Homalomena

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Homalomena
Starr 070906-8753 Homalomena sp..jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Alismatales
Family:Araceae
Subfamily:Aroideae
Tribe:Homalomeneae
Genus:Homalomena
Synonyms[1]
  • Homalonema Endl.
  • Spirospatha Raf.
  • Cyrtocladon Griff.
  • Chamaecladon Miq.
  • Adelonema Schott
  • Curmeria Linden & André
  • Diandriella Engl.
 
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Homalomena
Starr 070906-8753 Homalomena sp..jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Monocots
Order:Alismatales
Family:Araceae
Subfamily:Aroideae
Tribe:Homalomeneae
Genus:Homalomena
Synonyms[1]
  • Homalonema Endl.
  • Spirospatha Raf.
  • Cyrtocladon Griff.
  • Chamaecladon Miq.
  • Adelonema Schott
  • Curmeria Linden & André
  • Diandriella Engl.

Homalomena is a genus of flowering plants within the family Araceae. Homalomena are primarily found in southern Asia and the southwestern Pacific, but there are a few species that are known to be indigenous to Latin America.[1][2][3] Many Homalomena have a strong smell of anise. The name derives apparently from a mistranslated Malayan vernacular name, translated as homalos, meaning flat, and mene = moon.

The plants of this genus are clump-forming evergreen perennials with mainly heart-shaped or arrowheaded shaped leaves. The flowers are tiny and without petals, enclosed in a usually greenish spathe hidden by the leaves.[4]

The Tamils knew of this plant for more than 3000 years. It is called merugu (Tamil: மெருகு ) and it is used for several purposes including curing stomach disorders, piles, flem etc. Several oils like kumaraguru enney; merugulli enney, merugu pachai enneyetc. are prepared to cure various type of diseases.[5]

Some authors have proposed splitting the genus and moving all the neotropical species of Homalomena to Adelonema.[6][7] At the present time (August 2014), Tropicos, The Plant List, and the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families have opted not to accept this change.[8][1][9]

