Immigration to Canada

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Canadian citizenship
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Immigration to Canada
History of immigration to Canada
Economic impact of immigration
Canadian immigration and refugee law
Immigration Act, 1976
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
Permanent residency
Temporary residency
Permanent Resident Card
Canadian nationality law
History of nationality law
Citizenship Act 1946
Citizenship Test
Oath of Citizenship
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Passport Canada
Citizenship classes
Honorary citizenship
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"Canadians of convenience"
Demographics of Canada
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Canadian citizenship
This article is part of a series
Immigration to Canada
History of immigration to Canada
Economic impact of immigration
Canadian immigration and refugee law
Immigration Act, 1976
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
Permanent residency
Temporary residency
Permanent Resident Card
Canadian nationality law
History of nationality law
Citizenship Act 1946
Citizenship Test
Oath of Citizenship
Citizenship and Immigration Canada
Passport Canada
Citizenship classes
Honorary citizenship
Commonwealth citizen
Lost Canadians
"Canadians of convenience"
Demographics of Canada
Population by year
Ethnic origins

Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside in the country. The majority of these individuals become Canadian citizens. After 1947, domestic immigration law and policy went through major changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, 1976, and the current Immigration and Refugee Protection Act from 2002. Canadian immigration policies are still evolving. As recent as in 2008, Citizenship and Immigration Canada has made significant changes to streamline the steady flow of immigrants. The changes included reduced professional categories for skilled immigration as well as caps for immigrants in various categories. Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[1]

In Canada there are four categories of immigrants: family class (closely related persons of Canadian residents living in Canada), economic immigrants (skilled workers and business people), other (people accepted as immigrants for humanitarian or compassionate reasons) and refugees (people who are escaping persecution, torture or cruel and unusual punishment).

Currently, Canada is known as a country with a broad immigration policy which is reflected in Canada's ethnic diversity. According to the 2001 census by Statistics Canada, Canada has 33 ethnic groups with at least one hundred thousand members each, of which 10 have over 1,000,000 people and numerous others represented in smaller amounts. 16.2% of the population belonged to visible minorities: most numerous among these are South Asian (4.0% of the population), Chinese (3.9%), Black descent (2.5%), and Filipino (1.3%). Other than Canadians of British, Irish, or French descent there are more members of Ethnic groups not classified as visible minorities than this 16.2%; the largest are: German (10.18%), and Italian (4.63%), with 3.87% being Ukrainian, 3.87% being Dutch, and 3.15% being Polish. Other minority ethnic origins include Russian (1.60%), Norwegian (1.38%), Portuguese (1.32%), and Swedish (1.07%).[2] ("North American Indians", a group which may include migrants of indigenous origin from the United States and Mexico but which for the most part are not considered immigrants, comprise 4.01% of the national population.)[2] One of the major issues immigrant groups faces upon arrival to Canada are ethnic penalties.[3]

A 2014 sociological study concluded that: "Australia and Canada are the most receptive to immigration among western nations".[4]


A collection of four maps showing the distribution of the Canadian population for 1851 (Newfoundland 1857), 1871 (Newfoundland 1869), 1901 and 1921 by historical region.
Come to Stay, printed in 1880 in the Canadian Illustrated News, which refers to immigration to the "Dominion".

After the initial period of British and French colonization, four major waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-aboriginal peoples took place over a period of almost two centuries. The fifth wave is currently ongoing.

First wave[edit]

The first wave of significant, non-aboriginal immigration to Canada occurred over almost two centuries with slow but progressive French settlement of Quebec and Acadia with smaller numbers of American and European entrepreneurs in addition to British military personnel. This wave culminated with the influx of 46–50,000 British Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States mostly into what is today Southern Ontario, the Eastern Townships of Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. A second wave of 30,000 Americans settled in Ontario between the late 1780s and 1812 with promises of land. Scottish Highlanders from land clearances also became landers in Canada during this period.

