From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

In mathematics, **hyperbolic functions** are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions. The basic hyperbolic functions are the **hyperbolic sine** "sinh" (/ˈsɪntʃ/ or /ˈʃaɪn/), and the **hyperbolic cosine** "cosh" /ˈkɒʃ/, from which are derived the **hyperbolic tangent** "tanh" (/ˈtæntʃ/ or /ˈθæn/), **hyperbolic cosecant** "csch" or "cosech" /ˈkoʊʃæk/, **hyperbolic secant** "sech" /ˈʃæk/, and **hyperbolic cotangent** "coth" /ˈkoʊθ/,^{[1]} corresponding to the derived trigonometric functions. The inverse hyperbolic functions are the **area hyperbolic sine** "arsinh" (also called "asinh" or sometimes "arcsinh")^{[2]} and so on.

Just as the points (cos *t*, sin *t*) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh *t*, sinh *t*) form the right half of the equilateral hyperbola. Hyperbolic functions occur in the solutions of some important linear differential equations, for example the equation defining a catenary, of some cubic equations, and of Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates. The latter is important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and special relativity.

The hyperbolic functions take real values for a real argument called a hyperbolic angle. The size of a hyperbolic angle is the area of its hyperbolic sector. The hyperbolic functions may be defined in terms of the legs of a right triangle covering this sector.

In complex analysis, the hyperbolic functions arise as the imaginary parts of sine and cosine. When considered defined by a complex variable, the hyperbolic functions are rational functions of exponentials, and are hence meromorphic.

Hyperbolic functions were introduced in the 1760s independently by Vincenzo Riccati and Johann Heinrich Lambert.^{[3]} Riccati used *Sc.* and *Cc.* (*[co]sinus circulare*) to refer to circular functions and *Sh.* and *Ch.* (*[co]sinus hyperbolico*) to refer to hyperbolic functions. Lambert adopted the names but altered the abbreviations to what they are today.^{[4]} The abbreviations *sh* and *ch* are still used in some other languages, like European French and Russian.

- 1 Standard algebraic expressions
- 2 Useful relations
- 3 Inverse functions as logarithms
- 4 Derivatives
- 5 Standard integrals
- 6 Taylor series expressions
- 7 Comparison with circular functions
- 8 Identities
- 9 Relationship to the exponential function
- 10 Hyperbolic functions for complex numbers
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links

The hyperbolic functions are:

- Hyperbolic sine:

- Hyperbolic cosine:

- Hyperbolic tangent:

- Hyperbolic cotangent:

- Hyperbolic secant:

- Hyperbolic cosecant:

Hyperbolic functions can be introduced via imaginary circular angles:

- Hyperbolic sine:

- Hyperbolic cosine:

- Hyperbolic tangent:

- Hyperbolic cotangent:

- Hyperbolic secant:

- Hyperbolic cosecant:

where *i* is the imaginary unit defined by *i*^{2} = −1.

The complex forms in the definitions above derive from Euler's formula.

Odd and even functions:

Hence:

It can be seen that cosh *x* and sech *x* are even functions; the others are odd functions.

Hyperbolic sine and cosine satisfy the identity

which is similar to the Pythagorean trigonometric identity. One also has

for the other functions.

The hyperbolic tangent is the solution to the nonlinear boundary value problem:^{[5]}

It can be shown that the area under the curve of cosh (*x*) is always equal to the arc length:^{[6]}

Sums of arguments:

particularly

Sum and difference of cosh and sinh:

For a full list of integrals of hyperbolic functions, see list of integrals of hyperbolic functions.

where *C* is the constant of integration.

It is possible to express the above functions as Taylor series:

The function sinh *x* has a Taylor series expression with only odd exponents for *x*. Thus it is an odd function, that is, −sinh *x* = sinh(−*x*), and sinh 0 = 0.

