iOS

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

iOS
Apple iOS new.svg
IOS 7 home screen.png
The iPhone home screen in iOS 7
Company / developerApple Inc.
Programmed inC, C++, Objective-C
OS familyUnix-like (BSD)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source
Initial releaseJune 29, 2007; 6 years ago (2007-06-29)
Latest stable release
iPhone 4, 4S, 5, 5C and 5S
iPad 2, 3rd and 4th generations and Air
iPad Mini 1st and 2nd generations
iPod Touch 5th generation

7.0.4 (Build 11B554a) (November 14, 2013; 14 days ago (2013-11-14)) [±][1]

Apple TV 2nd and 3rd generations
6.0.2 (Build 11B554a) (November 14, 2013; 14 days ago (2013-11-14)) [±][2]
Latest unstable release
iPhone 4, 4S, 5, 5C and 5S
iPad 2, 3rd and 4th generations and Air
iPad Mini 1st and 2nd generations
iPod Touch 5th generation
7.1 Beta 1 (Build 11D5099e) (November 18, 2013; 10 days ago (2013-11-18)) [±]
Available language(s)34 languages[3][4]
Supported platforms64- and 32-bit ARM architectures (iPhone, iPod, iPad, iPad Mini, and 2nd gen. and higher Apple TV), Apple A4, Apple A5, Apple A5X, Apple A6, Apple A6X, Apple A7
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
Default user interfaceCocoa Touch (multi-touch, GUI)
LicenseProprietary EULA except for open-source components
Official websitewww.apple.com/ios/
 
  (Redirected from IOS (Apple))
Jump to: navigation, search
iOS
Apple iOS new.svg
IOS 7 home screen.png
The iPhone home screen in iOS 7
Company / developerApple Inc.
Programmed inC, C++, Objective-C
OS familyUnix-like (BSD)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source
Initial releaseJune 29, 2007; 6 years ago (2007-06-29)
Latest stable release
iPhone 4, 4S, 5, 5C and 5S
iPad 2, 3rd and 4th generations and Air
iPad Mini 1st and 2nd generations
iPod Touch 5th generation

7.0.4 (Build 11B554a) (November 14, 2013; 14 days ago (2013-11-14)) [±][1]

Apple TV 2nd and 3rd generations
6.0.2 (Build 11B554a) (November 14, 2013; 14 days ago (2013-11-14)) [±][2]
Latest unstable release
iPhone 4, 4S, 5, 5C and 5S
iPad 2, 3rd and 4th generations and Air
iPad Mini 1st and 2nd generations
iPod Touch 5th generation
7.1 Beta 1 (Build 11D5099e) (November 18, 2013; 10 days ago (2013-11-18)) [±]
Available language(s)34 languages[3][4]
Supported platforms64- and 32-bit ARM architectures (iPhone, iPod, iPad, iPad Mini, and 2nd gen. and higher Apple TV), Apple A4, Apple A5, Apple A5X, Apple A6, Apple A6X, Apple A7
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
Default user interfaceCocoa Touch (multi-touch, GUI)
LicenseProprietary EULA except for open-source components
Official websitewww.apple.com/ios/

iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple Inc. Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, it has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch (September 2007), iPad (January 2010), iPad Mini (November 2012) and second-generation Apple TV (September 2010). Unlike Microsoft's Windows Phone and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware. As of October 2013, Apple's App Store contained more than 1 million iOS applications, 475,000 of which were optimised for iPad.[5] These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 60 billion times.[6] It had a 21% share of the smartphone mobile operating system units shipped in the fourth quarter of 2012, behind only Google's Android.[7] In June 2012, it accounted for 65% of mobile web data consumption (including use on both the iPod Touch and the iPad).[8] At the half of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated.[9] According to the special media event held by Apple on September 12, 2012, 400 million devices had been sold by June 2012.[10]

The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching from portrait to landscape mode).

iOS is derived from OS X, with which it shares the Darwin foundation and various application frameworks. iOS is Apple's mobile version of the OS X operating system used on Apple computers.

Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current release, iOS 7, was released on September 18, 2013. In iOS, there are four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. The current version of the operating system (iOS 7.0.4), dedicates 1–1.5 GB of the device's flash memory for the system partition, using roughly 800 MB of that partition (varying by model) for iOS itself.[11][12] It runs on the iPhone 4 and later, 2nd-generation iPad and later, all models of the iPad Mini, the 5th-generation iPod Touch, and Apple TV.