Second wave[edit]

The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812, and included British army regulars who had served in the war. The colonial governors of Canada, who were worried about another American invasion attempt and to counter the French-speaking influence of Quebec, rushed to promote settlement in back country areas along newly constructed plank roads within organized land tracts, mostly in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). With the second wave Irish immigration to Canada had been increasing and peaked when the Irish Potato Famine occurred from 1846 to 1849 resulting in hundreds of thousands more Irish arriving on Canada's shores, although a significant portion migrated to the United States either in the short-term or over the subsequent decades.

The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 copied the American system by offering ownership of 160 acres of land free (except for a small registration fee) to any man over 18 or any woman heading a household. They did not need to be citizens, but had to live on the plot and improve it.

Also during this period, Canada became a port of entry for many Europeans seeking to gain entry into the U.S. Canadian transportation companies advertised Canadian ports as a hassle-free way to enter the U.S. especially as the U.S. began barring entry to certain ethnicities. The U.S. and Canada mitigated this situation in 1894 with the Canadian Agreement which allowed for U.S. immigration officials to inspect ships landing at Canadian ports for immigrants excluded from the U.S. If found, the transporting companies were responsible for shipping the persons back.[5]

Clifford Sifton, minister of the Interior in Ottawa, 1896–1905, argued that the free western lands were ideal for growing wheat and would attract large numbers of hard-working farmers. He removed obstacles that included control of the lands by companies or organizations that did little to encourage settlement. Land companies, the Hudson's Bay Company, and school lands all accounted for large tracts of excellent land. The railways kept closed even larger tracts because they were reluctant to take legal title to the even-numbered lands they were due, thus blocking sale of odd-numbered tracts. Sifton broke the legal log jam, and set up aggressive advertising campaigns in the U.S. and Europe, with a host of agents promoting the Canadian west. He also brokered deals with ethnic groups that wanted large tracts for homogeneous settlement. His goal was to maximize immigration from Britain, eastern Canada and the U.S.[6]

Third wave[edit]

The third wave of immigration coming mostly from continental Europe peaked prior to World War I, between 1911–1913 (over 400,000 in 1912) and the fourth wave also from that same continent in 1957 (282,000), making Canada a more multiethnic country with substantial non-English or -French speaking populations. For example, Ukrainian Canadians account for the largest Ukrainian population outside Ukraine and Russia. Periods of lowered immigration have also occurred, especially during the First World War and the Second World War, in addition to the Great Depression.

Immigration since the 1970s has overwhelmingly been of visible minorities from the developing world. This was largely influenced in 1967 when the Immigration Act was revised and this continued to be official government policy. During the Mulroney government, immigration levels were increased. By the late 1980s, the fifth wave of immigration has maintained with slight fluctuations since (225,000–275,000 annually). Currently, most immigrants come from South Asia and China and this trend is expected to continue.[citation needed]


Prior to 1885, restrictions on immigration were imposed mostly in response to large waves of immigration rather than planned policy decisions, but not specifically targeted at one group or ethnicity, at least as official policy. Then came the introduction of the first Chinese Head Tax legislation passed in 1885, which was in response to a growing number of Chinese working on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Subsequent increases in the head tax in 1900 and 1903 limited Chinese entrants to Canada. In 1923 the government passed the Chinese Immigration Act which excluded Chinese from entering Canada altogether between 1923 and 1947. For discriminating against Chinese immigrants in past periods, an official government apology and compensations were announced on 22 June 2006.


Canadian citizenship was originally created under the Immigration Act, 1910, to designate those British subjects who were domiciled in Canada. All other British subjects required permission to land. A separate status of "Canadian national" was created under the Canadian Nationals Act, 1921, which was defined as being a Canadian citizen as defined above, their wives, and any children (fathered by such citizens) that had not yet landed in Canada. After the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the monarchy ceased to be an exclusively British institution. Because of this Canadians, and others living in countries that became known as Commonwealth realms, were known as subjects of the Crown. However in legal documents the term "British subject" continued to be used.

Canada was the first nation in the then British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law in 1946, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act 1946. This took effect on January 1, 1947. In order to acquire Canadian citizenship on January 1, 1947, one generally had to be a British subject on that date, an Indian or Eskimo, or had been admitted to Canada as landed immigrants before that date. The phrase British subject refers in general to anyone from the United Kingdom, its colonies at the time, or a Commonwealth country. Acquisition and loss of British subject status before 1947 was determined by United Kingdom law (see History of British nationality law).

