Ian Paisley

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The Reverend and Right Honourable
The Lord Bannside
PC
DrIanPaisley.jpg
First Minister of Northern Ireland
In office
8 May 2007 – 5 June 2008
MonarchElizabeth II
DeputyMartin McGuinness
Preceded byDavid Trimble
Succeeded byPeter Robinson
Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party
In office
30 September 1971 – 31 May 2008
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byPeter Robinson
Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly
for North Antrim
In office
25 June 1998 – 25 March 2011
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byPaul Frew
Member of the European Parliament
for Northern Ireland
In office
7 June 1979 – 10 June 2004
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byJim Allister
Member of Parliament
for North Antrim
In office
18 June 1970 – 6 May 2010
Preceded byHenry Maitland Clark
Succeeded byIan Paisley, Jr.
Personal details
BornIan Richard Kyle Paisley
(1926-04-06) 6 April 1926 (age 87)
Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK
NationalityBritish
Political partyDemocratic Unionist Party
Spouse(s)Eileen Cassells (1956-present)
ChildrenRhonda
Sharon
Cherith
Kyle
Ian
ResidenceBelfast, Northern Ireland, UK
Alma materBarry School of Evangelism
OccupationEvangelist
Politician
Political activist
ProfessionMinister
ReligionPresbyterian
WebsiteOfficial website
 
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The Reverend and Right Honourable
The Lord Bannside
PC
DrIanPaisley.jpg
First Minister of Northern Ireland
In office
8 May 2007 – 5 June 2008
MonarchElizabeth II
DeputyMartin McGuinness
Preceded byDavid Trimble
Succeeded byPeter Robinson
Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party
In office
30 September 1971 – 31 May 2008
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byPeter Robinson
Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly
for North Antrim
In office
25 June 1998 – 25 March 2011
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byPaul Frew
Member of the European Parliament
for Northern Ireland
In office
7 June 1979 – 10 June 2004
Preceded byOffice Created
Succeeded byJim Allister
Member of Parliament
for North Antrim
In office
18 June 1970 – 6 May 2010
Preceded byHenry Maitland Clark
Succeeded byIan Paisley, Jr.
Personal details
BornIan Richard Kyle Paisley
(1926-04-06) 6 April 1926 (age 87)
Armagh, Northern Ireland, UK
NationalityBritish
Political partyDemocratic Unionist Party
Spouse(s)Eileen Cassells (1956-present)
ChildrenRhonda
Sharon
Cherith
Kyle
Ian
ResidenceBelfast, Northern Ireland, UK
Alma materBarry School of Evangelism
OccupationEvangelist
Politician
Political activist
ProfessionMinister
ReligionPresbyterian
WebsiteOfficial website

Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, Baron Bannside, PC (born 6 April 1926) is a politician and former church minister from Northern Ireland. As the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), he and Sinn Féin's Martin McGuinness were elected First Minister and deputy First Minister respectively on 8 May 2007.

In addition to co-founding the DUP and leading it from 1971 to 2008, he is a founding member and was Moderator for 57 years of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster. In 2005, Paisley's political party became the largest unionist party in Northern Ireland, displacing his long-term rivals, the Ulster Unionists (UUP), who had dominated unionist politics in Northern Ireland since before the partition of Ireland.

On 4 March 2008 Paisley announced that he would step down as First Minister and leader of the DUP after the US-Northern Ireland Investment Conference in May 2008.[1] Peter Robinson took over as DUP leader on 31 May 2008, and replaced Paisley as First Minister on 5 June 2008.[2] Paisley was made a life peer in the Dissolution Honours List of Prime Minister Gordon Brown,[3] ennobled on 18 June 2010 as Baron Bannside, of North Antrim in the County of Antrim.[4]

Personal life[edit]

Ian Richard Kyle Paisley was born in Armagh, County Armagh and brought up in the town of Ballymena, County Antrim, where his father James Kyle Paisley was an Independent Baptist pastor. His father had served in the Ulster Volunteers under Edward Carson.[5]

He married Eileen Cassells on 13 October 1956.[6] They have five children, three daughters Sharon, Rhonda and Cherith and twin sons, Kyle and Ian. Three of their children have followed their father into politics or religion: Kyle is a Free Presbyterian minister; Ian is a DUP MP; and Rhonda, a retired DUP councillor.[7] He has a brother, Harold, who is also an evangelical fundamentalist.[8]

