House of Bernadotte

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House of Bernadotte
Greater coat of arms of Sweden.svg
CountrySweden, Norway
Titles

"By the Grace of God King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Wends"

"By the Grace of God King of Norway"
Founded1810
FounderJean-Baptiste Bernadotte
Final ruler
Norway:
Oscar II
Current head
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Deposition
Norway:
1905: dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway
 
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House of Bernadotte
Greater coat of arms of Sweden.svg
CountrySweden, Norway
Titles

"By the Grace of God King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Wends"

"By the Grace of God King of Norway"
Founded1810
FounderJean-Baptiste Bernadotte
Final ruler
Norway:
Oscar II
Current head
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Deposition
Norway:
1905: dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway

The House of Bernadotte, the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden, was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, who belonged to the House of Holstein-Gottorp which was becoming extinct.

History[edit]

Following the Finnish War in 1809, Sweden lost possession of Finland, which had constituted the eastern half of the Swedish realm for centuries. Resentment towards King Gustav IV Adolf precipitated a coup d'état. Gustav Adolf was deposed and his uncle Charles XIII was elected King in his place. Because Charles XIII was childless, in 1810 the Riksdag of the Estates, the Swedish parliament, elected Prince Christian August of Augustenborg, from Denmark, as heir to the throne. He died later that same year.

At this time, Emperor Napoleon I of France controlled much of continental Europe, and some of his client kingdoms were headed by his brothers. The Riksdag decided to choose a king whom Napoleon would approve. On 21 August 1810, the Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of France, as heir presumptive to the Swedish throne.

Jean Bernadotte, from 1810 King Charles XIV John of Sweden (1818–1844)

Bernadotte, born in the town of Pau, in the province of Béarn, France, had risen to the rank of general during the French Revolution. In 1798 he married Désirée Clary, whose sister was married to Joseph, Napoleon's elder brother. In 1804 Napoleon promoted Bernadotte to a Marshal of France. Napoleon also granted him the title 'Prince of Pontecorvo'; Pontecorvo is a town in central Italy.

As the Crown Prince of Sweden he assumed the name Karl Johan (Charles John) and acted as regent for the remainder of Charles XIII's reign. In 1813, he broke with Napoleon and Sweden joined the anti-Napoleon alliance. He secured a forced personal union between Sweden and Norway in the 1814 campaign against Norway. Bernadotte reigned as King Charles XIV of Sweden and Carl III Johan of Norway from 5 February 1818 until his death on 8 March 1844.

The House of Bernadotte reigned in both countries until the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. Prince Carl of Denmark was then elected as King Haakon VII of Norway. Carl was a grandson of King Charles XV of Sweden, and a great-great-grandson of Charles XIV.

The coat of arms of the House of Bernadotte combines the coat of arms of the House of Vasa (heraldic right) and the coat of arms of Bernadotte as the Prince of Pontecorvo (heraldic left). It is visible as an inescutcheon in the Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm.

Kings of Sweden[edit]

Swedish Royalty
House of Bernadotte
Bernadotte coa.svg
Charles XIV John
Children
   Oscar I
Oscar I
Children
   Charles XV
   Gustaf, Duke of Upland
   Oscar II
   Princess Eugenie
   August, Duke of Dalarna
Charles XV
Children
   Lovisa, Queen of Denmark
   Carl Oscar, Duke of Södermanland
Oscar II
Children
   Gustaf V
   Oscar, Duke of Gotland
   Eugén, Duke of Närke
   Carl, Duke of Västergötland
Grandchildren
   Princess Margaretha
   Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway
   Astrid, Queen of Belgium
   Carl, Duke of Östergötland
Gustaf V
Children
   Gustaf VI Adolf
   Vilhelm, Duke of Södermanland
   Erik, Duke of Västmanland
Gustaf VI Adolf
Children
   Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten
   Sigvard, Duke of Uppland
   Ingrid, Queen of Denmark
   Bertil, Duke of Halland
   Carl Johan, Duke of Dalarna
Grandchildren
   Princess Margaretha
   Princess Birgitta
   Princess Désirée
   Princess Christina
   Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf
Children
   Crown Princess Victoria
   Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland
   Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland
Grandchildren
   Estelle, Duchess of Östergötland

Kings of Norway[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

House of Bernadotte
Preceded by
House of Holstein-Gottorp
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Sweden
1818–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Norway
1818–1905
Succeeded by
House of Oldenburg (Glücksburg branch)