On 15 February 1977, Canada removed restrictions on dual citizenship. Many of the provisions to acquire or lose Canadian citizenship that existed under the 1946 legislation were repealed. Canadian citizens are in general no longer subject to involuntary loss of citizenship, barring revocation on the grounds of immigration fraud.

Statistics Canada has tabulated the effect of immigration on population growth in Canada from 1851 to 2001.[7]


Emigration from Canada to the United States has historically exceeded immigration, but there were short periods where the reverse was true; for example, the Loyalist refugees; during the various British Columbia gold rushes and later the Klondike Gold Rush which saw many American prospectors inhabiting British Columbia and the Yukon; land settlers moving from the Northern Plains to the Prairies in the early 20th century and also during periods of political turmoil and/or during wars, for example the Vietnam War. In recent years, the emigration from Canada to the U.S. is very small in numbers compared to immigrants coming to Canada.

Immigration rate[edit]

In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada, relative to a total population of 30,007,094 people per the 2001 Census. On a compounded basis, that immigration rate represents 8.7% population growth over 10 years, or 23.1% over 25 years (or 6.9 million people). Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[1] The three main official reasons given for the level of immigration are:

  1. The social component – Canada facilitates family reunification.
  2. The humanitarian component – Relating to refugees.
  3. The economic component – Attracting immigrants who will contribute economically and fill labour market needs (See related article, Economic impact of immigration to Canada).

The level of immigration peaked in 1993 in the last year of the Progressive Conservative government and was maintained by Liberal Party of Canada. Ambitious targets of an annual 1% per capita immigration rate were hampered by financial constraints. The Liberals committed to raising actual immigration levels further in 2005. All political parties are now cautious about criticizing the high level of immigration. This may be compared to the situation in the neighbouring United States, where repeated attempts to increase immigration have failed, running into strong opposition from a large segment of the Republican Party's base. Consequently, immigration levels to Canada (roughly 0.7% per year) are considerably higher per capita than to the United States (about a million, or 0.3%, per year). Further, much of the immigration to the United States is from Latin America, with relatively less from Asia; the United States only admits about twice as many immigrants from Asian countries like China, India, the Philippines, and Pakistan as Canada, despite having nine times the population. Due to this, the largest minority in the United States is the Latin American population, while Canada's largest minority is its Asian population.

Immigrant population growth is concentrated in or near large cities (particularly Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal). These cities are experiencing increased services demands that accompany strong population growth, causing concern about the capability of infrastructure in those cities to handle the influx. For example, a Toronto Star article published on 14 July 2006 authored by Daniel Stoffman noted that 43% of immigrants move to the Greater Toronto Area and said "unless Canada cuts immigrant numbers, our major cities will not be able to maintain their social and physical infrastructures".[8] Most of the provinces that do not have one of those destination cities have implemented strategies to try to boost their share of immigration.

According to Citizenship and Immigration Canada, under the Canada-Quebec Accord of 1991, Quebec has sole responsibility for selecting most immigrants destined to the province. Of course, once one they are granted citizenship, they can move from provinces to provinces like any other Canadian.

Immigration categories[edit]

There are three main categories to Canadian immigration:

Economic immigrants
Citizenship and Immigration Canada uses seven sub-categories of economic immigrants. The high-profile Skilled worker principal applicants group comprised 19.8% of all immigration in 2005. Canada has also created a VIP Business Immigration Program which allows immigrants with sufficient business experience or management experience to receive the Permanent Residency in a shorter period than other types of immigrations. The Province of Quebec has a program called the Immigrant Investor Program.[1]
Family class
Under a government program, both citizens and permanent residents can sponsor family members to immigrate to Canada.
Immigration of refugees and those in need of protection.