Following rumours and a marked change in his appearance, it was confirmed in July 2004 that Paisley had been undergoing tests for an undisclosed illness and in 2005 Ian Paisley, Jr. confirmed that his father had been gravely ill. Paisley himself later admitted that he had "walked in death's shadow."[9]

In February 2012, Paisley was admitted to hospital with heart problems. Jim Flanagan, editor of the Ballymena Guardian, who has spoken to close family friends, said that Paisley had been able to communicate "to some degree" with family members.[10]

Religious career[edit]

During his time working on the farm, the young Paisley felt that he received a vocation to enter the Christian ministry.[citation needed] He undertook theological training at the Barry School of Evangelism (now called the Wales Evangelical School of Theology), and later, for a year, at the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Hall in Belfast.[citation needed]

Free Presbyterian Church[edit]

In 1951, a congregation of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland was forbidden by denominational authorities to hold a meeting in their own church hall at which Paisley was to be the speaker. In response, the leaders of that congregation left the PCI and began a new denomination, the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster.[11] Paisley soon became the moderator of this denomination[12] and was re-elected every year, except one, for 57 years.[13]

Martyrs Memorial Free Presbyterian Church where he preached

The Free Presbyterian Church has a fundamentalist orientation, requiring strict separation from "any church which has departed from the fundamental doctrines of the Word of God."[11] As of the 1991 census, the denomination included about 12,000 people, less than 1% of the Northern Ireland population.

Writings[edit]

Paisley set up his own newspaper in February 1966, the Protestant Telegraph, as a mechanism for further spreading his message.[14] He has authored numerous books and pamphlets on religious and political subjects including a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans.[15]

Campaign against homosexuality[edit]

He has preached against homosexuality[16] and supports laws criminalising its practice. Intertwining his religious and political views, "Save Ulster from Sodomy" was a campaign launched by Paisley in 1977, in opposition to the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform (Northern Ireland), established in 1974.[17] Paisley's campaign sought to prevent the extension to Northern Ireland of the Sexual Offences Act 1967, which had decriminalised homosexual acts between males over 21 years of age in England and Wales. The campaign failed when legislation was passed in 1982 as a result of the previous year's ruling by the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Dudgeon v United Kingdom.[18]

Religious views[edit]

Paisley promotes a form of Biblical literalism and Anti-Catholicism, which he describes as "Bible Protestantism". The website of Paisley's public relations arm, the European Institute of Protestant Studies, describes the institute's purpose as to "expound the Bible, expose the Papacy, and to promote, defend and maintain Bible Protestantism in Europe and further afield."[19] Paisley's website describes a number of doctrinal areas in which he believes that the "Roman church" (which he termed Popery) has deviated from the Bible and thus from true Christianity.

In the 1960s, Paisley developed a relationship with the fundamentalist Bob Jones University located in Greenville, South Carolina. In 1966, he received an honorary doctorate of divinity from the institution and subsequently served on its board of trustees. This relationship later led to the establishment of the Free Presbyterian Church of North America in 1977.[20]

In 1988, when Pope John Paul II delivered a speech to the European Parliament, Paisley shouted "I denounce you as the Antichrist!" and held up a red poster reading "Pope John Paul II ANTICHRIST" in black letters. John Paul continued with his address after Paisley was ejected from the hemicycle by fellow MEPs.[21][22][23][24] Some reports claimed that other MEPs, including Otto von Habsburg, assisted in expelling him from the chamber,[25] and that Paisley was booed and struck by other MEPs, who also hurled objects at him, leading to his hospitalisation.[26][27]

Paisley continued to denounce the Catholic Church and the Pope after the incident. In a television interview for The Unquiet Man, a 2001 documentary on Paisley's life, he expressed his pride at being "the only person to have the courage to denounce the Pope".[citation needed] After the death of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Paisley expressed sympathy for Catholics stating "We can understand how Roman Catholics feel at the death of the Pope and we would want in no way to interfere with their expression of sorrow and grief at this time."[28] This was in contrast to Paisley's reaction to the death of Pope John XXIII in June 1963, when Paisley organised protests against the lowering of flags in public buildings after the death of the Pope.[29]

