( Hyoscyamus niger commonly known as henbane), also known as [1 ] stinking nightshade or black henbane, is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in [1 ] Eurasia, though it is now globally distributed. [1 ] Toxicity and historical usage [edit ]
It was historically used in combination with other plants, such as
mandrake, deadly nightshade, and datura as an anaesthetic potion, as well as for its psychoactive properties in "magic brews." [1 ] [2 ] These psychoactive properties include visual hallucinations and a sensation of flight. [3 ] It was originally used in [4 ] continental Europe, Asia, and the Arab world, though it did spread to England in the [5 ] Middle Ages. The use of henbane by the ancient Greeks was documented by Pliny. The plant, recorded as Herba Apollinaris, was used to yield oracles by the priestesses of Apollo. [1 ]
Recently evidence for its earlier use in the Scottish Neolithic has been debated (Black Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) in the Scottish Neolithic, Journal of Archaeological Science (1999) 26, 45–52 ).
The name henbane dates at least to AD 1265. The origins of the word are unclear, but "hen" probably originally meant death rather than referring to
chickens. [6 ] Hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and other tropane alkaloids have been found in the foliage and seeds of the plant. Common effects of henbane ingestion in humans include hallucinations, [1 ] dilated pupils, restlessness, and flushed skin. Less common symptoms, such as [1 ] tachycardia, convulsions, vomiting, hypertension, hyperpyrexia and ataxia, have all been noted.
Henbane can be
toxic, even fatal, to animals in low doses. Not all animals are susceptible; for example, the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including cabbage moths, eat henbane.
It was sometimes one of the ingredients in
gruit, traditionally used in beers as a flavouring, until replaced by hops in the 11th to 16th centuries (for example, the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516 outlawed ingredients other than barley, hops, yeast, and water). [7 ]
Henbane is thought to have been the "
hebenon" poured into the ear of Hamlet's father [2 ] (although other candidates for hebenon exist). [8 ] [9 ] Misidentification [edit ]
Apothecary vessels for
preparations, Germany, 19th century
In 2008, celebrity chef
Antony Worrall Thompson recommended henbane as a "tasty addition to salads" in the August 2008 issue of Healthy and Organic Living magazine. He subsequently said he had made an error, confusing the herb with fat hen, a member of the spinach family. He apologized, and the magazine sent subscribers an urgent message stating that henbane "is a very toxic plant and should never be eaten". [10 ] Gallery [edit ] See also [edit ] Notes [edit ] ^ a b c d e f g Roberts 1998, p. 31. ^ a b Anthony John Carter MB FFARCS (March 2003). "Myths and mandrakes" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (3): 144–147. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.96.3.144. PMC 539425. PMID 12612119. ^ A. J. Carter (1996-12-21). "Narcosis and nightshade". British Medical Journal 313 (7072): 1630–1632. doi: 10.1136/bmj.313.7072.1630. PMC 2359130. PMID 8991015. ^ Schultes & Smith 1976, p. 22 ^ Joseph Perez, Janet Lloyd, The Spanish Inquisition, Yale University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-300-11982-8, ISBN 978-0-300-11982-4, p229 footnote 10] ^ Anatoly Liberman, J. Lawrence Mitchell (2008). . U of Minnesota Press. pp. 108–110. An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction ISBN 978-0-8166-5272-3. ^ Dan Rabin, Carl Forget (1998). . Taylor & Francis. xii. The Dictionary of Beer and Brewing ISBN 978-1-57958-078-0. ^ "Hebenon". Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828). ^ Anatoly Liberman, J. Lawrence Mitchell (2008). . U of Minnesota Press. pp. 110–111. An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction ISBN 978-0-8166-5272-3. ^ Dawar, Anil (August 4, 2008). "TV chef Worrall Thompson recommends deadly weed as salad ingredient". (London) The Guardian . Retrieved 2008-08-04. References [edit ] External links [edit ]
Psychedelics 5-HT 2AR agonists