In 2010, Canada accepted 280,681 immigrants (permanent and temporary) of which 186,913 (67%) were Economic immigrants; 60,220 (22%) were Family class; 24,696 (9%) were Refugees; and 8,845 (2%) were Other.[9]

Under Canadian nationality law an immigrant can apply for citizenship after living in Canada for 1095 days (3 years) in any 5-year period provided that they lived in Canada as a permanent resident for at least two of those years.[10]

As of May 1, 2014 the Federal Skilled Worker Class opened once again accepting 25,000 applicants with intake caps at 1000 per category. A New Economic Action Plan 2015 takes effect in January 2015 in which the skilled worker program will be more of an employer based program. The current list of accepted occupations for 2014 includes many occupations such senior managers, accountants, physicians and medical professionals, professionals in marketing and advertising, real estate professionals and many more.[11]

Sources of immigration[edit]

Canada receives its immigrant population from over 200 countries of origin.

Permanent Residents Admitted in 2012, by Top 10 Source Countries[12]
5United States9,4143.7
8United Kingdom and Territories6,3652.5
10South Korea5,3082.1
Top 10 Total145,92656.6

Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, almost one-half of the population over the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have at least one foreign-born parent.[13] The number of visible minorities will double and make up the majority of the population of cities in Canada.[14]

Canadian permanent resident population by country of birth (2005)[edit]