History

The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo, January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year.[13] At first, Apple marketing literature did not specify a separate name for the operating system, stating simply that the "iPhone runs OS X".[14] Initially, third-party applications were not supported. Steve Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build web applications that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone".[15][16] On October 17, 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February".[17] On March 6, 2008, Apple released the first beta, along with a new name for the operating system: "iPhone OS".

Apple had released the iPod Touch, which had most of the non-phone capabilities of the iPhone. Apple also sold more than one million iPhones during the 2007 holiday season.[18] On January 27, 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading iBooks.[19]

In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS". The trademark "IOS" had been used by Cisco for over a decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the "IOS" trademark from Cisco.[20]

By late 2011, iOS accounted for 60% of the market share for smartphones and tablet computers.[21] By the end of 2012, iOS accounted for 21% of the smartphone OS market[7] and 43.6% of the tablet OS market.[22]

Software updates

Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system approximately once a year over iTunes and also, since iOS version 5.0, over the air. The latest version of iOS is iOS 7, which is available for the iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPhone 5C, iPhone 5S, iPad 2, the third-generation iPad, the fourth-generation iPad, the iPad Mini and the fifth-generation iPod Touch. Before iOS 4's release in 2010, iPod Touch users had to pay for system software updates. Apple claimed that this was the case, because the iPod Touch was not a 'subscription device' like the iPhone (i.e. it was a one-off purchase).[23] Apple said it had 'found a way' to deliver software updates for free to iPod Touch users at WWDC 2010, when iOS 4 was unveiled.[24]

Features

Home Screen

The home screen (rendered by and also known as "SpringBoard") displays application icons and a dock at the bottom of the screen where users can pin their most frequently used apps. The home screen appears whenever the user unlocks the device or presses the "Home" button (a physical button on the device) whilst in another app. The screen's background can be customized with other customizations available through jailbreaking. The screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the screen is devoted to the current application. When a passcode is set and a user switches on the device, the passcode must be entered at the Lock Screen before access to the Home Screen is granted.

Since iOS version 3.0, a Spotlight Search function has been available on the leftmost page of the home screen page allowing users to search through media (music, videos, podcasts, etc.), applications, e-mails, contacts, messages, reminders, calendar events, and similar files. Third-party app files were not, and still are not, searchable using the Spotlight feature. In iOS 7, this feature can be accessed by pulling down anywhere on the screen.[25]

In iOS 3.2 or later and with a supported device, the user can set a picture as the background of the home screen. This feature is only available on third-generation devices or newer – iPhone 3GS or newer, iPod Touch 3rd gen. or newer, and all iPad models.

Researchers found that users organize icons on their homescreens based on usage-frequency and relatedness of the applications, as well as for reasons of usability and aesthetics.[26]

Folders

With iOS 4 came the introduction of a simple folder system. When applications are in "jiggle mode", any two (with the exception of Newsstand in iOS 5 and later, which acts like a folder[27]) can be dragged on top of each other to create a folder, and from then on, more apps can be added to the folder using the same procedure, up to 12 on iPhone 4S and earlier and iPod Touch, 16 on iPhone 5, and 20 on iPad. A title for the folder is automatically selected by the category of applications inside, but the name can also be edited by the user. When apps inside folders receive badges, the numbers shown by the badges is added up and shown on the folder. Folders can't be put into other folders, but through exploiting iOS glitches, Newsstand and other folders can be forced to be placed into a folder. This is handy for some users who find the Newsstand functionality useless. However, upon attempting to open a folder/the Newsstand within a folder, the SpringBoard will crash.[28]

Notification Center

Before iOS 5, notifications were delivered in blue dialog box. This system of notification management was greatly criticised. In the iOS 5 update, the notifications feature was completely redesigned. Notifications collate in a window which can be dragged down from the top of the screen.[29] If a user touches a received notification, the application that sent the notification will be opened. Notifications are now delivered in small banners that appear over the status bar. The old method of delivering notifications is still available from Notification Settings if the user wishes to enable it for some or all applications.

When an app sends a notification whilst closed, a red badge will appear on its icon. This badge tells the user, at a glance, how many notifications that app has sent. Opening the app clears the badge.