He has claimed in an article that the seat no. 666 in the European Parliament is reserved for the Antichrist.[30] Seat no. 666 is, in actual fact, occupied; at present, following the 2009 European parliamentary election, it is the seat of Conservative Polish MEP Elżbieta Łukacijewska.[31]

He and his organisation have publicly spoken out against what he views to be blasphemy in popular culture, including criticism of the stage productions Jesus Christ Superstar and Jerry Springer: The Opera, as well as being strongly anti abortion.[citation needed]

Although at political odds with the Republic of Ireland, he has some religious followers in two counties (County Donegal and County Monaghan).[32] It was specifically in his religious capacity that he first agreed to meet the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern.[citation needed] Paisley revised this stance in September 2004, when he agreed to meet Ahern in his political capacity as leader of the Democratic Unionist Party.[citation needed] Known for a sense of humour, at an early meeting with Ahern at the Irish embassy in London, Paisley requested breakfast and asked for boiled eggs; when Ahern asked him why he had wanted boiled eggs, Paisley quipped "it would be hard for you to poison them".[33]

Political career[edit]

Early activism and paramilitary involvement[edit]

Paisley's first political involvement came at the 1950 UK general election, when he campaigned on behalf of the successful Ulster Unionist Party candidate in Belfast West, the Church of Ireland minister James Godfrey MacManaway.[34] Inspired by MacManaway's blend of unionism and Protestantism, Paisley joined independent Unionist MP Norman Porter's National Union of Protestants, but left after Porter refused to join the Free Presbyterians.[12]

He first hit headlines in 1956 when Maura Lyons, a 15 year old Catholic doubting her faith sought his help and was smuggled illegally to Scotland. Paisley public played a tape of her religious conversion but refused to help with the search for her, saying he would rather go to prison.[35] Paisley was among those invited to a special meeting at the Ulster Unionist Party's offices in Glengall Street, Belfast.[citation needed] The meeting's declared purpose was to organise the defence of Protestant areas against anticipated Irish Republican Army (IRA) activity, in the manner of the old Ulster Protestant Association after the partition of Ireland in the early 1920s.[citation needed][36] The new body decided to call itself Ulster Protestant Action (UPA), and the first year of its existence was taken up with the discussion of vigilante patrols, street barricades, and drawing up lists of IRA suspects in both Belfast and in rural areas.[37][38] The UPA was to later become the Protestant Unionist Party in 1966.[39] Factory and workplace branches were formed under the UPA, including one by Paisley in Belfast's Ravenhill area under his direct control.[citation needed] The concern of the UPA increasingly came to focus on the defence of 'Bible Protestantism' and Protestant interests where jobs and housing were concerned.[citation needed] As Paisley came to dominate Ulster Protestant Action, he received his first convictions for public order offences. In June 1959, a major riot occurred on the Shankill Road in Belfast following a rally at which he had spoken.[40]

Paisley, along with Noel Docherty established the Ulster Constitution Defence Committee, which in turn established the paramilitary organisation Ulster Protestant Volunteers on 17 April 1966 at a parade in the Shankill area of Belfast[41] Paisley went on to establish another paramilitary group, Third Force, on 1 April 1981.[42][43][44] Another paramilitary group, Ulster Resistance, was established by Paisley in 1986.[45][46]

In 1964, his demand that the Royal Ulster Constabulary remove an Irish tricolour from Sinn Féin's Belfast offices led to two days of rioting, after this was followed through (see Flags and Emblems Act – the public display of any symbol, with the exception of the Union flag, that could cause a breach of the peace was illegal until Westminster repealed the Act in 1987).[47] Paisley's approach led him in turn to oppose O'Neill's successors as Prime Minister, Major James Chichester-Clark (later Lord Moyola) and Brian Faulkner.[48]

In 1969, he was jailed along with Ronald Bunting for organising an illegal counter-demonstration against a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march in Armagh. He was released during a general amnesty for people convicted of political offences.[49]

Electoral success and the DUP foundation[edit]

Paisley easily retained his seat in every European election until he stood down in 2004, receiving the highest popular vote of any British MEP (although as Northern Ireland uses a different electoral system to Great Britain for European elections, the figures are not strictly comparable).[50]