RankCountry of birthPopulationPortion of immigrants in CanadaPortion of Canadian populationNotes
1 Canada24,788,720N/A79.3%
Outside Canada6,186,950100%19.8%
2 United Kingdom579,6209.4%1.9%From England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
3 China466,9407.5%1.5%The official name is 'People's Republic of China'. These figures exclude Hong Kong and Macau, which have separate lines below in this table.
4 India443,6907.2%1.4%
5 Philippines303,1954.9%1%
6 Italy296,8504.8%1%
7 United States250,5354%0.8%
8 Hong Kong215,4303.5%0.7%Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
9 Germany171,4052.8%0.5%
10 Poland170,4902.8%0.5%
11 Vietnam160,1702.6%0.5%Many from the former Republic of Vietnam
12 Portugal150,3902.4%0.5%
13 Pakistan133,2802.2%0.4%
14 Jamaica123,4202%0.4%
15 Netherlands111,9901.8%0.4%
16 Sri Lanka105,6701.7%0.3%
17 South Korea98,3951.6%0.3%
18 Iran92,0901.5%0.3%
19 Guyana87,1951.4%0.3%
20 Romania82,6451.3%0.3%
21 France79,5501.3%0.3%
22 Lebanon75,2751.2%0.2%
23 Greece73,1251.2%0.2%
24 Trinidad and Tobago65,5401.1%0.2%
25 Taiwan65,2051.1%0.2%The official name is 'Republic of China'.
26 Russia64,1301%0.2%
27 Haiti63,3501%0.2%
28 Ukraine59,4601%0.2%
29 Mexico49,9250.8%0.2%
30 Hungary45,9400.7%0.1%
31 El Salvador42,7800.7%0.1%
32 Egypt40,5750.7%0.1%
33 Croatia39,2500.6%0.1%
34 Colombia39,1450.6%0.1%
35 Morocco39,0550.6%0.1%
36 South Africa38,3050.6%0.1%
37 Yugoslavia, n.o.s.37,2050.6%0.1%The abbreviation 'n.o.s.' means 'not otherwise specified'. Includes immigrants from the former Yugoslavia who did not specify Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, or Slovenia.
38 Afghanistan36,1650.6%0.1%
39 Iraq33,5450.5%0.1%
40 Bangladesh33,2300.5%0.1%
41 Algeria32,2550.5%0.1%
42 Bosnia and Herzegovina28,7300.5%0.1%
43 Chile26,5050.4%0.1%
44 Serbia25,4650.4%0.1%Now divided into Serbia and Montenegro.
45 Fiji24,3900.4%0.1%
46 Kenya22,4750.4%0.1%
47 Ireland22,3700.4%0.1%
48 Peru22,0800.4%0.1%
49 Czech Republic22,0300.4%0.1%
50 Malaysia21,8850.4%0.1%
51 Japan21,7050.4%0.1%
52 Turkey21,5800.3%0.1%
53 Israel21,3200.3%0.1%
54 Austria20,7950.3%0.1%
55 Belgium20,2150.3%0.1%
56 Cambodia20,1900.3%0.1%
57  Switzerland19,9550.3%0.1%
58 Tanzania19,7650.3%0.1%
59 Ethiopia19,7150.3%0.1%
60 Somalia19,5150.3%0.1%
61 Ghana18,8300.3%0.1%
62 Syria18,8000.3%0.1%
63 Australia18,1650.3%0.1%Includes Norfolk Island.
64 Argentina18,1200.3%0.1%
65 Denmark17,3600.3%0.1%Includes the Faroe Islands.
66 Bulgaria15,9550.3%0.1%
67 Guatemala15,7050.3%0.1%
68 Barbados15,3250.2%0%
69 Brazil15,1200.2%0%
70 Slovakia14,8250.2%0%
71 Nigeria14,7050.2%0%
72 Laos14,4650.2%0%
73 Democratic Republic of the Congo14,1250.2%0%
74 Ecuador13,4800.2%0%
75 Sudan12,5900.2%0%Now divided into Sudan and South Sudan.
76 Finland12,5450.2%0%
77 Indonesia12,2600.2%0%
78 Saudi Arabia11,6300.2%0%
79 Uganda11,0050.2%0%
80 Kuwait10,5200.2%0%
81 Albania10,2950.2%0%
82 Spain10,2900.2%0%
83 Venezuela10,2700.2%0%
84 Singapore9,8800.2%0%
85 United Arab Emirates9,8650.2%0%
86 Thailand9,7050.2%0%
87 Mauritius9,6600.2%0%
88 Slovenia9,4600.2%0%
89 New Zealand9,4150.2%0%Includes Niue and Tokelau.
90 Nicaragua9,0950.1%0%
91 Cuba8,8650.1%0%
92 St. Vincent and the Grenadines8,7950.1%0%
93 Grenada8,7400.1%0%
94 Macedonia8,5050.1%0%
95 Malta8,2550.1%0%
96 Paraguay7,5300.1%0%
97 Jordan7,4400.1%0%
98 Tunisia7,4100.1%0%
99 Belarus7,2700.1%0%
100 Latvia7,0850.1%0%
101 Sweden6,8450.1%0%
102 Uruguay6,6350.1%0%
103 Zimbabwe6,5250.1%0%
104 Dominican Republic6,5050.1%0%
105 Kazakhstan6,4200.1%0%
106 Lithuania6,4150.1%0%
107 Palestine6,2000.1%0%Composed of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
108 Eritrea6,1300.1%0%
109 Macau6,0050.1%0%Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
110 Estonia5,3000.1%0%
111 Moldova5,2500.1%0%
