From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article
|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (October 2011)|
I // is the first-person singular nominative case personal pronoun in Modern English. It is used to refer to one's self and is capitalized, although other pronouns, such as he or she, are not capitalized. In Australian English, British English and Irish English, me can refer to someone's possessions (see archaic and non-standard forms of English personal pronouns).
|Subject||Object||Possessive determiner||Possessive pronoun||Reflexive||Subject||Object||Possessive determiner||Possessive pronoun||Reflexive|
English I originates from Old English (OE) ic. Its predecessor ic had in turn originated from the continuation of Proto-Germanic ik, and ek; ek was attested in the Elder Futhark inscriptions (in some cases notably showing the variant eka; see also ek erilaz). Linguists assume ik to have developed from the unstressed variant of ek. Variants of ic were used in various English dialects up until the 1600s.
The Proto-Germanic root came, in turn, from the Proto Indo-European language (PIE). The reconstructed PIE pronoun is *egō, egóm, with cognates including Sanskrit aham, Hittite uk, Latin ego, Greek ἐγώ egō and Old Slavonic azъ, Alviri-Vidari (an Iranian language) اَز (az)
The oblique forms are formed from a stem *me- (English me), the plural from *wei- (English we), the oblique plural from *ns- (English us).
There is no known record of a definitive explanation from around the early period of this capitalisation practice.
It is likely that the capitalization was prompted and spread as a result of one or more of the following:
Other considerations include:
Capitalization was already employed with pronouns in other languages at that time. It was used to denote respect of the addresser or position of the addressed.
There is also the possibility that the first instances of capitalisation may have been happenstance. Either through chance or a sense of correctness, in the practice or the delivery, the capitalisation may have spread.
There are failings of many of these explanations based on other words, but there is the possibility that the factors or factor that prompted and/or spread this change may not have been applied to all similar words or instances.
According to traditional grammar, the objective case appears only as the direct object of a verb, the indirect object of a verb, or the object of a proposition. But there are examples which meet with varying degree of acceptance which violate this rule.
|1st||Singular||iċ||[ɪtʃ]||mec / mē||mē||mīn|
|Plural||wē||[weː]||ūsic||ūs||ūser / ūre|
|2nd||Singular||þū||[θuː]||þec / þē||þē||þīn|
|First||ik / ich / I||me||my(n)||we||us||oure|
|Second||þou / thou||þee / thee||þy(n) / thy(n)||ȝe / ye||ȝow / you||ȝower / your|
|Third||Impersonal||hit||hit / him||his||he|
þei / they
þem / them
þeir / their
|Feminine||ȝho / scho / sche||hire||hire|
|1st person||singular||I||me||my/mine[# 1]||mine|
|2nd person||singular informal||thou||thee||thy/thine[# 1]||thine|
|plural or formal singular||ye, you||you||your||yours|
|3rd person||singular||he/she/it||him/her/it||his/her/his (it)[# 2]||his/hers/his[# 2]|
"Etymology of I". etymonline.com. Douglas Harper, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
"Etymology of Me". etymonline.com. Douglas Harper, n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2010.
Halleck, Elaine (editor). "Sum: Pronoun "I" again". LINGUIST List 9.253., n.p., Web. 20 Feb. 1998.
Jacobsen, Martin (editor). "Sum: Pronoun 'I'". LINGUIST List 9.253., n.p., Web. 20 Feb. 1998.
Mahoney, Nicole. "> Language Change". nsf.gov. n.p. 12 July 2008. Web. 21 Dec. 2010
Wells, Edward. "Further Elucidation on the Capitalization of 'I' in English". (a paper in progress). Lingforum.com. n.p., Web. 25 Dec. 2010
Wren and Martin English Grammar book for High-schoolers.
|Look up I, me, mine, or my in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|