimum wage guidelines – starting at US$10.50 per hour in California, as of April 2013.[8] The In-N-Out restaurant chain has developed a highly loyal customer base,[9][10][dead link][11] and has been rated as one of the top fast food restaurants in several customer satisfaction surveys.[12][13][14]

History[edit]

In-N-Out headquarters at University Tower in Irvine

First generation[edit]

In-N-Out's first location was opened in Baldwin Park, California, in 1948 by the Snyders[7] at the southwest corner of what is now the intersection of Interstate 10 and Francisquito Avenue in the Los Angeles suburb of Baldwin Park, California. The restaurant was the first drive-thru hamburger stand in California, allowing drivers to place orders via a two-way speaker system.[7] This was a new and unique idea, since in post-World War II California, car hops were used to take orders and serve food.[15] According to the company's website, the Snyders had a simple plan that is still in use today: "Give customers the freshest, highest quality foods you can buy and provide them with friendly service in a sparkling clean environment."

A second In-N-Out was opened west of the intersection of Grand Avenue and Arrow Highway in Covina, California, three years later. The company remained a relatively small southern California chain until the 1970s. The Snyders managed their first restaurants closely to ensure quality was maintained.[16] The chain had 18 restaurants when Harry Snyder died in 1976 at the age of 63.[17]

Second generation[edit]

In 1976, 24-year-old Rich Snyder became the company president after his father's death. Along with his brother Guy, Rich had reportedly begun working in his father's In-N-Outs "from the ground floor" at an early age. Over the next 20 years, the chain experienced a period of rapid growth under Rich's leadership, expanding to 93[18] restaurants.[19]

In 1992, In-N-Out opened its first non-southern California restaurants in Las Vegas, Nevada. Expansion then began into northern California, including the San Francisco Bay Area, while additional Las Vegas-area restaurants were added. However, after opening restaurant No. 83 in Fresno, California, on 15 December 1993, Rich Snyder and four other passengers died in a plane crash on approach to John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California. The charter aircraft they were on had been following a Boeing 757 in for landing, became caught in its wake turbulence, and crashed. The ensuing crash investigation led to the Federal Aviation Administration requirement for an adequate distance between heavy aircraft and following light aircraft to allow wake turbulence to diminish.

Upon Rich Snyder's death in 1993, Guy Snyder assumed the presidency and continued the company's aggressive expansion until he died from an overdose of painkillers in 1999.[10] He was president for six years, expanding In-N-Out from 83 to 140 locations.[19] His mother Esther subsequently took over the presidency.

The 21st century[edit]

In-N-Out Burger sign in Norwalk, California.

Locations in Arizona were established in 2000, while other Nevada restaurants were opened in Reno, Sparks, and Carson City in late 2004. In-N-Out became a huge success in these new locations. In 2007, the opening of the first restaurant in Tucson, Arizona, broke company records for most burgers sold in one day along with the most sold in one week.[20]

In 2008, In-N-Out expanded into a fourth state by opening a location in Washington, Utah, a suburb of St. George. By late 2009, the chain expanded into northern Utah with three new locations situated in Draper,[21] American Fork,[22] and Orem. More locations opened in the spring of 2010 in West Valley City, West Jordan, Centerville, and Riverton.

In-N-Out Burger in Frisco, Texas, one of the first locations to open in Texas.

In May 2010, In-N-Out announced plans to expand into Texas, specifically within the Dallas–Fort Worth area with the first two locations opening in Frisco and Allen on 11 May 2011.[23] The chain would later expand in 2013 to the Austin region. As of December 16, 2013, there were 21 restaurant locations in the Dallas–Fort Worth area, and two (with a third under construction) in the Austin area. These new locations in Texas required the company to build a new patty production facility and distribution center in Texas, according to company vice president Carl Van Fleet.[24] In March of 2014, the company confirmed its first location in San Antonio.[25]

While the company grew, it struggled to maintain its family roots. Esther Snyder died in 2006 at the age of 86 and passed the presidency to Mark Taylor, former vice president of operations. Taylor became the company's fifth president and first non-family member to hold the position, although he does have ties to the family. The company's current heiress is Lynsi Snyder, daughter of Guy and only grandchild of Esther and Harry Snyder. Snyder, who was 23 years old and known as Lynsi Martinez at her grandmother's death, owns the company through a trust. She gained control of 50% of the company in 2012 when she turned 30, and will gain full control when she turns 35.[26]

After participating in various roles in the company, Snyder assumed the presidency in 2010, becoming the company's sixth president. However, most major decisions are made by a seven-member executive team. Snyder does not intend to franchise nor sell, and plans to pass on ownership of the company to her two children.[1]

   Counties with at least one In-N-Out location.[27] Since 1992, In-N-Out has expanded beyond California to Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and Texas.