Included applications

The iOS home screen contains these default "apps". Some of these applications are hidden by default and accessed by the user through the Settings app or another method—for instance, Nike+iPod is activated through the Settings app. Many of these apps, such as Safari, the App Store, and YouTube, can also be disabled in the Restrictions section of the Settings app.[30]

Primary
SeriesiPhoneiPod TouchiPadiPad Mini
Model1st3G3GS44S55C5S1st2nd3rd4th5th1st2nd3rd4thAir1st2nd
PhoneTelephone1.02.03.04.05.06.07.0N/AN/AN/A
MailEmail client1.1.32.1.13.1.14.16.03.24.35.16.07.0.36.07.0.3
SafariWeb browser1.1
MusicPortable media player1.0
(iPod)
2.0
(iPod)
3.0
(iPod)
4.0
(iPod)
3.2
(iPod)
4.3
(iPod)
VideosVideo player3.24.3
SpringBoardHome screen1.02.03.04.0
Spotlight search3.03.0
FoldersN/A4.0N/A4.04.2.1
Home screen backgroundsN/A4.0N/A4.03.2
Secondary
SeriesiPhoneiPod TouchiPadiPad Mini
Model1st3G3GS44S55C5S1st2nd3rd4th5th1st23rd4thAir1st2nd
MessagesText messaging1.02.03.04.05.06.07.0N/AN/AN/A
MMSN/A3.0
iMessage instant messagingN/A5.0N/A5.06.05.05.16.07.0.36.07.0.3
CalendarCalendar1.02.03.04.01.12.1.13.1.14.13.24.3
YouTubeYouTube video streamer (until 5.1.1)N/AN/AN/AN/A
PhotosPhoto viewer6.07.06.06.07.0.36.07.0.3
Video viewer2.02.0
Crop, red eye fix, auto enhance and photo rotateN/A5.0N/A5.05.0
CameraCamera1.02.03.04.0N/A4.1N/A4.3
CamcorderN/A
Auto-focus4.0N/AN/A
HDRN/A4.1
Crop, red eye fix, auto enhance and photo rotate5.05.05.0
PanoramaN/A6.0N/AN/AN/A
Take still photos while recording videoN/AN/A
Photo filters7.07.0
Burst modeN/A7.0N/A
FaceTimeVideo calling over Wi-FiN/A4.05.06.07.0N/A4.16.04.35.16.07.0.36.07.0.3
Video calling over 3G/LTE (iPad requires a cellular network)N/A6.0N/AN/AN/A6.06.0.16.0.1
FaceTime Audio7.07.07.07.0
Photo BoothA camera application with added special effectsN/AN/A4.35.16.06.0
StocksStocks provided by Yahoo! Finance1.02.03.04.05.06.07.01.1.32.1.13.1.14.16.0N/AN/A
Stocks Widget for Notification CenterN/A5.0N/A5.0
WeatherWeather provided by Yahoo! Weather1.02.03.04.01.1.32.1.13.1.14.1
Weather Widget for Notification CenterN/A5.0N/A5.0
NotesA simple note-taking program1.02.03.04.01.1.32.1.13.1.14.13.24.35.16.07.0.36.07.0.3
MapsGoogle Maps (until 5.1.1)N/AN/AN/AN/A
Google Street View (until 5.1.1)
Assisted GPS (iPad requires a cellular network)N/A6.07.0N/A3.24.35.16.0.17.0.36.0.17.0.3
Apple-sourced mapsN/A6.0N/A6.06.0N/A6.06.0
Turn-by-turn navigation using Apple-sourced mapsN/A6.0N/A
NewsstandA newspaper and magazine storeN/A5.05.05.0N/A5.05.05.16.06.0
RemindersA to-do list application
Location-based reminders (iPad requires a cellular network)N/AN/AN/A6.0.16.0.1
Voice MemosVoice recorder3.03.04.03.03.1.14.16.0N/AN/A
CalculatorCalculator1.02.01.12.1.1
Scientific calculator (triggered by rotating to landscape)2.02.0
ClockWorld clock, stopwatch, alarm clock and timer1.01.1N/A6.07.0.36.07.0.3
SettingsSettings3.24.35.16.0
ContactsAddress/phone book1.0
(Phone)
2.0
(app)
iTunesAccess to the iTunes Music Store and iTunes Podcast Directory1.1
App StoreTo buy iOS apps2.02.0
CompassCompassN/AN/AN/AN/A
Nike + iPodRecords the distance and pace of a walk or run;
can connect to Nike + iPod sensor
(turned off by default – can be enabled in Settings)
N/A2.1.13.1.14.16.0
Game CenterPlay multiplayer games with other users,
track in-game achievements, view leaderboards.
4.14.14.2.14.35.16.07.0.36.07.0.3
Voice ControlSimple voice control (disabling Siri may be necessary)3.04.0N/A3.1.14.1N/AN/A
SiriA personal voice assistantN/AN/AN/A6.06.07.0.36.07.0.3
Voice dictation5.1
PassbookA virtual wallet application for passes, tickets, coupons and loyalty cardsN/A6.0N/A6.0N/AN/A