112 Norway5,2450.1%0%
113 Honduras5,1650.1%0%
114Burma Myanmar4,8000.1%0%Formerly known as Burma.
115 Brunei4,4250.1%0%
116 Cyprus4,2200.1%0%
117 Burundi4,1750.1%0%
118 Bolivia3,7700.1%0%
119 St. Lucia3,5200.1%0%
120 Rwanda3,4400.1%0%
121   Nepal3,3050.1%0%
122 Cameroon3,0900%0%
123 Angola3,0450%0%
124 Costa Rica2,9400%0%
125 Dominica2,8300%0%
126 Sierra Leone2,8000%0%
127 Panama2,7600%0%
128 Libya2,6200%0%
129 Uzbekistan2,6100%0%
130 Zambia2,5200%0%
131 St. Kitts and Nevis2,3700%0%
132 Antigua and Barbuda2,3400%0%
133 Ivory Coast2,3050%0%Also known as Côte d'Ivoire.
134 Azerbaijan2,2600%0%
135 Soviet Union, n.o.s.2,2200%0%The abbreviation 'n.o.s.' means 'not otherwise specified'. The official name of the country was 'Union of Soviet Socialist Republics'. Includes immigrants from the former Soviet Union who did not state which former Soviet country they were born in. As of the Canada 2006 Census, the countries that were once part of the Soviet Union include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
136 Senegal2,2050%0%
137 Armenia2,1950%0%
138 Belize2,0800%0%
138 Czechoslovakia, n.o.s.2,0800%0%The abbreviation 'n.o.s.' means 'not otherwise specified'. Includes immigrants from the former Czechoslovakia who did not state which former Czechoslovak country they were born in. As of the Canada 2006 Census, the countries that were once part of Czechoslovakia include the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
139 Guinea2,0550%0%
140 Madagascar2,0300%0%
141 Bermuda1,9300%0%
142 Bahrain1,5900%0%
143 Georgia1,5300%0%
144 Liberia1,4000%0%
145 Qatar1,3400%0%
146 Togo1,2550%0%
147 Kyrgyzstan1,2150%0%
148 Yemen1,0900%0%
149 Mozambique1,0500%0%
150 Bahamas9700%0%
151 Seychelles8850%0%
152 Mali8550%0%
153 Oman8300%0%
154 Chad8100%0%
155 Suriname7650%0%
156 Montserrat7300%0%
157 Benin6850%0%
158 Republic of the Congo6300%0%
159 Aruba5800%0%
160 Luxembourg5700%0%
161 Tajikistan5600%0%
162 Iceland5300%0%
163 Mongolia5250%0%
164 Djibouti5150%0%
165 Gabon5100%0%
166 Netherlands Antilles5000%0%Now divided into Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Maarten. At one time it also included Aruba.
167 Malawi4250%0%
168 Martinique3850%0%
169 The Gambia3800%0%
170Saint Pierre and Miquelon St. Pierre and Miquelon3750%0%
171 Burkina Faso3650%0%
172 Mauritania3350%0%
173 Namibia3300%0%
174 Puerto Rico3250%0%
175 Guadeloupe3200%0%
176 Papua New Guinea2750%0%
177 Turkmenistan2250%0%
178 Niger2200%0%
179 Botswana2150%0%
179 Gibraltar2150%0%
180 Cayman Islands2000%0%
181 Cape Verde1650%0%
181 North Korea1650%0%The official name is 'Democratic People's Republic of Korea'.
182 Central African Republic1600%0%
183 Swaziland1400%0%
184 Anguilla1000%0%
185 Monaco950%0%
186 French Polynesia900%0%
186 Lesotho900%0%
186 Samoa900%0%
187 Bhutan850%0%
187 New Caledonia850%0%
188 Tonga800%0%
189 French Guiana700%0%
189 Guinea-Bissau700%0%
190 Réunion600%0%
190 British Virgin Islands600%0%
191 Liechtenstein550%0%
192 Federated States of Micronesia450%0%
192 Turks and Caicos Islands450%0%
193 Comoros400%0%
194 Greenland400%0%
195 Solomon Islands350%0%
196 Andorra300%0%
196 Equatorial Guinea300%0%
196 Guam300%0%
197 Maldives200%0%
197 Nauru200%0%
197 Palau200%0%
198 East Timor150%0%Also known as Timor-Leste.
198 Falkland Islands150%0%
198Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha St. Helena and Dependencies150%0%Now known as St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
198 San Marino150%0%
199 American Samoa100%0%
199 Marshall Islands100%0%
199 Tuvalu100%0%
199 Vanuatu100%0%
199 United States Virgin Islands100%0%
199 Wallis and Futuna100%0%
Others6,2200.1%0%Includes a small number of immigrants who were born in Canada, as well as other places of birth not classified elsewhere.