Legal issues[edit]

Rich Boyd lawsuit (2006)[edit]

In 2006, a lawsuit exposed a possible family feud over the chain's corporate leadership. Richard Boyd, one of In-N-Out's vice presidents and co-trustee of two-thirds of the company stock, accused the then Lynsi Martinez and allied corporate executives of trying to force out Esther Snyder and attempting to fire Boyd unreasonably. Pre-empting the suit, Martinez, Snyder and Taylor appeared in a December video message to employees, telling them not to believe everything they hear.[9] The company then responded with a lawsuit of its own, alleging Boyd had construction work done on his personal property and charged it to the company, as well as favoring contractors with uncompetitive bids.[10] Boyd was then suspended from his role as co-trustee and Northern Trust Bank of California took his place (as co-trustee) until a hearing set for May 10, 2006. However, in April, the judge dismissed two of In-N-Out's claims against Boyd. A trial date of October 17, 2006, was set but never occurred, and a settlement was reached out of court.[28] Ultimately, Boyd was permanently removed from his role as an employee and co-trustee.[29]

Chadder's infringement lawsuit (2007)[edit]

In June 2007, the company filed a lawsuit against an American Fork, Utah, restaurant named Chadder's for trademark infringement, claiming that the "look and feel" of the restaurant too closely resembled that of In-N-Out, and that the restaurant violated trademarked menu items, such as "Animal Style", "Protein Style", "Double-Double", and so forth.[30]

The company was tipped off by Utah customers contacting the customer service department asking if In-N-Out opened a location in Utah under a different name or if they had any affiliation with the restaurant in any way. Several customers stated they ordered trademarked items such as Animal and Protein styles.[31]

On 7 June 2007, In-N-Out's general counsel visited the Chadders restaurant in American Fork and "viewed the premises and operations and ordered a meal that was not listed on its menu. He requested an 'Animal style Double-Double with Animal fries,' and his order was filled."[32] Utah District court Judge Ted Stewart issued a temporary restraining order against the look-alike. Chadder's opened another location near the Salt Lake City area and one in Provo.

In 2009, In-N-Out opened a restaurant in American Fork less than a mile from the Chadder's restaurant.[22][30][33] Per their website, Chadder's started selling a "Stubby Double" instead of "Double Double".[34] The Chadder's restaurants in Utah have gone out of business since In-N-Out restaurants have opened in Utah.

Menu[edit]

The In-N-Out menu consists of three burger varieties: hamburger, cheeseburger, and "Double-Double" (two hamburger patties and two slices of cheese). French fries and fountain drinks are available, as well as three flavors of milkshakes. The hamburgers come with lettuce, tomato, with or without onions (the customer is asked upon ordering, and may have them fresh or grilled), and a sauce, which is called "spread" (a Thousand Island dressing variant).

Cheeseburgers and hamburger

There are, however, additional named items not on the menu, but available at every In-N-Out. These variations reside on the chain's "secret menu," though the menu is accessible on the company's web site. These variations include 3x3 (which has three patties and three slices of cheese), 4x4 (four patties and four slices of cheese), Neapolitan shakes, grilled cheese sandwich (comes with the same ingredients as the burgers except the meat, plus two slices of melted cheese), Protein style (wrap with lettuce; comes with the same ingredients as the burgers except buns), and Animal Style.

20x20

Both Protein and Animal Style are house specialties that the company has trademarked because of their association with the chain. Animal Style fries come with two slices of melted cheese, spread, and grilled onions on top;

Animal-Style fries

Animal style burgers are cooked in a thin layer of mustard, and in addition to the lettuce and tomato it also includes pickles, grilled onions, and extra spread. Hot peppers are also available by request.[35]

Until 2004 In-N-Out accommodated burger orders of any size by adding patties at an additional cost. A particularly famous incident involving a 100x100 (100 patties, 100 slices of cheese) occurred in 2004.[36] Once word got out of the incredibly large sandwich, In-N-Out management disallowed anything larger than a 4x4.[37] However, one can order what is called a "Flying Dutchman" which consists of two meat patties and two slices of cheese by itself (no bun, condiments, or vegetables).[38]

Store design and layout[edit]

In-N-Out restaurant in Pinole, California near Interstate 80 with one drive-through lane and an indoor dining area. Note the crossed palm trees in the back.

