IQ and Global Inequality

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IQ and Global Inequality
IQ and Global Inequality cover
AuthorRichard Lynn
Tatu Vanhanen
PublisherWashington Summit Publishers
Publication date
10 November 2006
Media typePrint (hardcover)
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IQ and Global Inequality
IQ and Global Inequality cover
AuthorRichard Lynn
Tatu Vanhanen
PublisherWashington Summit Publishers
Publication date
10 November 2006
Media typePrint (hardcover)

IQ and Global Inequality is a 2006 book by psychologist Richard Lynn and political scientist Tatu Vanhanen.[1] IQ and Global Inequality is follow-up to their 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations,[2] an expansion of the argument that international differences in current economic development are due in part to differences in average national intelligence as indicated by national IQ estimates, and a response to critics. The book was published by the controversial Washington Summit Publishers.

Lynn and Vanhanen's research on national IQs has attracted widespread criticism of the book's scores, methodology, and conclusions. The book was positively received by some long time supporters of Lynn's research, including J. Philippe Rushton.[citation needed]


Significant correlations with higher national IQ were found for a number of factors: higher GDP/capita, higher adult literacy rate, higher gross tertiary education enrollment ratio, higher life expectancy at birth, higher level of democratization 2002 (Tatu Vanhanen's Index of Democratization), higher Human Development Index, higher Gender-related Development Index, higher economic growth rate, lower Gini index of inequality in income or consumption, lower population below the $2 a day international poverty line, lower measures of undernourishment, lower maternal mortality ratio, lower infant mortality rate, higher Corruption Perceptions Index, higher Economic Freedom of the World ratings, higher Index of Economic Freedom ratings, and more narrow population pyramid (MU Index).


The book received a mixed reception with most academics dismissing the work.

In a review J. Philippe Rushton, President of the Pioneer fund that has been a long time funder of research by Lynn,[3][4] writes that the book extends and answers criticisms against the earlier work in several ways. Rushton concludes that the methods is accurate.[5] Rushton states that the national IQs have very high validity as measures of national differences in cognitive ability.[5] He states that "They show that there is remarkable consistency in the IQs of nations when these are classified into racial clusters." [5]

In contrast to Lynn, Kanazawa "contends that it is the evolutionary novelty of the environment which increased general intelligence" and not the cold climate and harsh winters as Lynn states.[6]

The methods of the study were criticized by Richard E. Nisbett for relying on small and haphazard samples and for ignoring data that did not support the conclusions.[7]

In an article published in European Journal of Personality, Heiner Rindermann compared the IQ scores from the book to a large number of international student assessment studies on subjects such as reading, mathematics, science, and problem solving, and found them to be highly intercorrelated. Statistical analyses indicated that the results could be explained by an underlying general cognitive ability. More than 30 commentaries on Rindermann's findings were published in the same issue of the journal.[8]

The study A systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans by Jelte M. Wicherts and colleagues stated that:

"For instance, Lynn and Vanhanen (2006) accorded a national IQ of 69 to Nigeria on the basis of three samples (Fahrmeier, 1975; Ferron, 1965; Wober, 1969), but they did not consider other relevant published studies that indicated that average IQ in Nigeria is considerably higher than 70 (Maqsud, 1980a,b; Nenty & Dinero, 1981; Okunrotifa, 1976). As Lynn rightly remarked during the 2006 conference of the International Society for Intelligence Research (ISIR), performing a literature review involves making a lot of choices. Nonetheless, an important drawback of Lynn (and Vanhanen)'s reviews of the literature is that they are unsystematic."[9]

However, the study also did its own literature review on the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans. It did not find as low a value as the book, below 70, but the estimated average value of 82 is still low compared to industrialized nations. Regarding four studies comparing and finding agreement between Lynn's estimated national IQs and the international student assessment tests, they disagree regarding sub-Saharan Africa but write "these four studies appear to validate national IQs in other parts of the world."[9]

Richard Lynn and Gerhard Meisenberg in turn replied that "critical evaluation of the studies presented by WDM shows that many of these are based on unrepresentative elite samples" and that a further literature review, including taking into account results in mathematics, science, and reading, gave "an IQ of 68 as the best reading of the IQ in sub-Saharan Africa".[10] Wicherts and colleagues in yet another reply stated: "In light of all the available IQ data of over 37,000 African testtakers, only the use of unsystematic methods to exclude the vast majority of data could result in a mean IQ close to 70. On the basis of sound methods, the average IQ remains close to 80. Although this mean IQ is clearly lower than 100, we view it as unsurprising in light of the potential of the Flynn Effect in Africa (Wicherts, Borsboom, & Dolan, 2010) and common psychometric problems associated with the use of western IQ tests among Africans."[11]

Consequently, some later studies using average national IQ data have checked their results against both data sets.[12][13]

Jones and Schneider commenting on the differences to the earlier book write "LV (2002) assembled results from 183 conventional IQ tests, both verbal and visual, given in 81 countries across the entire 20th century;they used hundreds of IQ tests from 113 countries across centuries in LV (2006). They aggregated these results using best practice methods to create estimates of “national average IQ” for these countries. LV show in those works as well as in Lynn (2006) that the IQ gaps between regions of the world have not appreciably changed during the 20th century."[14]

Earl Hunt cited Lynn and Vanhanen's work as an example of scientists going far beyond the empirical support to make controversial policy recommendations, and as such as examples of irresponsible uses of science. Hunt argues that in their argumentation they both made the basic mistake of assigning causality to a correlation without evidence, and that they made "staggeringly low" estimates of Sub-Saharan African IQs based on highly problematic data. He considers that by their negligence of observing good scientific practice Lynn and Vanhanen are not living up to the basic responsibility of scientists to make sure that their results can function as reasonable empirical support for policy decisions.[15]

Associations between national IQ and other factors[edit]

Quality of human conditions index[edit]

The quality of human conditions (QHC) index was computed from five variables.