2011 immigration statistics[edit]

Number of immigrants granted permanent residence in Canada in 2011 by source country[17]
RankCountryNumber of immigrants admittedProportion of totalNotes
1 Philippines34,99114.1%
2 China28,69611.5%Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan included separately.
3 India24,96510%
4 United States8,8293.5%
5 Iran6,8402.7%
6 United Kingdom6,5502.6%
7 Haiti6,2082.5%
8 Pakistan6,0732.4%
9 France5,8672.4%
10 United Arab Emirates5,2232.1%
11 Iraq4,6981.9%
12 South Korea4,5731.8%
13 Colombia4,3171.7%
14 Morocco4,1551.7%
15 Algeria3,8001.5%
16 Mexico3,6421.5%
17 Egypt3,4031.4%
18 Sri Lanka3,1041.2%
19 Nigeria2,7681.1%
20 Ukraine2,4551%
21 Bangladesh2,4491%
22 Lebanon2,3350.9%
23 Saudi Arabia2,2990.9%
24 Germany2,2540.9%
25 Ethiopia2,0380.8%
26 Jamaica2,0210.8%
27 Afghanistan1,9770.8%
28 Israel1,9670.8%Does not include the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, or the West Bank.
29 Taiwan1,8940.8%
30 Russia1,8870.8%
31 Romania1,7230.7%
32 Vietnam1,6820.7%
33 Brazil1,5190.6%
34 Japan1,4750.6%
35 Venezuela1,4460.6%
36 Tunisia1,3680.5%
37 Moldova1,3490.5%
38 Turkey1,3390.5%
39 Somalia1,2560.5%
40   Nepal1,2490.5%
41 Syria1,1810.5%
42 Kuwait1,1790.5%
43 Cameroon1,1660.5%
44 Mauritius1,1200.5%
45 Democratic Republic of the Congo1,0580.4%
46 South Africa1,0360.4%
47 Jordan1,0250.4%
48 Australia9790.4%
49 Cuba9380.4%
50 Peru8760.4%
51 Eritrea8740.4%
52 Hong Kong8200.3%Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
53 Guyana7610.3%
54 Dominican Republic7590.3%
55 Kenya7500.3%
56 Ireland6620.3%
57 El Salvador6580.3%
58 Poland6570.3%
59 Belgium6330.3%
60 Netherlands6290.3%
61 Qatar6150.2%
61 Trinidad and Tobago6150.2%
62 Italy5720.2%
63 Libya5440.2%
64 Honduras5420.2%
65 Senegal5230.2%
66 Burundi5180.2%
67 Ghana5110.2%
68 Portugal5060.2%
69 Ivory Coast5030.2%
70 Sudan4880.2%Now divided into Sudan and South Sudan.
71 Malaysia4850.2%
72 Albania4710.2%
73 Singapore4580.2%
74 Thailand4550.2%
75  Switzerland4480.2%
76 St. Vincent and the Grenadines4470.2%
77 Ecuador4370.2%
78 Rwanda4360.2%
79 New Zealand4100.2%
80 Zimbabwe3880.2%
81 Indonesia3680.1%
82 Kazakhstan3670.1%
83 Bulgaria3560.1%
84 Belarus3550.1%
85Burma Myanmar3110.1%
85 Fiji3110.1%
86 Argentina2980.1%
87 Uganda2880.1%
88 Oman2850.1%
89 Hungary2810.1%
90 Guatemala2760.2%
91 St. Lucia2620.1%
92 Palestine2610.1%Includes the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
93 Guinea2520.1%
94 Spain2480.1%
95 Sweden2440.1%
96 Benin2330.1%
97 Tanzania2290.1%
98 Armenia2270.1%
99 Bahrain2090.1%
100 Cambodia1960.1%#
101 Yemen1880.1%
102 Chile1830.1%
103 Bosnia and Herzegovina1780.1%
104 Costa Rica1730.1%
105 Grenada1690.1%
106 Greece1630.1%
107 Togo1540.1%
108 Kyrgyzstan1520.1%
109 Uzbekistan1460.1%
110 Azerbaijan1410.1%
111 Georgia1380.1%
112 Denmark1290.1%
113 Czech Republic1280.1%
113 Mali1280.1%
114 Sierra Leone1270.1%
115 Slovakia1250.1%
115 Djibouti1250.1%
116 Macedonia1240%
117 Croatia1230%
118 Madagascar1200%
118 Nicaragua1200%
119 Burkina Faso1170%
120 Barbados1100%
121 Latvia1040%
121 Paraguay1040%
122 Niger970%
123 Mongolia960%
124 Finland950%
125 Austria930%
126 North Korea910%
127 Botswana900%
128 Bolivia820%
129 Republic of the Congo790%
130 Uruguay770%
131 Zambia750%
132 Norway710%
133 Gabon650%
134 Chad590%
134 Bahamas590%
135 Panama560%
136 Cyprus540%
137 Tajikistan530%
138 Liberia490%
139 Malawi450%
140 Antigua and Barbuda430%
141 Lithuania420%
141 Brunei420%
142 Dominica410%
143 Belize400%
144 Angola380%
145 Mauritania340%
146 Bermuda310%
147 Macau290%Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China.
148 Luxembourg280%
149 The Gambia270%
150 Serbia250%Now divided into Serbia, and Montengro.
151 Namibia240%
151 Martinique240%
152 Laos230%
152 Cayman Islands230%
153 Turkmenistan190%
154 Estonia160%
154 Suriname160%
155 Malta140%
155 Swaziland140%
155 St. Kitts and Nevis140%
156 Central African Republic120%
156 Seychelles120%
157 Slovenia100%
158 Guadeloupe60%Other countries2,3260.9%
Country not stated580%