1973 Sunningdale agreement: opposed[edit]

In April 1977, Paisley declared he would retire from politics if a forthcoming United Unionist Action Council general strike was unsuccessful. The strike was seen as a failure by most political and media commentators, however Paisley declared it to be a success and continued his career.[51] In December 1981, the United States State Department revoked his visa, citing his "divisive rhetoric".[52]

1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement: 'Ulster says no'[edit]

A rally of protesters, estimated between 100,000 and 200,000 people, met in front of Belfast City Hall after a campaign dubbed after its slogan "Ulster Says No" to protest the Anglo-Irish Agreement, which gave the Republic of Ireland a consultative role in the affairs of Northern Ireland.[53] The rally, was addressed by Paisley and then UUP leader James Molyneaux. In his address, Paisley said:

Where do the terrorists operate from? From the Irish Republic! Where do the terrorists return to for sanctuary? To the Irish Republic! And yet Mrs. Thatcher tells us that the Republic must have some say in our Province. We say never, never, never, never!

The demonstration passed off peacefully. On 9 December 1986, Paisley was once again ejected from the European Parliament for continually interrupting a speech by Thatcher.[54]

1995: Drumcree standoff[edit]

Paisley is a former member of the Orange Institution.[55] He addresses the annual gathering of the Independent Orange Order every Twelfth of July.[citation needed]

In 1995, he played a part in the Drumcree conflict over marching in Portadown, County Armagh between the Orange Order and local residents of the Garvaghy Road. The march passed off after the decision was made by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) to allow it and Paisley ended the march hand in hand with David Trimble who appeared to perform a "Victory Jig". This "Victory Jig" was seen by some as an act of triumphalism.[56]

Opposition to the 1998 Belfast Agreement[edit]

Paisley's DUP was initially involved in the negotiations under former United States Senator George J. Mitchell that led to the Belfast Agreement of 1998. The party withdrew in protest when Sinn Féin was allowed to participate after its ceasefire.[57] Paisley and his party opposed the Agreement in the referendum that followed its signing, which saw it approved by over 70% of the voters in Northern Ireland and by over 90% of voters in the Republic of Ireland.[58]

Although Paisley often stresses his loyalty to the Crown, he accused Queen Elizabeth of being Tony Blair's "parrot" when she voiced approval of the Agreement.[59]

As part of the deal, the Republic amended, but did not eliminate, the controversial Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland, which had originally claimed its government's de jure right to govern the whole island of Ireland, including Northern Ireland.[citation needed]

The DUP fought the resulting election to the Northern Ireland Assembly, to which Paisley was elected, while keeping his seats in the Westminster and European parliaments. The DUP took two seats in the multi-party power-sharing executive (Paisley, like the leaders of the Social Democratic and Labour Party and Sinn Féin chose not to become a minister) but those DUP members serving as ministers (Peter Robinson and Nigel Dodds) refused to attend meetings of the Executive Committee (cabinet) in protest at Sinn Féin's participation.[60]

Having spent most of his career, as he himself jokingly admitted once, saying 'No', Paisley assumed the chairmanship of the Agriculture committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly created by the Belfast Agreement, where he was praised as an effective, coordinating chairman.[citation needed] The Minister for Agriculture, Nationalist SDLP's Bríd Rodgers, remarked that she and Paisley had a "workmanlike" relationship.[61]

2000s: compromise and power[edit]

Ian Paisley, George W. Bush and Martin McGuinness in December 2007.

In the October 2006 St Andrews Agreement, Paisley and the DUP agreed to new elections, and support for a new executive including Sinn Féin subject to Sinn Féin acceptance of the Police Service of Northern Ireland.[62] This reversed decades of Paisley opposition to Sinn Féin such as his comments on 12 July 2006 in Portrush, following Orange Order parades when he said, "[Sinn Fein] are not fit to be in partnership with decent people. They are not fit to be in the government of Northern Ireland and it will be over our dead bodies if they ever get there."[63]

Sinn Féin did endorse the PSNI, and in the subsequent election Paisley and the DUP received an increased share of the vote and increased their assembly seats from 30 to 36.[64] On Monday 26 March 2007, the date of the British Government deadline for devolution or dissolution, Paisley led a DUP delegation to a meeting with a Sinn Féin delegation led by Gerry Adams, which agreed on a DUP proposal that the executive would be established on 8 May.[65]