On the iPhone and iPod Touch, utilities, such as voice memos, contacts, calculator, and compass are in one folder called "Utilities" in iOS 4 and above.[31][32] Many of the included applications are designed to share data (e.g., a phone number can be selected from an email and saved as a contact or dialed for a phone call).

"iMessage" is available on all iOS devices running iOS 5 or above. iMessage is effectively a version of the Messages app that sends free text or multimedia messages to other iOS devices (similar to BlackBerry Messenger).

Panoramic photography is available only on iPhone 4S and later models, and the fifth generation iPod touch.[33][34]

The bottom row of applications, called the dock, is used to delineate the iPhone's main purposes: originally Phone, Mail, Safari, iPod. Starting with iOS 5, the iPod app was split into two apps, Music and Videos, as it always has been on the iPod Touch, and the Music app replaced the iPod app in the dock. In iOS 7, the iPhone gains a dedicated FaceTime app (previously integrated into the Phone app), as it had been on the iPod Touch and iPad since iOS 4.

Starting January 2008, the iPod Touch retains the same applications that are present by default on the iPhone, with the exception of the Phone and Compass (and also previously, Messages before iOS 5 and Camera before the fourth-generation iPod Touch) apps. The original dock layout was Music, Videos, Photos, and iTunes. In iPhone OS 3, the layout was changed to Music, Videos, Safari, and App Store. For the fourth-generation iPod Touch, it includes FaceTime and Camera, and the dock layout had changed to Music, Mail, Safari, Videos, with the release of iOS 4. With the release of the new fifth-generation iPod Touch and iOS 6, the dock layout was changed to Messages, Mail, Safari, Music, similar to the iPhone.

The iPad and iPad Mini come with the same applications as the iPod Touch, excluding Stocks, Weather, Calculator, and the Nike + iPod app (and also previously, Clock before iOS 6). Additionally, starting with the iPad 2, they have the unique Photo Booth app. Most of the default applications, such as Safari and Mail, are completely rewritten to take advantage of the iPad's and iPad Mini's larger displays. The original dock layout was Safari, Mail, Photos, iPod. Separate music and video apps are provided, as on the iPod Touch, although (as on the iPhone) the music app was named "iPod". In iOS 5, it was changed to "Music" and the dock layout became Safari, Mail, Photos, Music. In iOS 6, Videos replaced Photos in the dock. In iOS 7, the default dock layout was changed to match that of the iPod Touch.

Multitasking

Multitasking on iOS 7

Before iOS 4, multitasking was limited to a selection of the applications Apple included on the device. Users could, however "jailbreak" their device in order to unofficially multitask.[35] Starting with iOS 4, on third-generation and newer iOS devices, multitasking is supported through seven background APIs:[36]

  1. Background audio – application continues to run in the background as long as it is playing audio or video content[37]
  2. Voice over IP – application is suspended when a phone call is not in progress[37]
  3. Background location – application is notified of location changes[37]
  4. Push notifications
  5. Local notifications – application schedules local notifications to be delivered at a predetermined time[37]
  6. Task completion – application asks the system for extra time to complete a given task[37]
  7. Fast app switching – application does not execute any code and may be removed from memory at any time[37]

In iOS 5, three new background APIs were introduced:

  1. Newsstand – application can download content in the background to be ready for the user[37]
  2. External Accessory – application communicates with an external accessory and shares data at regular intervals[37]
  3. Bluetooth Accessory – application communicates with a bluetooth accessory and shares data at regular intervals[37]

In iOS 7, Apple introduced a new multitasking feature, providing all apps with the ability to perform background updates. This feature prefers to update the user's most frequently used apps and prefers to use WiFi networks over a cellular network, without markedly reducing the device's battery life.