The function cosh *x* has a Taylor series expression with only even exponents for *x*. Thus it is an even function, that is, symmetric with respect to the *y*-axis. The sum of the sinh and cosh series is the infinite series expression of the exponential function.

where

- is the
*n*th Bernoulli number - is the
*n*th Euler number

The hyperbolic functions represent an expansion of trigonometry beyond the circular functions. Both types depend on an argument, either circular angle or hyperbolic angle.

Since the area of a circular sector is it will be equal to *u* when *r* = square root of 2. In the diagram such a circle is tangent to the hyperbola *x y* = 1 at (1,1). The yellow sector depicts an area and angle magnitude. Similarly, the red augmentation depicts an area and magnitude as hyperbolic angle.

The legs of the two right triangles with hypotenuse on the ray defining the angles are of length √2 times the circular and hyperbolic functions.

The hyperbolic functions satisfy many identities, all of them similar in form to the trigonometric identities. In fact, **Osborn's rule**^{[7]} states that one can convert any trigonometric identity into a hyperbolic identity by expanding it completely in terms of integral powers of sines and cosines, changing sine to sinh and cosine to cosh, and switching the sign of every term which contains a product of 2, 6, 10, 14, ... sinhs. This yields for example the addition theorems

the "double argument formulas"

and the "half-argument formulas"^{[8]}

- Note: This is equivalent to its circular counterpart multiplied by −1.
- Note: This corresponds to its circular counterpart.

The derivative of sinh *x* is cosh *x* and the derivative of cosh *x* is sinh *x*; this is similar to trigonometric functions, albeit the sign is different (i.e., the derivative of cos *x* is −sin *x*).

The Gudermannian function gives a direct relationship between the circular functions and the hyperbolic ones that does not involve complex numbers.

The graph of the function *a* cosh(*x*/*a*) is the catenary, the curve formed by a uniform flexible chain hanging freely between two fixed points under uniform gravity.

From the definitions of the hyperbolic sine and cosine, we can derive the following identities:

and

These expressions are analogous to the expressions for sine and cosine, based on Euler's formula, as sums of complex exponentials.

Since the exponential function can be defined for any complex argument, we can extend the definitions of the hyperbolic functions also to complex arguments. The functions sinh *z* and cosh *z* are then holomorphic.

Relationships to ordinary trigonometric functions are given by Euler's formula for complex numbers:

so:

Thus, hyperbolic functions are periodic with respect to the imaginary component, with period ( for hyperbolic tangent and cotangent).

Wikimedia Commons has media related to .Hyperbolic functions |

- e (mathematical constant)
- Equal incircles theorem, based on sinh
- Inverse hyperbolic functions
- List of integrals of hyperbolic functions
- Poinsot's spirals
- Sigmoid function

**^**tanh**^**Some examples of using**arcsinh**found in Google Books.**^**Robert E. Bradley, Lawrence A. D'Antonio, Charles Edward Sandifer.*Euler at 300: an appreciation.*Mathematical Association of America, 2007. Page 100.**^**Georg F. Becker.*Hyperbolic functions.*Read Books, 1931. Page xlviii.**^**Eric W. Weisstein. "Hyperbolic Tangent". MathWorld. Retrieved 2008-10-20.**^**N.P., Bali (2005).*Golden Integral Calculus*. Firewall Media. p. 472. ISBN 81-7008-169-6., Extract of page 472**^**G. Osborn, Mnemonic for hyperbolic formulae, The Mathematical Gazette, p. 189, volume 2, issue 34, July 1902**^**Peterson, John Charles (2003).*Technical mathematics with calculus*(3rd ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 1155. ISBN 0-7668-6189-9., Chapter 26, page 1155

- Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001), "Hyperbolic functions",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 - Hyperbolic functions on PlanetMath
- Hyperbolic functions entry at MathWorld
- GonioLab: Visualization of the unit circle, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions (Java Web Start)
- Web-based calculator of hyperbolic functions