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The party is affiliated with the Green Party of the United States. Its stated mission and purpose are to advance the Ten Key Values of the Green Party in Illinois through political means and to support individual members and the formation of Green Party locals.
In 2006, the party ran its first statewide candidates led by Rich Whitney, candidate for Illinois Governor, who received 361,336 votes for 10% of the total vote, making the Green Party one of only three legally established, statewide political parties in Illinois, in addition to the Democratic and Republican parties. Though after the 2010 election the Illinois Green Party lost their established party status, because none of their candidates for statewide office broke the 5% threshold, which determines established parties in Illinois.
As of January 23, 2013 there were nine Illinois Green Party members holding elected office.
At the 2007 Green National Meeting the Illinois Green Party submitted a Proposal to host the 2008 Green Party National Convention.  Greens from four cities had submitted proposals for the 2008 convention but in the end The National Committee chose Chicago.
As an established party it was entitled to a presidential primary, if at least two candidates qualify for that primary. Illinois law requires all candidates in a presidential primary to submit 3,000 signatures which are due in November 2007. On November 5, 2007 the deadline for candidate petitions to run in the Green presidential primary, four Greens filed Cynthia McKinney, Kent Mesplay, Jared Ball and Howie Hawkins. (Hawkins was believed to be a stand-in for Ralph Nader). Only eight state affiliates of the Green Party held presidential primaries in 2008 (other states nominated by caucus or convention). However as the Green Party is no longer established in Illinois it does not qualify to have Primaries.
Key values of the Green Party platform include the following:
There are currently 24 local chapters affiliated with the Party with a 25th forming in DeKalb County. It will be breaking away from a bigger local, the Northwestern Illinois Greens, comprising Boone, Carroll, DeKalb, Jo Daviess, Lee, Ogle, Stephenson, Whiteside and Winnebago counties.
In 2008 32 Green Party candidates filed petitions to run in the Illinois Green Party primary by the filing deadline. The party also had the power to fill ballot vacancies in races where nobody is picked in the Feb. 5 primary. Following the primary and state party convention the party has fielded sixty candidates for the November general election.
As of September 1, 2009