Switching applications

In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, double-clicking the home button activates the application switcher. A scrollable dock-like interface appears from the bottom, moving the contents of the screen up. Choosing an icon switches to an application. To the far left are icons which function as music controls, a rotation lock, and on iOS 4.2 and above, a volume controller. Holding the icons briefly makes them "jiggle" (similarly to the homescreen) and allows the user to force quit the applications by simply tapping the red minus circle that appears at the corner of the app's icon.[38]

With the introduction of iOS 7, double clicking the home button also activates the application switcher. However, unlike previous versions it will now display screenshots of open applications on top of the icon and horizontal scrolling allows for browsing through previous apps, and it is possible to close applications by dragging them up, similar than WebOS handled multiple cards.[39]

Siri

Siri is an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator which works as an application on supported devices. The service, directed by the user's spoken commands, can do a variety of different tasks, such as call or text someone, open an app, search the web, lookup sports information, find directions or locations, and answer general knowledge questions (e.g. "How many cups are in a gallon?").[40] Siri was updated in iOS 7 with a new interface, faster answers, Wikipedia, Twitter, and Bing support and the voice was changed to sound more human. Siri is currently only available on the iPhone 4S and later iPhones, the fifth-generation iPod Touch, the iPad Mini, and the third-generation and later iPads.

Game Center

Game Center is an online multiplayer "social gaming network"[41] released by Apple.[42] It allows users to "invite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game through matchmaking, track their achievements, and compare their high scores on a leaderboard." iOS 5 and above adds support for profile photos.[41]

Game Center was announced during an iOS 4 preview event hosted by Apple on April 8, 2010. A preview was released to registered Apple developers in August.[41] It was released on September 8, 2010 with iOS 4.1 on iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 2nd generation through 4th generation.[43] Game Center made its public debut on the iPad with iOS 4.2.1.[44] There is no support for the iPhone 3G, original iPhone and the first-generation iPod Touch (the latter two devices did not have Game Center because they did not get iOS 4). However, Game Center is unofficially available on the iPhone 3G via a hack.[45]

Development

The applications must be written and compiled specifically for iOS and the 64-bit ARM architecture or previous 32-bit one. The Safari web browser supports web applications as with other web browsers. Authorized third-party native applications are available for devices running iOS 2.0 and later through Apple's App Store. A Q3 2013 study found that mobile developers use iOS as a primary platform more than Android (59% vs. 49%), despite Android being a more popular platform overall.[46]

SDK

iOS SDK 6.1 included in Xcode 4.6

On October 17, 2007, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, Steve Jobs announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008.[47] The SDK was released on March 6, 2008, and allows developers to make applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, as well as test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto the devices is only possible after paying an iPhone Developer Program fee.

The fees to join the respective developer programs for iOS and OS X were each set at $99.00 per year. As of July 20, 2011, Apple released Xcode on its Mac App Store free to download for all OS X Lion users, instead of as a standalone download. Users can create and develop iOS and OS X applications using a free copy of Xcode; however, they cannot test their applications on a physical iOS device, or publish them to the App store, without first paying the $99.00 iPhone Developer or Mac Developer Program fee.[48]

Since the release of Xcode 3.1, Xcode is the development environment for the iOS SDK. iOS applications, like many of the higher-level frameworks and applications that are part of iOS and OS X, are written in Objective-C.[49]

Developers are able to set any price above a set minimum for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, keeping 70% for the developer, and leaving 30% for Apple. Alternatively, they may opt to release the application for free and need not pay any costs to release or distribute the application except for the membership fee.[50]

Jailbreaking

Since its initial release, iOS has been subject to a variety of different hacks centered around adding functionality not allowed by Apple. Prior to the 2008 debut of the native iOS App Store, the primary motive for jailbreaking was to install third-party native applications, which was not allowed by Apple at the time.[51] Apple claimed that it will not release iOS software updates designed specifically to break these tools (other than applications that perform SIM unlocking); however, with each subsequent iOS update, previously un-patched jailbreak exploits are usually patched.[52]

