Homonym

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For homonyms in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (biology).

In linguistics, a homonym is, in the strict sense, one of a group of words that share the same spelling and pronunciation but may have different meanings.[1] Thus homonyms are simultaneously homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of their pronunciation) and homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of their spelling). The state of being a homonym is called homonymy. Examples of homonyms are the pair stalk (part of a plant) and stalk (follow/harass a person) and the pair left (past tense of leave) and left (opposite of right). A distinction is sometimes made between "true" homonyms, which are unrelated in origin, such as skate (glide on ice) and skate (the fish), and polysemous homonyms, or polysemes, which have a shared origin, such as mouth (of a river) and mouth (of an animal).[2][3]

In non-technical contexts, the term "homonym" may be used (somewhat confusingly) to refer to words that are either homographs or homophones.[1] In this looser sense, the word row (propel with oars) and row (argument) and row (a linear arrangement of seating) are considered homonyms, as are the words read (peruse) and reed (waterside plant).

Etymology[edit]

The word homonym comes from the Greek ὁμώνυμος (homonumos), meaning "having the same name",[4] which is the conjunction of ὁμός (homos), "common, same"[5] and ὄνομα (onoma) meaning "name".[6] Thus, it refers to two or more distinct concepts sharing the "same name" or signifier. Note: for the h sound, see rough breathing and smooth breathing.

Related terms[edit]

TermMeaningSpellingPronunciation
HomonymDifferentSameSame
HomographDifferentSameSame or different
HomophoneDifferentSame or differentSame
HeteronymDifferentSameDifferent
HeterographDifferentDifferentSame
PolysemeDifferent but relatedSameSame or different
CapitonymDifferent when
capitalized
Same except for
capitalization
Same or different
SynonymSameDifferentDifferent
Venn diagram showing the relationships between homonyms (between blue and green) and related linguistic concepts.

Several similar linguistic concepts are related to homonymy. These include:

Further examples[edit]

A further example of a homonym, which is both a homophone and a homograph, is fluke. Fluke can mean:

These meanings represent at least three etymologically separate lexemes, but share the one form, fluke.*[7]

Similarly, a river bank, a savings bank, a bank of switches, and a bank shot in pool share a common spelling and pronunciation, but differ in meaning.

The words bow and bough are examples where there are two meanings associated with a single pronunciation and spelling (the weapon and the knot); two meanings with two different pronunciations (the knot and the act of bending at the waist), and two distinct meanings sharing the same sound but different spellings (bow, the act of bending at the waist, and bough, the branch of a tree). In addition, it has several related but distinct meanings – a bent line is sometimes called a 'bowed' line, reflecting its similarity to the weapon. Even according to the most restrictive definitions, various pairs of sounds and meanings of bow, Bow and bough are homonyms, homographs, homophones, heteronyms, heterographs, capitonyms and are polysemous.

Homonyms in historical linguistics[edit]

Homonymy can lead to communicative conflicts and thus trigger lexical (onomasiological) change.[8] This is known as homonymic conflict.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some sources restrict the term "homograph" to words that have the same spelling but different pronunciations. See, for example, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems, p. 215 (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999) and The Encyclopaedia Britannica (14th Edition) (entry for "homograph").
  2. ^ Some sources restrict the term "homophone" to words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings. See, for example, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems, p. 202 (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999) and The Encyclopaedia Britannica (14th Edition) (entry for "homograph").
  3. ^ Some sources do not require that heteronyms have different pronunciations. See, for example, the archived Encarta dictionary entry (which states that heteronyms "often" differ in pronunciation) and the "Fun with Words" website (which states that heteronyms "sometimes" have different pronunciations).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b homonym, Random House Unabridged Dictionary at dictionary.com
  2. ^ "Linguistics 201: Study Sheet for Semantics". Pandora.cii.wwu.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-23. 
  3. ^ Semantics: a coursebook, p. 123, James R. Hurford and Brendan Heasley, Cambridge University Press, 1983
  4. ^ ὁμώνυμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  5. ^ ὁμός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  6. ^ ὄνομα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  7. ^ "The Online Etymological Dictionary". Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  8. ^ On this phenomenon see Williams, Edna R. (1944), The Conflict of Homonyms in English, [Yale Studies in English 100], New Haven: Yale University Press, Grzega, Joachim (2004), Bezeichnungswandel: Wie, Warum, Wozu? Ein Beitrag zur englischen und allgemeinen Onomasiologie, Heidelberg: Winter, p. 216ff., and Grzega, Joachim (2001d), “Über Homonymenkonflikt als Auslöser von Wortuntergang”, in: Grzega, Joachim (2001c), Sprachwissenschaft ohne Fachchinesisch: 7 aktuelle Studien für alle Sprachinteressierten, Aachen: Shaker, p. 81-98.