  1. purchasing power parity Gross National Income (PPP-GNI) per capita 2002
  2. adult literacy rate 2002
  3. gross tertiary enrollment ratio
  4. life expectancy at birth 2002
  5. the level of democratization 2002 (Tatu Vanhanen's Index of Democratization)

Values of the index range from 10.7 (Burkina Faso) to 89 (Norway). Lynn and Vanhanen write that they would have preferred to include a sixth measure, an indicator of income inequality, but that statistical data for that variable was not available for all countries. They write that the QHC index differs significantly from other widely used indexes (such as the Human Development Index) in that QHC also measures democratization. Some of their claims have received support in a 2007 study by Rindermann.[16]

All countriesCalculated IQ
(113 countries)
Estimated IQ
(79 countries)
(192 countries)
PPP GNI per capita 20020.6930.3420.616
Adult literacy rate 20020.6420.6550.655
Tertiary enrollment ratio0.7460.6990.745
Life expectancy at birth 20020.7650.6900.750
Index of Democratization 20020.5690.3220.530
Excluding smallest countriesCalculated IQ
(98 countries)
Estimate IQ
(62 countries)
(160 countries)
PPP GNI per capita 20020.7390.2660.649
Adult literacy rate 20020.7100.7460.733
Tertiary enrollment ratio0.7780.7340.780
Life expectancy at birth 20020.8330.7530.817
Index of Democratization 20020.5980.4080.584

Other measures of global inequality[edit]

Latitude and temperature[edit]

Degrees latitude1-0.885
Annual mean temperature-0.8851
National IQ0.677-0.632
PPP GNI per capita 20020.528-0.407
Adult literacy rate 20020.482-0.467
Tertiary enrollment ratio0.718-0.649
Life expectancy at birth 20020.505-0.379
Index of Democratization 20020.512-0.460

National IQ and QHC values[edit]

Lynn and Vanhanen base their analysis on data gathered from a literature review. They selected IQ data from studies which covered 113 nations. For another 79 nations, they estimated the mean IQs on the basis of the arithmetic means of the measured IQs of neighboring countries. They justify this method of estimation by pointing out that the correlation between the estimated national IQs they reported in IQ and the Wealth of Nations and the measured national IQs since obtained is very high (0.91).[9][17]

Lynn and Vanhanen calculated the national IQs in relation to a British mean of 100, with a standard deviation of 15. They adjusted all test results to account for the Flynn effect: adjustments were 2 points per decade for Raven's Progressive Matrices and 3 points per decade for all other types of tests. When two IQ studies were used from one country, their mean was calculated, whereas when three or more were available, the median was used.[9][17]

See also[edit]

Theories of Race and Intelligence:

Publications of Race and Intelligence:


  1. ^ Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Washington Summit Publishers: Augusta, GA. ISBN 1-59368-025-2
  2. ^ Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
  3. ^ Grantees
  4. ^ Lynn & Vanhanen 2002 p.2
  5. ^ a b c Review by J. Philippe Rushton in Personality and Individual Differences, 2006, 41, 983-5.
  6. ^ Temperature and evolutionary novelty as forces behind the evolution of general intelligence, Satoshi Kanazawa, Intelligence, Volume 36, Issue 2, March–April 2008, Pages 99-108
  7. ^ Nisbett, Richard. 2009. Intelligence and how to get it. pp. 215.
  8. ^ Rindermann,H. (2007). The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: The homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. European Journal of Personality, 21, 6 67−706
  9. ^ a b c d Wicherts, J. M., et al., A systematic literature review of the average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans, Intelligence (2009),
  10. ^ "The average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas", Richard Lynna and Gerhard Meisenberg, Intelligence, Volume 38, Issue 1, January–February 2010, Pages 21-29
  11. ^ The dangers of unsystematic selection methods and the representativeness of 46 samples of African test-takers, Jelte M. Wicherts, Conor V. Dolana and Han L.J. van der Maas, Intelligence Volume 38, Issue 1, January–February 2010, Pages 30-37
  12. ^ IQ in the Utility Function: Cognitive skills, time preference, and cross-country differences in savings rates, Garett Jones and Marta Podemska, (Presented at Canadian Economics Association meetings, June 2010)
  13. ^ Christopher Eppig, Corey L. Fincher, and Randy Thornhill Parasite prevalence and the worldwide distribution of cognitive ability Proc R Soc B 2010: rspb.2010.0973v1-rspb20100973.
  14. ^ IQ IN THE PRODUCTION FUNCTION: EVIDENCE FROM IMMIGRANT EARNINGS, GARETT JONES1, W. JOEL SCHNEIDER2, conomic Inquiry, Volume 48, Issue 3, pages 743–755, July 2010
  15. ^ Hunt, E. (2010). The rights and responsibilities implied by academic freedom. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(4), 264-271.
  16. ^ Rindermann, Heiner: The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. European Journal of Personality 21 (2007) 667-706 [1]
  17. ^ a b McDaniel, M.A. (2008). Book Review of: IQ and Global Inequality. Intelligence, 36, 731-732.

External links[edit]