The song is part of Act One of Oliver!, and is sung in Fagin's lair. It begins with spoken dialogue between Nancy and the Artful Dodger, soon leading into the song. Other characters who have lines in the song are Oliver, Fagin and Bette (Nancy's younger sister in the musical; her best friend in the 1968 film and in the original novel), with Fagin's Boys as chorus.
In 2007, the BBC announced a new reality television series I'd Do Anything, named after the song, would begin in 2008 to search for a new, unknown lead to play Nancy and three young performers to play Oliver in a West End revival of Oliver!.
In 2008/2009, the instrumental of I'd Do Anything was used in a HSBC commercial. Latterly, the song was used in a series of anti-smoking public information films, with various groups of children singing the song (different lines for different groups of children). The campaign's message was, 'Your kids would do anything for you. Why don't you stop smoking for them?'.