The signature colors for In-N-Out are white, red, and yellow. The white is used for the buildings' exterior walls and the employees' basic uniform. Red is used for the buildings' roofs and the employees' aprons and hats. Yellow is used for the decorative band on the roof and iconic zig-zag in the logo. However, variations in the color scheme do occur.

The first In-N-Outs' had a common design, placing the kitchen "stand" between two lanes of cars. The "front" lane is nearest the street, and the "back" lane away from the street. A metal awning provides shade for several tables for customers desiring to park and eat, but there is no indoor dining. A walk-up window faces the parking area. These restaurants store food and supplies in a separate building, and it is not uncommon for a driver to be asked to wait a moment while employees carry supplies to the kitchen across the rear lane.

This simpler design is a popular image on In-N-Out ads and artwork, which often shows classic cars such as 1965 Mustangs and 1968 Firebirds visiting the original restaurants. The original Covina restaurant, located on Arrow Highway west of Grand Avenue, was forced to close in the early 1990s due to re-engineering and development of the area. A modern design, drive-up/dining room restaurant was built a few hundred feet away. The new building is much larger (approximately half the size of the entire lot upon which the earlier restaurant sat), and is often filled to capacity.

The famous In-N-Out Burger at the corner of Gayley and Le Conte in Westwood, Los Angeles near the UCLA campus, designed by Kanner Architects

Like many chain restaurants, newer In-N-Out restaurants are based on a set of templates or "cookie-cutter" blueprints, which are chosen based on available space and expected traffic levels. While external appearance of its buildings may vary to meet local zoning and architectural requirements, the interior floor plan and decor in most recently constructed In-N-Out restaurants are identical. However, some restaurants are designed to stand out, such as the restaurants at Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco and Westwood, Los Angeles.

Example of In-N-Out's crossed palm trees

Today's typical location has an interior layout that includes a customer service counter with registers in front of a kitchen and food preparation area. There are separate storage areas for paper goods (napkins, bags, etc.) and "dry" food goods (potatoes, buns, etc.), as well as a walk-in refrigerator for perishable goods (lettuce, cheese, spread etc.), and a dedicated meat refrigerator for burger patties. The customer area includes an indoor dining room with a combination of booths, tables, and bar-style seating. Outside seating is usually available as well, with tables and benches. Most newer restaurants contain a one-lane drive-through.

There are other design elements common among today's In-N-Out locations. Matching In-N-Out's California-inspired palm tree theme, palm trees are sometimes planted to form an "X" in front of the restaurants. This is an allusion to founder Harry Snyder's favorite movie, Stanley Kramer's It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, in which the characters look for a hidden treasure and find it under "the big W" made by four palm trees, with the middle two forming an "X".[39]

Advertising[edit]

A typical interior with the company's motto, "Quality you can taste"

Like other fast food chains, In-N-Out uses roadside billboards that attract customers to the nearest location. Billboard ads typically display an image of the trademarked Double-Double burger. The chain uses short radio commercials, often limited to the jingle, "In-N-Out, In-N-Out. That's what a hamburger's all about." Television commercials, which are less common, feature the hamburger's visual appeal. In-N-Out seldom uses celebrities in ads, although John Cleese and John Goodman have voiced radio spots. In the past, the Snyders' also sponsored Christmas music programming with voice-overs expressing the meaning of the holiday. Such commercials have caused controversy among some listeners.[40]

In addition to conventional, paid advertising, In-N-Out benefits from positive word of mouth spread by enthusiastic fans. For many years, it gave customers free bumper stickers which simply said "In-N-Out Burger". (Many of these were altered to read "In-N-Out urge").[41] The company helps devoted customers advertise its brand by selling souvenir clothing with the In-N-Out logo.[42] Celebrity fans and free endorsements in mass media also promote the business. When Heisman Trophy winner and Ohio State quarterback Troy Smith raved about In-N-Out cheeseburgers during a press conference before the 2007 BCS National Championship Game, a senior executive said, "It does not get much better than that for us. We're kind of a small company, and we do not have any celebrity endorsers. But I think we just got the best one we could have."[43] Huell Howser was allowed, in what is believed to be a first, to film with his television cameras inside a store for a California's Gold Special. The show also included a behind-the-scenes tour of the In-N-Out Headquarters.[44]


Culture[edit]

Popularity[edit]

The In-N-Out Burger sign at Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco
In-N-Out offers mobile catering in some Southern California markets.
Mobile POS systems are used during peak hours in order to help curb long drive thru lines.