On 8 May 2007 power was devolved, the Assembly met, and Paisley was elected as First Minister of Northern Ireland with Sinn Féin's Martin McGuinness as the deputy First Minister. Speaking at Stormont to an invited international audience he said, "Today at long last we are starting upon the road—I emphasise starting—which I believe will take us to lasting peace in our province."[66] Paisley and McGuinness subsequently established a good working relationship and were dubbed by the Northern Irish media as the "Chuckle Brothers".[67]

At the age of 78, he retired from his European Parliament seat at the 2004 elections and was succeeded by Jim Allister.[68]

He again retained his North Antrim seat in the 2005 UK general election. In 2005, Paisley was made a Privy Counsellor, an appointment traditionally bestowed upon leaders of political parties in the British Parliament.[69] In 2007, aged 81, he became First Minister of Northern Ireland."[66]

Upon the death of Piara Khabra in June 2007, Paisley became the oldest sitting British MP.[citation needed] In September 2007, he confirmed that he would contest North Antrim at the 2010 general election as well as serving the full four years as first minister stating "I might as well make hay while the sun shines."[70]

Following his January 2008 retirement as a religious leader and pressure from party insiders, on 4 March 2008, Paisley announced that he would stand down as DUP leader and First Minister of Northern Ireland in May 2008.[1] On 17 April, Peter Robinson was elected unopposed as leader of the DUP[71] and succeeded Paisley as First Minister at a special sitting of the assembly on 5 June 2008.[72]

In 2007, Paisley was named as "Opposition Parliamentarian of the Year" in the House Magazine Parliamentary Awards[73] and by the Spectator Magazine as "Marathon Man of the Year."[74]

On 2 March 2010, it was announced that Ian Paisley would step down as a Member of Parliament in the next general election; held on 6 May.[75] His son Ian Paisley, Jr. was elected to succeed him in the seat at the general election on 6 May 2010.[76]

In November 2011, Ian Paisley announced his retirement from the pastorate at his congregation, which he had led for over 60 years.[77] He delivered his final sermon to a packed attendance at the Martyrs' Memorial Hall on 18 December 2011.[78]

Paisley retired from his religious ministry at the age of 85, on 27 January 2012.[79][80]

On 6 February 2012, Reverend Paisley was admitted to Ulster Hospital in Dundonald. According to the BBC, this may be attributable to cardiovascular problems. In February 2011, he had a pacemaker fitted due to cardiac arrhythmia, during his time in the House of Lords.[81]

Peerage[edit]

On 18 June 2010, Paisley was created a life peer as Baron Bannside, of North Antrim in the County of Antrim, and he was introduced in the House of Lords on 5 July 2010.[82]

Relationship with the nationalist SDLP[edit]

From the 1960s, one of his main rivals was civil rights leader and co-founder of the nationalist SDLP, John Hume.[citation needed] British Government papers released in 2002, show that in 1971 Paisley attempted to reach a compromise with the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP).[83] The attempt was made via then British Cabinet Secretary, Sir Burke Trend. The papers show that Paisley had indicated he could "reach an accommodation with leaders of the Catholic minority, which would provide the basis of a new government in Stormont." It appears that the move was rejected once it became clear to the SDLP that the deal would favour the unionist majority. Speaking about the deal in 2002 Paisley said:

The SDLP did not want to go along the road that we would have wanted them to go. I wouldn't say there were talks, there was an exchange of views between us, but it never got anywhere. We were prepared to try and seek a way whereby we could govern Northern Ireland and that people of both faiths could be happy with the way it was being governed, but it all rested on the key point — the person with power would be the person that the people gave the power.[83]