Since the arrival of Apple's native iOS App Store, and—along with it—third-party applications, the general motives for jailbreaking have changed.[53] People jailbreak for many different reasons, including gaining filesystem access, installing custom device themes, and modifying the device SpringBoard. On some devices, jailbreaking also makes it possible to install alternative operating systems, such as Android and the Linux kernel. Primarily, users jailbreak their devices because of the limitations of iOS. It should be noted that depending on the method used, the effects of jailbreaking may be permanent, or can be restored to the original state.[54]

In 2010, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) successfully convinced the U.S. Copyright Office to allow an exemption to the general prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). The exemption allows jailbreaking of iPhones for the sole purpose of allowing legally obtained applications to be added to the iPhone.[55] The exemption does not affect the contractual relations between Apple and an iPhone owner, for example, jailbreaking voiding the iPhone warranty; however, it is solely based on Apple's discretion on whether they will fix jailbroken devices in the event that they need to be repaired. At the same time, the Copyright Office exempted unlocking an iPhone from DMCA's anticircumvention prohibitions.[56] Unlocking an iPhone allows the iPhone to be used with any wireless carrier using the same GSM or CDMA technology for which the particular phone model was designed to operate.[57]

Unlocking

Initially most wireless carriers did not allow iPhone owners to unlock an iPhone for use with other carriers. AT&T Mobility allows iPhone owners who have satisfied the requirements of their contract to unlock their iPhone.[58] Instructions to unlock the device are available from Apple,[59] but it is ultimately the sole discretion of the carrier to authorize the device to be unlocked.[60] This allows the use of a carrier sourced iPhone on other networks. However, because T-Mobile primarily uses a different band than AT&T for its 3G data signals, the iPhone will only work at 3G speeds on the T-Mobile 1900 MHz network.[61] There are programs to break these restrictions, but are not supported by Apple and most often not a permanent unlock, known as soft-unlock.[62]

Digital rights management

The closed and proprietary nature of iOS has garnered criticism, particularly by digital rights advocates such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, computer engineer and activist Brewster Kahle, Internet-law specialist Jonathan Zittrain, and the Free Software Foundation who protested the iPad's introductory event and have targeted the iPad with their "Defective by Design" campaign.[63][64][65][66] Competitor Microsoft, via a PR spokesman, criticized Apple's control over its platform.[67]

At issue are restrictions imposed by the design of iOS, namely digital rights management (DRM) intended to lock purchased media to Apple's platform, the development model (requiring a yearly subscription to distribute apps developed for the iOS), the centralized approval process for apps, as well as Apple's general control and lockdown of the platform itself. Particularly at issue is the ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will.

Some in the tech community have expressed concern that the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Apple's approach to computing, particularly Apple's shift away from machines that hobbyists can "tinker with" and note the potential for such restrictions to stifle software innovation.[68][69] Former Facebook developer Joe Hewitt protested against Apple's control over its hardware as a "horrible precedent" but praised iOS's sandboxing of apps.[70]

Kernel

The iOS kernel is based on Darwin OS. The original iPhone OS (1.0) up to iPhone OS 3.1.3 used Darwin 9.0.0d1. iOS 4 was based on Darwin 10.0.0. iOS 5 was based on Darwin 11.0.0. iOS 6 was based on Darwin 13.0.0. iOS 7 is based on Darwin 14.0.0 (Darwin Kernel Version 14.0.0:Mon Jun 17 00:44:15 PDT 2013;root:xnu-2423.1.28~7/RELEASE_ARM_S5l8940X).[71])

Devices

Apple TViPad Mini (2nd generation)iPad Mini (1st generation)iPad AiriPad (4th generation)iPad (3rd generation)iPad 2iPad (1st generation)iPod Touch (5th generation)iPod Touch#Fourth generationiPod Touch#Third generationiPod Touch#Second generationiPod Touch#First generationiPhone 5SiPhone 5CiPhone 5iPhone 4SiPhone 4iPhone 3GSiPhone 3GiPhone (1st generation)
Sources: Apple press release library,[72] Mactracker Apple Inc. model database[73]