The burger chain has achieved widespread popularity which has led to celebration by some when brought to new locations, and the opening of a new restaurant often becomes an event. When one opened in Scottsdale, Arizona, there was a four-hour wait for food, and news helicopters whirled above the parking lot.[45]

The chain's image has also made it popular in more non-traditional ways. For example, In-N-Out is still considered acceptable in some areas with a strong opposition to corporate food restaurants, such as McDonald's. Local business leaders in San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf district said they opposed every other fast food chain except In-N-Out, because they wanted to maintain the flavor of family-owned, decades-old businesses in the area, with one saying locals would ordinarily "be up in arms about a fast-food operation coming to Fisherman's Wharf," but "this is different."[11] California native and Colorado Rockies player Jason Giambi would often visit In-N-Out Burger when on the West Coast with his former team, the New York Yankees. He said he tried to open an In-N-Out Burger restaurant in New York, but was unsuccessful.[46]

The chain also has fans in a number of renowned chefs including Gordon Ramsay, Thomas Keller, Julia Child, Anthony Bourdain, and Mario Batali.[18] Famous London chef/restaurateur Gordon Ramsay ate In-N-Out for the first time when taping Hell's Kitchen in Los Angeles, and it soon became one of his favorite spots for take-out.[47] Ramsay was quoted, saying about the experience: "In-N-Out burgers were extraordinary. I was so bad, I sat in the restaurant, had my double cheeseburger then minutes later I drove back round and got the same thing again to take away."[47] Thomas Keller, a fan of In-N-out, celebrated with In-N-Out burgers at the anniversary party of his restaurant, The French Laundry.[48] Keller also plans on opening his own burger restaurant inspired by his Los Angeles experience of In-N-Out.[49] Julia Child, one of the first celebrity champions on the chain, admitted to knowing every location of the restaurant between Santa Barbara and San Francisco.[50] Child also had the burgers delivered to her during a hospital stay.[48] Anthony Bourdain reportedly said that In-N-Out was his favorite fast food meal.[48] In-N-Out was one of the very few restaurant chains given a positive mention in the book Fast Food Nation. The book commended the chain for using natural and fresh ingredients and for looking after the interests of employees regarding pay and benefits.[51] An In-N-Out food truck catered Vanity Fair's 2012 Academy Awards after party.[52]

Art[edit]

Richard Bunkall painting commissioned by Haenel family of In-N-Out Burger.

Jack Schmidt was the first person commissioned to paint the original In-N-Out located in Baldwin Park, CA for In-N-Out Burger Inc.[53] His paintings were later reproduced on advertisements, shirts, and other consumer products. His paintings capture the car culture, beautiful weather, and the easy-speed of In-N-Out Burger[53] The art pieces illustrate the beautiful climate that is associated with Southern California. Beautiful sunsets, sunny blue skies, and towering palm trees are always present.

Bible verses[edit]

Bible reference on the bottom of an In-N-Out drink cup
Bible reference on wrapper of an In-N-Out Double-Double

In-N-Out prints discreet references to Bible verses on their paper containers. These consist of the book, chapter, and number of the verse, not the text of the passage, in small print on an inconspicuous area of the item. The practice began in the 1980s during Rich Snyder's presidency,[39] a reflection of the Christian beliefs held by the Snyder family:

The In-N-Out Burgers Foundation[edit]