Though their parties are often at loggerheads, Hume and Paisley worked jointly on behalf of Northern Ireland in the European Parliament and on occasion worked jointly in the British House of Commons.[citation needed] Hume tells the story of the occasion when he said to Ian Paisley, "Ian, if the word 'no' were to be removed from the English language, you'd be speechless, wouldn't you!" Paisley replied, "No, I wouldn't!"[84]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Paisley to quit as first minister". BBC News online. 4 March 2008. 
  2. ^ "Robinson is new NI first minister". BBC News. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  3. ^ Dissolution honours: John Prescott made a peer BBC Website 28 May 2010 Retrieved 28 May 2010
  4. ^ London Gazette 23 June 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  5. ^ Downing, Taylor; The Troubles: The background to the question of Northern Ireland, page 132, third printing; published by Thames Macdonald
  6. ^ The strongest link, Sunday Post Magazine, February 2006
  7. ^ Paisley's daughter wins apology, The Telegraph, 19 December 2006
  8. ^ Paisley: A blast from the past? The Independent, 18 September 1994
  9. ^ Martina Purdy, BBC News, 1 February 2007, Profile: Ian Paisley
  10. ^ "Ian Paisley able to communicate 'to some degree'". BBC News (BBC News). 7 February 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Free Presbyterian Church - About us". Freepres.org. Retrieved 20 February 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Clifford Smyth, Ian Paisley: Voice of Protestant Ulster, p.5
  13. ^ "Church elects new moderator". BBC News. 19 January 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2008. 
  14. ^ T. Gallagher, "Religion, Reaction, and Revolt in Northern Ireland: The Impact of Paisleyism in Ulster", Journal of Church and State, 23.3 (1981), p. 440
  15. ^ Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans, Ian Paisley, Emerald House Group Inc, 1997
  16. ^ Ian Paisley and politics of peace, Los Angeles Times, 24 March 2010
  17. ^ "Paisley campaigns to 'save Ulster from Sodomy'". The Irish Times. 20 October 1977. p. 7. Retrieved 7 May 2008. (subscription required)
  18. ^ Stonewall timeline of Gay & Lesbian history available here [1].
  19. ^ [ianpaisley.org Paisley's web site] Home page
  20. ^ Ed Moloney and Andy Pollak, Paisley, Poolbeg Press, Dublin, 1986, pp.247-9.
  21. ^ MacDonald, Susan (2 October 1988). "Paisley ejected for insulting Pope". The Times. 
  22. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (16 September 2004 [2]). "The Return of Dr. No". The Guardian. 
  23. ^ "HEADLINERS; Papal Audience", The New York Times, 16 October 1988.
  24. ^ David McKittrick, "An amazing conversion? The Big Man makes a long journey", The Independent, 10 October 2006.
  25. ^ Devenport, Mark (19 January 2004). "Paisley's exit from Europe". BBC News. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  26. ^ "Billy Graham's Tragic Romeward Run". Cnview.com. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  27. ^ "Free Presbyterian Church - Dr. Ian Paisley". Freepres.org. 16 October 1988. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  28. ^ "NI leaders pay tribute to Pope". BBC News. 3 April 2005. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  29. ^ [3][dead link]
  30. ^ "EIPS — The Vacant Seat Number 666 in the European Parliament". Ianpaisley.org. 22 July 1999. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  31. ^ "Chamber seating plan", European Parliament
  32. ^ "Free Presbyterian Church — Church Information". Free Presbyterian Church. Retrieved 10 May 2007. 
  33. ^ "EIPS — Dr Paisley Given The Freedom Of Ballymena". Ianpaisley.org. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  34. ^ Clifford Smyth, Ian Paisley: Voice of Protestant Ulster, p.4
  35. ^ Cal McCrystal (18 September 1994). "Paisley: A blast from the past?". Independent newspapers. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  36. ^ This move followed the election win by Sinn Féin of over 150,000 votes in the 1955 elections - the strongest expression of anti-partitionist feeling in some years. The fears were well founded as the IRA was preparing for a new campaign starting in December 1956, which would have included attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) stations in Belfast were it not for that section of the plan being discovered. See article Border Campaign (IRA)
  37. ^ See CEB Brett, Long Shadows Cast Before, Edinburgh, 1978, pp. 130-131
  38. ^ Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations, Peter Barberis, John McHugh, Mike Tyldesley, p.255