See also

References

  1. ^ "iOS 7.0.2". Apple. 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  2. ^ "Apple security updates". Apple Inc. 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  3. ^ "Apple – iPad 4 – View the technical specifications for iPad 4". Apple. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Apple – iPad mini – View the technical specifications for iPad mini". Apple. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ How Many Apps Are in the iPhone App Store?. Ipod.about.com (July 15, 2013). Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
  6. ^ "Apple WWDC 2012 Keynote Address". Apple Inc. June 11, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Android and iOS Combine for 91.1% of the Worldwide Smartphone OS Market in 4Q12 and 87.6% for the Year, According to IDC". IDC. February 14, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Mobile/Tablet Operating System Market Share June 2012". Net Applications. June 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012. 
  9. ^ "iOS leapfrogs Android with 410 million devices sold and 650,000 apps". InsideMobileApps. July 24, 2012. Retrieved July 24, 2012. 
  10. ^ "TechCrunch: Apple Has Sold Over 400 Million iOS Devices: 9.5% Growth Since March". Retrieved September 21, 2012. 
  11. ^ Woods, Kelly (September 19, 2012). "Get Enough iPhone iPad Space for Downloading & Installing iOS 6". iMobie. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ Haslam, Karen (January 12, 2007). "Macworld Expo: Optimised OS X sits on 'versatile' flash". Macworld. Retrieved October 15, 2007. 
  13. ^ Honan, Matthew (January 9, 2007). "Apple unveils iPhone". Macworld. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Apple – iPhone – Features – OS X". Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  15. ^ Gonsalves, Antone (October 11, 2007). "Apple Launches iPhone Web Apps Directory". InformationWeek. Retrieved February 16, 2010. 
  16. ^ Ziegler, Chris (June 11, 2007). "Apple announces third-party software details for iPhone". Engadget. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  17. ^ Nik Fletcher (October 17, 2007). "Apple: "we plan to have an iPhone SDK in developers' hands in February"". TUAW – The Unofficial Apple Weblog. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results". Apple Inc. October 22, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Apple Launches iPhone Web Apps Directory". Apple. January 27, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  20. ^ Tartakoff, Joseph (June 7, 2010). "Apple Avoids iPhone-Like Trademark Battle Thanks To Cisco, FaceTime Deals". paidContent. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  21. ^ Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Vanguard Press. p. 33. ISBN 1593157207. 
  22. ^ "Tablet Shipments Soar to Record Levels During Strong Holiday Quarter, According to IDC". IDC. January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  23. ^ Why Do iPod touch Software Updates Cost Money?. Ipod.about.com (September 9, 2009). Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
  24. ^ iOS 4 Software Update for iPod touch Is Free. News.softpedia.com (June 15, 2010). Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
  25. ^ "Apple's iOS 7 brings quick Spotlight search access to every app page". AppleInsider. June 10, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  26. ^ Matthias Böhmer, Antonio Krüger. A Study on Icon Arrangement by Smartphone Users. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2137-2146.
  27. ^ "iOS: Using Newsstand". Apple Inc. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  28. ^ Viticci, Federico. (October 8, 2012) Hide Newsstand In A Folder On iOS 6 With One Click, No Jailbreak Required. Macstories.net. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
  29. ^ "iPhone 4S - Always know what's up in Notification Center". Apple Inc. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
  30. ^ "iOS: Understanding Restrictions". Apple Inc. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  31. ^ "iPhone Applications". Apple Inc. July 10, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2008. 
  32. ^ "iOS 3.1 Software Update". Apple Inc. 
  33. ^ How to take a panoramic photo with iOS 6
  34. ^ Mastering panoramic photography in iOS 6
  35. ^ "iOS 4 walkthrough". June 14, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Apple announces multitasking for iPhone OS 4 (iPhone 3GS/iPod touch G3 only)". April 8, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i "iOS Application Programming Guide – Executing Code in the Background". Developer.apple.com. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