Autism and excessive demand[edit]

Several families have recently been denied immigration to Canada because members of their family have an autism spectrum diagnosis and Citizenship and Immigration Canada felt the potential cost of care for those family members would place an excessive demand on health or social services.[18][19] People with autism disorders can be accepted if they're able to depend on themselves.[19]

Temporary Foreign Worker Program[edit]

In 2012 more than 200 000 people were admitted to Canada under the Temporary Foreign Worker Program, three times the number in 2002.[20]

Illegal immigration in Canada[edit]

Estimates of illegal immigrants range between 35,000 and 120,000.[21] James Bissett, a former head of the Canadian Immigration Service, has suggested that the lack of any credible refugee screening process, combined with a high likelihood of ignoring any deportation orders, has resulted in tens of thousands of outstanding warrants for the arrest of rejected refugee claimants, with little attempt at enforcement.[22] A 2008 report by the Auditor General Sheila Fraser stated that Canada has lost track of as many as 41,000 illegal immigrants.[23][24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Annual Immigration by Category, Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 12, 2006.
  2. ^ a b "2006 Census: Ethnic origin, visible minorities, place of work and mode of transportation". The Daily. Statistics Canada. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  3. ^ John Courtney; David Smith (April 29, 2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. Oxford Handbooks Online. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4. 
  4. ^ Markus, Andrew. "Attitudes to immigration and cultural diversity in Australia." Journal of Sociology 50.1 (2014): 10-22.
  5. ^ Marina L. Smith, "The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) at the U.S.–Canadian Border, 1893–1993: An Overview of Issues and Topics," Michigan Historical Review 26, No. 2 (Fall 2000), 127-147.
  6. ^ Hall, "Clifford Sifton: Immigration and Settlement Policy, 1896–1905."
  7. ^ Statistics Canada – immigration from 1851 to 2001
  8. ^ When immigration goes awry, Toronto Star, 14 July 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
  9. ^ Citizenship & Immigration Canada: "Facts and figures 2010 – Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents" retrieved November 17, 2011
  10. ^ Citizenship & Immigration Canada retrieved November 17, 2011
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2013. Retrieved Dec 7, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population". Statistics Canada. March 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  14. ^ "Parties prepare to battle for Immigrant votes". 2010-03-14. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  15. ^ [1], Place of birth for the immigrant population by period of immigration, 2006 counts and percentages
  16. ^ [2], Population by immigrant status and period of immigration, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories
  17. ^ [3], Facts and figures 2011 — Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents — Permanent residents
  18. ^ "American UVic prof forced to leave Canada after immigration rules son’s autism too big a taxpayer burden". Daily Brew. March 31, 2012. 
  19. ^ a b "Family faces deportation over son's autism". Toronto Star. June 9, 2011. 
  20. ^ CBC News |url= missing title (help). 
  21. ^ "Canadians want illegal immigrants deported: poll". Ottawa Citizen (CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc.). 20 October 2007. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  22. ^ "James Bissett: Stop bogus refugees before they get in". 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  23. ^ "Canada has lost track of 41,000 illegals: Fraser". 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  24. ^ OAG 2008 May Report of the Auditor General of Canada

Further reading[edit]



External links[edit]