The In-N-Out Burgers Foundation, was established as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization in March 1995,[54] and classified as a "Human Services: Fund Raising & Fund Distribution" organization under the NTEE system.[55] Based in Irvine, California, the foundation "supports organizations that provide residential treatment, emergency shelter, foster care, and early intervention for children in need." Its grant-making activities are restricted to eligible nonprofit groups that are located or provide services in areas where In-N-Out has a presence.[56] Consequently, grant proposals are only accepted from applicants in a limited number of counties in Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, Texas, and Washington .[57] In 2010, the most recent year for which financial reporting is publicly available (and before the opening of the company's Texas locations),[58] the foundation contributed $1,545,250 to 231 grantees in Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and Washington.[59] Grant-making is funded through donor contributions and In-N-Out-sponsored fundraisers; typical grants are between $2,000 and $20,000.[57]

Original restaurant[edit]

The first In-N-Out restaurant that opened in 1948 was demolished when the Interstate 10 (then U.S. 60/70/99, the Pomona Freeway) San Bernardino Freeway was built from downtown Los Angeles to the San Gabriel Valley. The freeway runs over the original location. A new restaurant was completed in 1954 near the original Baldwin Park, California location, but was closed in November 2004 and demolished on 16 April 2011 despite discussions about using it as an In-N-Out museum chronicling the origins and history of the company.[60] In-N-Out built a replacement restaurant on the other side of the freeway next to the original In-N-Out University (opened in 1984). A new In-N-Out University was built on the property. The University building houses the training department, which was moved from Irvine, California. In addition, the company restaurant was moved from In-N-Out's Baldwin Park headquarters to the new lot, which holds the restaurant and university, less than a thousand feet away. A replica of the 1948 In-N-Out is being built where the 1954 replacement was torn down.[61][when?]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Drag-racing heiress keeps In-N-Out on course". In-N-Out corporate website. 2013-12-14. 
  2. ^ http://www.forbes.com/sites/calebmelby/2013/03/06/why-in-n-out-heiress-lynsi-torres-isnt-a-billionaire-yet/
  3. ^ Lubove, Seth. "Youngest American Woman Billionaire Found With In-N-Out". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 February 2013.  Northern California, Southern California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah & Texas
  4. ^ "Phoenix Distribution Center". City Search. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  5. ^ "In-N-Out Burgers plans more Utah locations". Enterprise Newspaper Group. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  6. ^ ROBINSON-JACOBS, KAREN (October 7, 2010). "In-N-Out Burger plans up to 8 restaurants for DFW, major distribution center for Texas hub". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved May 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c Schermerhorn, John R. (October 11, 2011). Exploring Management. John Wiley & Sons (retrieved via Google Books). p. C-36. Retrieved May 19, 2012. 
  8. ^ Steve Rubenstein (August 15, 2001). "Chain reaction/San Francisco job applicants come by the dozen to interview for jobs at a new In-N-Out restaurant / $9.25 per hour plus meal". The San Francisco Gate. Retrieved August 7, 2006. 
  9. ^ a b John Pomfre (January 30, 2006). "In Calif., Internal Lawsuits Served Up at Burger Chain". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2006. 
  10. ^ a b c Amanda Bronstad (December 5, 2005). "In-n-Out burned by exec's lawsuit". Los Angeles Business Journal. AllBusiness.com. Retrieved August 6, 2006. 
  11. ^ a b Strasburg, Jenny (March 3, 2001). "In-N-Out Burger Beefs Up the Wharf Chain's followers now have S.F. site". The San Francisco Gate. Retrieved August 6, 2006. 
  12. ^ Allison Perlik (September 15, 2008). "Consumers' Choice in Chains: Votes of Confidence". The Wall Street Journal (Restaurants & Institutions). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Zagat Surveys Nation's Fast Food". Zagat.com. June 8, 2009. 
  14. ^ Frank Pellegrini (August 31, 2000). "Restaurant Review: The In-N-Out Burger". Time. Retrieved November 1, 2008. 
  15. ^ "History of In and Out Burger". 
  16. ^ "Marketplace: What sets burger chain In-N-Out apart". May 7, 2009. [dead link]
  17. ^ "Esther Snyder, In-N-Out Burger Founder, Dies at 86". The New York Times. August 13, 2006. Retrieved April 4, 2008. 