  38. ^ "iOS: Force an app to close". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 9, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Jon Rubinstein: OS X and iOS 7 borrow features from webOS". Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  40. ^ "iOS 6 — Ask Siri to help you get things done". Apple. Retrieved February 18, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b c "What's New in iOS 4". Apple. Retrieved June 14, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Apple's Game Center debuts next week - Game Hunters: In search of video games and interactive awesomeness". USA Today. January 9, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  43. ^ Holt, Chris. "iOS 4.1's GameCenter to Hit iPhone Next Week – PCWorld Business Center". Pcworld.com. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  44. ^ "iOS 4.2 Software Update for iPad". Apple Inc. Retrieved October 9, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Game Center". Apple. Sept 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010. 
  46. ^ Developer Economics Q3 2013 analyst report - http://www.visionmobile.com/DevEcon3Q13 - Retrieved July 2013
  47. ^ Jobs, Steve (October 17, 2007). "Third Party Applications on the iPhone". Apple Inc. 
  48. ^ "Which Developer Program is for you?". September 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  49. ^ "Did Apple Make A Mistake Choosing Objective-C For iPhone SDK? at Simon's Blog". Psynixis.com. Retrieved May 9, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Introducing the iPhone Developer Program". Apple Inc. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  51. ^ Healey, Jon (August 6, 2007). "Hacking the iPhone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 6, 2007. 
  52. ^ "Apple's Joswiak: We Don't Hate iPhone Coders". September 11, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  53. ^ Baig, Edward C. (June 26, 2007). "Apple's iPhone isn't perfect, but it's worthy of the hype". USA Today. Retrieved June 28, 2007. 
  54. ^ IPad, MAX (May 6, 2010). "Jailbreaking Explained". IPad Forums. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  55. ^ Kravets, David (July 26, 2010). "U.S. Declares iPhone Jailbreaking Legal, Over Apple's Objections". Wired. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  56. ^ "U.S. Copyright Office Final 2010 Anti-Circumvention Rulemaking". U.S. Copyright Office. July 27, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  57. ^ Mobile, Know Your (May 19, 2010). "Locked / Unlocked - a definition of the terms Locked and Unlocked from the Know Your Mobile mobile phone glossary". Know Your Mobile. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  58. ^ "AT&T – What are the eligibility requirements for unlocking iPhone?". AT&T. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  59. ^ "iPhone: About unlocking". Apple Inc. Website. May 22, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  60. ^ "iPhone: Wireless Carrier Support and Features". Apple Inc. Website. April 12, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013. 
  61. ^ "How to unlock your AT&T iPhone". USA Today. April 9, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  62. ^ "Unauthorized modification of iOS can cause security vulnerabilities, instability, shortened battery life, and other issues". Apple Inc. Website. February 9, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013. 
  63. ^ "iPad DRM endangers our rights". 
  64. ^ Anderson, Nate (January 27, 2010). "Protestors: iPad is nothing more than a golden calf of DRM". Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  65. ^ "Mobile Devices and the Next Computing Revolution". February 3, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  66. ^ Bobbie Johnson (February 1, 2010). "Apple iPad will choke innovation, say open internet advocates". The Guardian. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  67. ^ "Microsoft PR spokesman condemns iPad for being "locked down"". 
  68. ^ "Apple's Trend Away From Tinkering". Slashdot. January 31, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  69. ^ Steve Wozniak (Interviewee) (January 22, 2011). Campus Party Brasil 2011 – Geek Pride e Wozniak. Fragoso, Victor. Retrieved March 7, 2011. 
  70. ^ Leander Kahney (January 30, 2010). "Pundits On The iPad's Closed System: It's Doom For PCs, No It's Great". Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  71. ^ Available via General > About > Diagnostics & Usage > Diagnostics & Usage Data >(date and time).panic.plist, after a kernel crash
  72. ^ Apple Inc., Apple press release library, Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  73. ^ Mactracker (mactracker.ca), Apple Inc. model database, version as of 26 July 2007.

Further reading

  • Hillegass, Aaron; Conway, Jon (March 22, 2012). iOS Programming: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide (3rd ed.). Pearson. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-321-82152-2. 
  • Turner, Kirby (December 19, 2011). Learning iPad Programming: A Hands-on Guide to Building iPad Apps with iOS 5 (1st ed.). Pearson. p. 816. ISBN 978-0-321-75040-2. 
  • Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Jeff (July 21, 2009). Beginning iPhone 3 Development: Exploring the iPhone SDK (1st ed.). Apress. p. 584. ISBN 1-4302-2459-2. 
  • Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Jeff (December 29, 2009). More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK 3 (1st ed.). Apress. p. 552. ISBN 1-4302-2505-X. 

External links