Species[1]
  1. Homalomena adiensis A.Hay - western New Guinea
  2. Homalomena aeneifolia Alderw. - Sulawesi
  3. Homalomena agens Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Kalimantan Timur
  4. Homalomena ardua P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  5. Homalomena argentea Ridl. - Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo
  6. Homalomena aromatica (Spreng.) Schott - Yunnan, Assam, Bangladesh, Indochina
  7. Homalomena asmae Baharuddin & P.C.Boyce - Perak
  8. Homalomena asperifolia Alderw. - Sumatra
  9. Homalomena atroviridis Engl. & K.Krause - Papua New Guinea
  10. Homalomena atrox P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih - Sarawak
  11. Homalomena batoeensis Engl. - Sumatra
  12. Homalomena bellula Schott - Java
  13. Homalomena burkilliana Ridl. - Sumatra
  14. Homalomena clandestina P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  15. Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl. - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Yunnan, Guangdong
  16. Homalomena confusa Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia
  17. Homalomena consobrina (Schott) Engl. - Thailand, Borneo, Sumatra
  18. Homalomena cordata Schott - Java, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  19. Homalomena corneri Furtado - Jahore
  20. Homalomena crinipes Engl. - Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador
  21. Homalomena cristata Alderw. - Sumatra
  22. Homalomena curtisii Ridl. - Perak
  23. Homalomena curvata Engl. - Melaka
  24. Homalomena davidiana A.Hay - New Guinea
  25. Homalomena debilicrista Y.C.Hoe - Sarawak
  26. Homalomena distans Ridl. - New Guinea
  27. Homalomena doctersii Alderw. - Sumatra
  28. Homalomena elegans Engl. - Sumatra
  29. Homalomena elegantula A.Hay & Hersc. - Sumatra
  30. Homalomena erythropus (Mart. ex Schott) Engl. - Costa Rica, northwestern Brazil
  31. Homalomena expedita A.Hay & Hersc. - Sarawak
  32. Homalomena gadutensis M.Hotta - Sumatra
  33. Homalomena gaudichaudii Schott - New Guinea, Maluku, Philippines
  34. Homalomena giamensis L.S.Tung, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak
  35. Homalomena gillii Furtado - Sabah
  36. Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook.f. - Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo,Malaysia, Sumatra
  37. Homalomena hainanensis H.Li - Hainan
  38. Homalomena hammelii Croat & Grayum - Costa Rica
  39. Homalomena hanneae P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  40. Homalomena hastata M.Hotta - Sumatra
  41. Homalomena havilandii Ridl. - Sabah, Sarawak
  42. Homalomena hendersonii Furtado - Kelantan
  43. Homalomena hooglandii A.Hay - New Guinea
  44. Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.f. - Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra
  45. Homalomena impudica Hersc. & A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  46. Homalomena insignis N.E.Br. - Borneo
  47. Homalomena jacobsiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  48. Homalomena josefii P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  49. Homalomena kalkmanii A.Hay - New Guinea
  50. Homalomena kelungensis Hayata - Taiwan
  51. Homalomena kiahii Furtado - Kelantan
  52. Homalomena korthalsii Furtado - Borneo
  53. Homalomena kualakohensis Zulhazman, P.C.Boyce & Mashhor - Peninsular Malaysia
  54. Homalomena kvistii Croat - Valle del Cauca in Colombia
  55. Homalomena lancea Ridl. - Sarawak
  56. Homalomena lancifolia Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand
  57. Homalomena latifrons Engl. - Borneo, Java, Sumatra
  58. Homalomena lauterbachii Engl. - New Guinea
  59. Homalomena lindenii (Rodigas) Ridl. - New Guinea
  60. Homalomena longipes Merr - Sumatra
  61. Homalomena magna A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  62. Homalomena major Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia
  63. Homalomena matangae Y.C.Hoe, S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Sarawak
  64. Homalomena megalophylla M.Hotta - Sumatra
  65. Homalomena melanesica A.Hay - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands
  66. Homalomena metallica (N.E.Br.) Engl. - Borneo
  67. Homalomena minor Griff. - Peninsular Malaysia
  68. Homalomena minutissima M.Hotta - Brunei
  69. Homalomena moffleriana Croat & Grayum - Chocó region of Colombia
  70. Homalomena monandra M.Hotta - Sumatra
  71. Homalomena montana Furtado - Peninsular Malaysia
  72. Homalomena nigrescens (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra
  73. Homalomena nutans Hook.f. - Kelantan, Nicobar Islands
  74. Homalomena obovata Ridl. - Sumatra
  75. Homalomena obscurifolia Alderw. - Borneo
  76. Homalomena occulta (Lour.) Schott - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan
  77. Homalomena ovalifolia (Schott) Ridl. - Borneo
  78. Homalomena ovata Engl. - Borneo
  79. Homalomena padangensis M.Hotta - Sumatra
  80. Homalomena palawanensis Engl. - Palawan
  81. Homalomena peekelii Engl. - Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, New Guinea
  82. Homalomena peltata Mast. - Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia
  83. Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh.f. - Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Lesser Sunda Islands
  84. Homalomena philippinensis Engl. - Philippines, Lan Yü Islands of Taiwan
  85. Homalomena picturata (Linden & André) Regel - Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, the Guianas
  86. Homalomena pineodora Sulaiman & P.C.Boyce - Perak
  87. Homalomena pontederifolia Griff. ex Hook.f. - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
  88. Homalomena producta A.Hay - New Guinea
  89. Homalomena pseudogeniculata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Brunei, Sarawak
  90. Homalomena pulleana Engl. & K.Krause - western New Guinea
  91. Homalomena punctulata Engl. - Brunei, Sarawak
  92. Homalomena pyrospatha Bogner - Sumatra
  93. Homalomena robusta Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea
  94. Homalomena rubescens (Roxb.) Kunth. - Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  95. Homalomena rusdii M.Hotta - Sumatra
  96. Homalomena sarawakensis Ridl. - Sarawak
  97. Homalomena saxorum (Schott) Engl. - Sumatra, Borneo
  98. Homalomena schlechteri Engl. - New Guinea
  99. Homalomena scortechinii Hook.f. - Peninsular Malaysia
  100. Homalomena sengkenyang P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  101. Homalomena silvatica Alderw. - Sumatra
  102. Homalomena singaporensis Regel - Peninsular Malaysia
  103. Homalomena soniae A.Hay - New Guinea
  104. Homalomena speariae Bogner & Moffler - Colombia
  105. Homalomena steenisiana A.Hay - Papua New Guinea
  106. Homalomena stollei Engl. & K.Krause - New Guinea
  107. Homalomena striatieopetiolata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong - Sarawak
  108. Homalomena subcordata Engl. - Sarawak
  109. Homalomena symplocarpifolia P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  110. Homalomena tenuispadix Engl. - New Guinea
  111. Homalomena terajaensis S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei
  112. Homalomena treubii Engl. - Borneo
  113. Homalomena truncata (Schott) Hook.f. - Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
  114. Homalomena vagans P.C.Boyce - Brunei, Sarawak
  115. Homalomena vietnamensis Bogner & V.D.Nguyen - Vietnam
  116. Homalomena vittifolia Kurniawan & P.C.Boyce - Sulawesi
  117. Homalomena vivens P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasih. - Sarawak
  118. Homalomena wallichii Schott - Pulau Pinang in Malaysia
  119. Homalomena wallisii Regel - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela
  120. Homalomena wendlandii Schott - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  121. Homalomena wongii S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce - Brunei
  122. Homalomena zollingeri Schott - Java

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. (2009). Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo IV: Homalomena specimens in the herbarium Beccarianum-Malesia (FI-B) of the Museo di Storia Naturale - Sezione Botanica "F.Parlatore" dell'Università di Firenze. Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 64: 169-173.
  4. ^ Flora of China Vol. 23 Page 17, 千年健属 qian nian jian shu, Homalomena Schott in Schott & Endlicher, Melet. Bot. 20. 1832.
  5. ^ Bown, Deni (2000). Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family [ILLUSTRATED]. Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-485-7
  6. ^ Aroid genera
  7. ^ The Überlist of Araceae, 2013
  8. ^ Tropicos, Missouri Botanical Garden
  9. ^ The Systematics of Araceae

External links[edit]