Human resource development

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Human Resources Development (HRD) as a theory is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization through the development of both the organization and the individual to achieve performance improvement.[1] Adam Smith states, “The capacities of individuals depended on their access to education”.[2] The same statement applies to organizations themselves, but it requires a much broader field to cover both areas.

Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. Groups within organizations use HRD to initiate and manage change. Also, HRD ensures a match between individual and organizational needs.[3]

Resources[edit]

Understanding the foundations of HRD can be found in "Brief Foundations of Human Resource Development"[4] by Richard A. Swanson.

A detailed PowerPoint and HTML overview of Foundations of Human Resource Development,[5] a textbook used in graduate courses, may be found at http://textbookresources.net/.

Six journals that emphasize human resource development issues include:

Advances in Developing Human Resources: http://adh.sagepub.com/

Human Resource Development International: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rhrd20/current

Human Resource Development Quarterly: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1532-1096

Human Resource Development Review: http://hrd.sagepub.com/

New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-NHA3.html

T&D Magazine: http://www.astd.org/Publications/Magazines/TD

Process, practice and relation to other fields[edit]

Notably, HRD is not only a field of study but also a profession.[6] HRD practitioners and academia focus on HRD as a process. HRD as a process occurs within organizations and encapsulates:[7]

  1. training and development (TD): the development of human expertise for the purpose of improving performance
  2. organization development (OD): empowering the organization to take advantage of its human resource capital

TD alone can leave an organization unable to tap into the increase in human, knowledge or talent capital. OD alone can result in an oppress rce[clarification needed]. HRD practicitioners find the interstices of win/win solutions that develop the employee and the organization in a mutually beneficial manner.[citation needed] HRD does not occur without the organization, so[citation needed] the practice of HRD within an organization is inhibited or promoted upon the platform of the organization's mission, vision and values.

Other typical HRD practices include:

HRD positions in businesses, health care, non-profit, and other fields include:

As a Program of Study in Formal Education[edit]

Academic programs in Human Resource Development (HRD) are available at both the undergraduate and graduate level.

Having become available only in 1980, one of the more well-known universities offering degrees in Human Resource Development is the University of Minnesota.[8] By 2011, many universities offered Human Resource Development degrees (both graduate and undergraduate).[9]

UniversityInstitution TypeDegreeOnlineRegional accreditation
University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignPublic, Not for ProfitMS, PhDYesNorth Central Association of Colleges and Schools, HLC
University of Arkansas at FayettevillePublic, Not for ProfitBachelor of Science in Education, HRD MajorYesNorth Central Association of Colleges and Schools, HLC
Xavier UniversityPrivate, Not for ProfitGraduate (Masters level)NoNorth Central Association of Colleges and Schools, HLC
University of MinnesotaPublic, Not for ProfitBachelor MasterNoNorth Central Association of Colleges and Schools, HLC
University of LouisvillePublic, Not for ProfitBachelor's, Master's, Ph.D.YesSouthern Association of Colleges and Schools
Villanova UniversityPrivate, Not for ProfitGraduateYesMiddle States Commission on Higher Education, Dept. of Education
Florida International UniversityPublic, Not for ProfitMaster of Science (M.S.), Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)M.S. may be completed fully online, fully face-to-face, or blended. Ed.D. requires many of the same courses as the M.S., which may be completed online or face-to-face; however, some Ed.D. courses are only offered face-to-face.The Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS)
Barry UniversityPrivate, Not for ProfitMaster of Science (M.S.), Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)NoThe Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS)
Texas A&M UniversityPublic, Not for ProfitBS, MS, Ph.D.Bachelor's, No. Master's, Yes. Ph.D, No.Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
University of Texas at TylerPublic, Not for ProfitBS, MS, Ph.D.Bachelor's, No. Master's, Yes. PhD, No (PhD is Executive Format)Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kelly 2001
  2. ^ Kelly 2001
  3. ^ http://www.xavier.edu/hrd/
  4. ^ Swanson 2008
  5. ^ Swanson 2011
  6. ^ Swanson 2011
  7. ^ Swanson 2010
  8. ^ University of Minnesota HRD Program
  9. ^ http://www.universities.com/edu/Bachelor_degrees_in_Human_Resources_Development_page2.html

References[edit]

External links[edit]