1-Methyl-5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine 2,N,N-TMT 4,5-DHP-AMT 4,5-DHP-DMT 4-Acetoxy-DALT 4-Acetoxy-DET 4-Acetoxy-DiPT 4-Acetoxy-DMT 4-Acetoxy-DPT 4-Acetoxy-MiPT 4-HO-5-MeO-DMT 4-HO-DBT 4-HO-DPT 4-HO-MET 4-HO-MPMI 4-HO-MPT 4,N,N-TMT 4-Propionyloxy-DMT 5,6-diBr-DMT 5-AcO-DMT 5-Bromo-DMT 5-Me-MIPT 5-MeO-2, N, N-TMT 5-MeO-4, N, N-TMT 5-MeO-α,N,N-TMT 5-MeO-α-ET 5-MeO-α-MT 5-MeO-DALT 5-MeO-DET 5-MeO-DiPT 5-MeO-DMT 5-MeO-DPT 5-MeO-EiPT 5-MeO-MET 5-MeO-MiPT 5-MeO-MPMI 5- N, N-TMT 7,N,N-TMT α-ET α-MT α,N,N-TMT Aeruginascin Baeocystin Bufotenin DALT DBT DCPT DET DIPT DMT DPT EiPT Ethocin Ethocybin Iprocin MET Miprocin MiPT Norbaeocystin PiPT Psilocin Psilocybin
Dissociatives NMDAR antagonists Deliriants mAChR antagonists Miscellaneous
Agonists: 77-LH-28-1 AC-42 AC-260,584 Aceclidine Acetylcholine AF30 AF150(S) AF267B AFDX-384 Alvameline AQRA-741 Arecoline Bethanechol Butyrylcholine Carbachol CDD-0034 CDD-0078 CDD-0097 CDD-0098 CDD-0102 Cevimeline Choline cis-Dioxolane Ethoxysebacylcholine LY-593,039 L-689,660 LY-2,033,298 McNA343 Methacholine Milameline Muscarine NGX-267 Ocvimeline Oxotremorine PD-151,832 Pilocarpine RS86 Sabcomeline SDZ 210-086 Sebacylcholine Suberylcholine Talsaclidine Tazomeline Thiopilocarpine Vedaclidine VU-0029767 VU-0090157 VU-0152099 VU-0152100 VU-0238429 WAY-132,983 Xanomeline YM-796 Antagonists: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate 4-DAMP Aclidinium Bromide Anisodamine Anisodine Atropine Atropine Methonitrate Benactyzine Benzatropine/Benztropine Benzydamine BIBN 99 Biperiden Bornaprine CAR-226,086 CAR-301,060 CAR-302,196 CAR-302,282 CAR-302,368 CAR-302,537 CAR-302,668 CS-27349 Cyclobenzaprine Cyclopentolate Darifenacin DAU-5884 Dimethindene Dexetimide DIBD Dicyclomine/Dicycloverine Ditran EA-3167 EA-3443 EA-3580 EA-3834 Etanautine Etybenzatropine/Ethylbenztropine Flavoxate Himbacine HL-031,120 Ipratropium bromide J-104,129 Hyoscyamine Mamba Toxin 3 Mamba Toxin 7 Mazaticol Mebeverine Methoctramine Metixene N-Ethyl-3-Piperidyl Benzilate N-Methyl-3-Piperidyl Benzilate Orphenadrine Otenzepad Oxybutynin PBID PD-102,807 PD-0298029 Phenglutarimide Phenyltoloxamine Pirenzepine Piroheptine Procyclidine Profenamine RU-47,213 SCH-57,790 SCH-72,788 SCH-217,443 Scopolamine/Hyoscine Solifenacin Telenzepine Tiotropium bromide Tolterodine Trihexyphenidyl Tripitamine Tropatepine Tropicamide WIN-2299 Xanomeline Zamifenacin; Others: 1st Generation Antihistamines ( Brompheniramine chlorphenamine cyproheptadine dimenhydrinate diphenhydramine doxylamine mepyramine/ pyrilamine phenindamine pheniramine tripelennamine triprolidine, etc) Tricyclic Antidepressants ( Amitriptyline doxepin trimipramine, etc) Tetracyclic Antidepressants ( Amoxapine maprotiline, etc) Typical Antipsychotics ( Chlorpromazine thioridazine, etc) Atypical Antipsychotics ( Clozapine olanzapine, etc.) Agonists: 5-HIAA A-84,543 A-366,833 A-582,941 A-867,744 ABT-202 ABT-418 ABT-560 ABT-894 Acetylcholine Altinicline Anabasine Anatoxin-a AR-R17779 Butinoline Butyrylcholine Carbachol Choline Cotinine Cytisine Decamethonium Desformylflustrabromine Dianicline Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Epibatidine Epiboxidine Ethanol Ethoxysebacylcholine EVP-4473 EVP-6124 Galantamine GTS-21 Ispronicline Lobeline MEM-63,908/RG-3487 Nicotine NS-1738 PHA-543,613 PHA-709,829 PNU-120,596 PNU-282,987 Pozanicline Rivanicline RJR-2429 Sazetidine A Sebacylcholine SIB-1508Y SIB-1553A SSR-180,711 Suberylcholine Suxamethonium/Succinylcholine TC-1698 TC-1734 TC-1827 TC-2216 TC-5214 TC-5619 TC-6683 Tebanicline Tropisetron UB-165 Varenicline WAY-317,538 XY-4083 Antagonists: 18-Methoxycoronaridine α-Bungarotoxin α-Conotoxin Alcuronium Amantadine Anatruxonium Atracurium Bupropion Chandonium Chlorisondamine Cisatracurium Coclaurine Coronaridine Dacuronium Decamethonium Dextromethorphan Dextropropoxyphene Dextrorphan Diadonium DHβE Dimethyltubocurarine/Metocurine Dipyrandium Dizocilpine/MK-801 Doxacurium Duador Esketamine Fazadinium Gallamine Hexafluronium Hexamethonium/Benzohexonium Ibogaine Isoflurane Ketamine Kynurenic acid Laudexium/Laudolissin Levacetylmethadol Malouetine Mecamylamine Memantine Methadone ( Levomethadone) Methorphan/Racemethorphan Methyllycaconitine Metocurine Mivacurium Morphanol/Racemorphan Neramexane Nitrous Oxide Pancuronium Pempidine Pentamine Pentolinium Phencyclidine Pipecuronium Radafaxine Rapacuronium Rocuronium Surugatoxin Thiocolchicoside Toxiferine Trimethaphan Tropeinium Tubocurarine Vecuronium Xenon