  39. ^ Making the Irish American, Joseph Lee and Marion R. Casey, p144, NYU Press, 2006
  40. ^ See Ian S. Wood, 'The IRA's Border Campaign' p. 123 in Anderson, Malcolm and Eberhard Bort, ed. 'Irish Border: History, Politics, Culture'. Liverpool University Press. 1999
  41. ^ Boulton, David.The UVF 1966-73, An Anatomy of Loyalist Rebellion Dublin: Torc Books, 1973. (Boulton 34)
  42. ^ Paul Arthur & Keith Jeffrey, Northern Ireland Since 1968, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996
  43. ^ "CAIN: Abstracts of Organisations". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  44. ^ "Northern Ireland: Unleashing the Third Force". Time. 7 December 1981. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  45. ^ "Unleashing the Third Force" Time
  46. ^ "CAIN: Abstracts of Organisations". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  47. ^ "Statutory Instrument 1987 No. 463 (N.I. 7)". Opsi.gov.uk. 20 September 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  48. ^ Sunningdale Agreement, BBC News, accessed 11 February 2012
  49. ^ PRISON SENTENCES ON PAISLEY AND BUNTING, The Times, 28 January 1969][dead link]
  50. ^ "BBC 2004 election coverage". BBC News. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  51. ^ United Unionist Action Council (UUAC) Strike (1977) - Chronology of Events, CAIN Web Service, accessed 11 February 2012
  52. ^ Slavin, Barbara; Milt Freudenheim (27 December 1981). "THE WORLD IN SUMMARY; U.S. PULLS THE RUG ON PAISLEY" (abstract; fee required). The New York Times (The New York Times Company). p. 2. Retrieved 13 June 2008. 
  53. ^ Anglo-Irish Agreement - Summary of Events, CAIN Web Service, accessed 11 February 2012
  54. ^ "Speech to European Parliament | Margaret Thatcher Foundation". Margaretthatcher.org. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 
  55. ^ Wolff, Stefan & Neuheiser, Jorg (2003). Peace at Last?: The Impact of the Good Friday Agreement on Northern Ireland (Studies in Ethnopolitics). Berghahn Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-57181-518-7. 
  56. ^ The "Victory Jig" appears to have discredited Trimble in the longrun to the benefit of Dr. Paisley. See comments on the "Victory Jig" here.; see video of the controversial march through the area and "Victory Jig" in the 1995 section here.
  57. ^ Press Briefing: 3.45pm Monday 21 February 2005 10 Downing Street website.
  58. ^ The 1998 Referendums, ARK, accessed 11 February 2012
  59. ^ 'The Queen is a parrot' - Paisley, BBC News, 26 May 1998, accessed 11 February 2012
  60. ^ "Sanctions against DUP ministers". BBC News. 8 June 2000. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  61. ^ Old hatreds thaw during 61 days of normal politics|Independent, The (London)|Find Articles at BNET.com[dead link]
  62. ^ What is the St Andrews agreement?, The Guardian 17 October 2006
  63. ^ "Belfast march passes peacefully", BBC News, 12 July 2006.
  64. ^ Northern Ireland Assembly Elections 2007, ARK, accessed 11 February 2012
  65. ^ NI deal struck in historic talks, BBC News, 26 March 2007, accessed 11 February 2012
  66. ^ a b "Ian Paisley's speech in full", BBC News, 8 May 2007.
  67. ^ "'Chuckle brothers' enjoy 100 days", BBC News, 15 August 2007.
  68. ^ Who is Jim Allister? BBC News, 8 June 2009, accessed 11 February 2012
  69. ^ "DUP leader to join privy council", BBC News, 21 October 2005.
  70. ^ "Northern Ireland News, NI news, Local News Belfast, Ireland, world news, NI video UTV Live, Watch news online, headlines, breaking news, latest stories u.tv". UTV. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  71. ^ "Robinson confirmed as DUP leader". BBC News online. 17 April 2008. 
  72. ^ "Robinson is new NI first minister". BBC News. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2009. 
  73. ^ "BBC Coverage of Paisley winning "Opposition Parliamentarian of the Year"". BBC News. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  74. ^ Paisley wins Marathon Man of the Year by Spectator Magazine[dead link]
  75. ^ Sharrock, David (2 March 2010). "Ian Paisley to step down from North Antrim seat after 40 years as MP". London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  76. ^ "Antrim North: Paisley Jnr sees off Jim Allister". 2010 Election (BBC). 7 May 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  77. ^ McDonald, Henry (14 November 2011). "Ian Paisley retires from ministry". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
  78. ^ McNeilly, Claire (19 December 2011). "Paisley steps down from pulpit after 60 years of preaching". Irish Independent. Retrieved 21 December 2011. 
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