  18. ^ a b Stacy Perman (April 14, 2009). "In-N-Out Burger". Retrieved April 14, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "History". Retrieved November 1, 2008. 
  20. ^ "In-N-Out Burger's all-stars set record with Tucson opening". June 15, 2007. 
  21. ^ "Famous IN-N-OUT coming to Draper". 
  22. ^ a b "In-N-Out coming to American Fork". February 19, 2009. 
  23. ^ Lucas Kavner (12 July 2012). "In-N-Out Burger Expands To North Texas, People Line Up (UPDATE)". Huffington Post. Retrieved 26 January 2013. 
  24. ^ Sterling, Colin (May 27, 2010). "In-N-Out Burger Heads To Dallas, Texas". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2010. 
  25. ^ Morton, Neal (March 20, 2014). "In-N-Out confirms first S.A. site". My San Antonio. Retrieved March 20, 2014. 
  26. ^ Lubove, Seth (February 7, 2013). "Lynsi Torres, In-N-Out Burger's Elusive Billionaire". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "In-N-Out Road Trip Location Guide". May 22, 2014. Retrieved May 25, 2014. 
  28. ^ "In-N-Out ordered to alter some claims in lawsuit". Money. August 6, 2006. 
  29. ^ "In-N-Out, former VP reach secretive settlement". August 6, 2006. 
  30. ^ a b "In-N-Out wins one over Chadders". June 30, 2007. 
  31. ^ "In-N-Out Burger sues American Fork Restaurant". June 18, 2007. 
  32. ^ "In-N-Out Burgers v. Chadders Restaurant et al.". June 29, 2007. 
  33. ^ "In-N-Out Burger Suing American Fork Burger Joint". Fox News. June 19, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Chadder's Sued For Not Opening". May 14, 2010. 
  35. ^ "The In-N-Out secret menu". 
  36. ^ "A 100x100 at In-N-Out". 
  37. ^ "Welcome to Burger Heaven". 
  38. ^ "In-N-Out's Secret Menu". 
  39. ^ a b Savio, Kelly (August 9, 2006). "The Ins and Outs of In-N-Out". Gilroy Dispatch. 
  40. ^ "Robert J. Elisberg: The World's Only Hamburger That's Good for You". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  41. ^ Perman, Stacy. In-N-Out Burger: A Behind-the-Counter Look at the Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules. Harper Collins. 2010. Pages 149–50
  42. ^ Pellegrini, Frank (August 21, 2000). "Restaurant Review: The In-N-Out Burger". Time. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  43. ^ Briggs, David (January 8, 2007). "Smith Stays In, Buckeyes Worth Big Bucks". The Lantern. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  44. ^ "California's Gold #146 - IN-N-OUT BURGER" Huell Howser Productions. (2009) Retrieved January 5, 2014.
  45. ^ Tom McNichol (August 14, 2002). "The Secret Behind A Burger Cult". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2007. 
  46. ^ "Jason Giambi, Oakland Athletics on verge of one-year deal – ESPN". 
  47. ^ a b Jill Scott (April 20, 2008). "Gordon Ramsay admits secret passion for fast food burgers". Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
  48. ^ a b c Nancy Luna (March 2011). "Attack of the Double Double". Retrieved March 2011. 
  49. ^ Joshua David Stein (April 13, 2010). "Thomas Keller: His fantasy burger restaurant". Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  50. ^ Russ Parsons (August 7, 2002). "A day in the life at 90". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 7, 2002. 
  51. ^ Schlosser, Eric (2002). Fast Food Nation. HarperCollins. p. 259. 
  52. ^ Heyman, Marshall (February 28, 2012). "Mixing It Up at Oscar After-Parties". online.wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  53. ^ a b Perman, Stacy. In-n-out Burger: A Behind-the-Counter Look at the Fast-Food Chain That Breaks All the Rules. New York: Collins Business, 2009. Print..
  54. ^ "Child Abuse Foundation: History". IN-N-OUT BURGER. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  55. ^ "In-N-Out Burgers Foundation". National Center for Charitable Statistics. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  56. ^ "Child Abuse Foundation: Eligibility". IN-N-OUT BURGER. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  57. ^ a b "Child Abuse Foundation: About The Grants". IN-N-OUT BURGER. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  58. ^ "In-N-Out Burger: 2 Texas restaurants to open next week". OC Register. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  59. ^ "Form 990". Internal Revenue Service, via Foundation Center. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  60. ^ ""Historic In-N-Out Burger stand is Down-N-Out" Los Angeles Times, 4/16/11". Latimes.com. 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  61. ^ Aviles, Carlos "Original In-N-Out Burger Replica Almost Finished in Baldwin Park" BaldwinParkPatch 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2013-01-05

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]