Traditional Japanese music

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Musicians and dancer, Muromachi period

Traditional Japanese music is the term used to describe historical Japanese folk music, or traditional music.

Contents

Types of traditional Japanese music

There are three types of traditional music in Japan: instrumental, theatrical, and court music.

Kabuki

Kabuki (歌舞伎?) is a type of Japanese theatre. The music of kabuki can be divided into three parts:

Noh

Noh ( ?) or nōgaku (能楽?) is another type of theatrical music. Noh music is played by the hayashi-kata (囃子方?). The instruments used are the taiko (太鼓?), ōtsuzumi (大鼓?), kotsuzumi (小鼓?), and fue (?).

Gagaku

Gagaku (雅楽?) is court music, and is the oldest traditional music in Japan. Gagaku music includes songs, dances, and a mixture of other Asian music. Gagaku has two styles; these are instrumental music kigaku (器楽?) and vocal music seigaku (声楽?).

Shōmyō

Shōmyō (声明?) is kind of Buddhist song which is an added melody for a sutra. Shōmyō came from India, and it began in Japan in the Nara period. Shōmyō is sung a capella by one or more Buddhist monks.

Jōruri

Jōruri (浄瑠璃?) is narrative music using the shamisen (三味線?). There are four main jōruri styles. These are centuries-old traditions which continue today.

There are other four jōruri styles which have largely died out. Katōbushi , Icchuubushi and Miyazonobushi are old style. Katōbushi , Icchuubushi and Miyazonobushi are called Kokyoku (古曲?). Kokyoku means old music. Kokyoku consists of Icchuubushi , Katōbushi , Miyazonobushi and Ogiebushi(荻江節?). Ogiebushi is not jōruri. Ogiebushi is like Nagauta.

Nagauta

Nagauta (長唄?) is music using the shamisen. There are three styles of nagauta: one for kabuki dance, one for kabuki dialogue, and one of music unconnected with kabuki.

Ogiebushi (荻江節?) is similar to nagauta. Ogie Royuu I(荻江露友?) (?-1787) began to play this style, having played nagauta style at first. He spun off from Nagauta style. He started Ogiebushi style. Original was a sect of Nagauta. Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) became famous in about 1767. His rival was Fujita Kichiji(富士田吉治?)(Fujita Kichiji was Nagauta singer in Edo). Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) had beautiful voice , but the volume of his voice was small. In theater voice of big volume was important. The voice of small volume does not carry voice to audience in theater. So , Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) stopped to sing in theater. Another theory says that Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) lost. Fujita Kichiji won. So , Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) stopped to sing in theater. Ogie Royuu I(?-1787) began to play in Yoshiwara. This style of music was mainly sung at Yoshiwara. Ogie Royuu II and Ogie Royuu III is unknown. Ogiebushi declined after 1818. Tamaya Yamazaburou(玉屋山三郎?) composed new Ogiebushi pieces in end of Edo Period. Tamaya Yamazaburou was a owner of parlor house in Yoshiwara. Tamaya Yamazaburou knew music very well. Tamaya Yamazaburou's pieces are affected by Jiuta(地歌?) music. Iijima Kizaemon(飯島喜左衛門?) re-established Ogiebushi. Iijima Kizaemon renamed his name. He is Ogie Royuu IV. He became Ogie Royuu IV in 1876. Another theory says that He became Ogie Royuu IV in 1879. Ogiebushi is classified as Kokyoku (古曲? , old music). (Kyoku usually means music piece or music number in modern Japanese. "music" is old sense.) Now Kokyoku is Katohbushi(河東節?), Icchuubushi(一中節?), Miyazonobushi(宮薗節?) and Ogiebushi(荻江節?). Kokyoku is old music. In addition , Few play Kokyoku. Limited players perform Kokyoku. Kokyoku players are old. Young players are few. The knower and the persons who perform Kokyoku are little. Kokyoku is comparatively old music in Edo Period(New music is Nagauta , Gidayuubushi , Tokiwazubushi , Kiyomotobushi , Shinnaibushi etc... in Edo Period). Kokyoku is an expedient name. Kokyoku was named by Machida Kashou(町田佳聲?) in 1919. Machida Kashou(1888–1981) was Japanese music researcher and composer. Exactly , Ogiebushi is newer than Nagauta. But Ogiebushi is classified as Kokyoku. Kokyoku is an expedient name. After 1919 the word Kokyoku has used in Japan. The word Kokyoku had popular usage in Taisho Period. In 1962 Kokyokukai(古曲会? , Old music group) was established. Kokyokukai has trained the successor. Kokyokukai has held the concert. In modern Japanese , "hurui ongaku" refers to old music. Kokyoku is idiom.

Shakuhachi music

Shakuhachi (尺八?) music began in the Edo period. Buddhist monks played the shakuhachi as a substitute for a sutra. Sometimes the shakuhachi is played along with other instruments.

Sōkyoku

Sōkyoku (筝曲?) uses the "Chinese koto" (guzheng), which differs from the Japanese koto (琴?). There are two schools of sōkyoku.

Traditional music in modern culture

Traditional Japanese musicians sometimes collaborate with modern Western musicians. Also, musicians create new styles of Japanese music influenced by the West but still using traditional musical instruments.

Traditional musical instruments

Traditional cultural events

Artists

See also

References

  1. ^ "舞楽". The Asahi Shimbun Company. http://kotobank.jp/word/%E8%88%9E%E6%A5%BD. Retrieved 2012-2-18. (Japanese)

External links