High jump

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Athletics
High jump
Yelena Slesarenko failing 2007.jpg
Men's records
WorldJavier Sotomayor 2.45 m (8 ft 014 in) (1993)
OlympicCharles Austin 2.39 m (7 ft 10 in) (1996)
Women's records
WorldStefka Kostadinova 2.09 m (6 ft 1014 in) (1987)
OlympicYelena Slesarenko 2.06 m (6 ft 9 in) (2004)
 
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Athletics
High jump
Yelena Slesarenko failing 2007.jpg
Men's records
WorldJavier Sotomayor 2.45 m (8 ft 014 in) (1993)
OlympicCharles Austin 2.39 m (7 ft 10 in) (1996)
Women's records
WorldStefka Kostadinova 2.09 m (6 ft 1014 in) (1987)
OlympicYelena Slesarenko 2.06 m (6 ft 9 in) (2004)

The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without the aid of certain devices. In its modern most practiced format, auxiliary weights and mounds have been used for assistance; rules have changed over the years. Over the centuries since, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) is the current men's record holder with a jump of 2.45 m (8 ft 014 in) set in 1993, the longest standing record in the history of the men's high jump. Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria) has held the women's world record at 2.09 m (6 ft 1014 in) since 1987, also the longest-held record in the event.

Rules[edit]

Jumpers must take off on one foot.

A jump is considered a fail if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance . The technique one uses for the jump must be almost flawless in order for one to have chances of clearing a high bar.

Competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion. Three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will eliminate the jumper from competition.

The victory goes to the jumper who clears the greatest height during the final. If two or more jumpers tie for first place, the tie-breakers are: 1) The fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred; and 2) The fewest misses throughout the competition.

If the event remains tied, the jumpers have a jump-off, beginning at the next greater height. Each jumper has one attempt. The bar is then alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height.[1]

History[edit]

Stefka KostadinovaLudmilla AndonowaTamara BykowaUlrike MeyfarthSara SimeoniRosemarie AckermannJordanka BlagojewaIlona GusenbauerIolanda BalasMildred SingletonFanny Blankers-KoenDorothy TylerJean ShileyCarolina GisollEthel CatherwoodPhyllis GreenNancy VorheesJavier SotomayorPatrik SjöbergIgor PaklinRudolf PovarnitsynZhu JianhuaGert WessigDietmar MögenburgJacek WszolaVladimir YashchenkoDwight StonePat MatzdorfValeriy BrumelJohn Thomas (Athlete)Charles DumasWalt DavisDave AlbrittonCornelius Johnson (athlete)Walter MartyHarold OsborneEdward BeesonGeorge Horine

Konstantinos Tsiklitiras during the standing high jump competition at the 1912 Summer Olympics

The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In the latter, the bar was approached diagonally, and the jumper threw first the inside leg and then the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to modernise, starting with the Irish-American Michael Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors, but extending his back and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney achieved a more economic clearance and raised the world record to 1.97 m (6 ft 512 in) in 1895.

Another American, George Horine, developed an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar. Horine increased the world standard to 2.01 m (6 ft 7 in) in 1912. His technique was predominant through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at 2.03 m (6 ft 734 in).

American and Soviet jumpers held the playing field for the next four decades, and they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their (belly-down) torso around the bar, obtaining the most economical clearance up to that time. Straddle-jumper Charles Dumas was the first to clear 7 feet (2.13 m) in 1956, and American John Thomas pushed the world mark to 2.23 m (7 ft 334 in) in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years. The elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to 2.28 m (7 ft 534 in), and won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career.

Gold medal winner Ethel Catherwood of Canada scissors over the bar at the 1928 Summer Olympics. Her winning result was 1.59 m (5 ft 212 in).
Platt Adams during the standing high jump competition at the 1912 Summer Olympics

American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State University, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century. Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by then in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would likely have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, and soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions. The last straddler to set a world record was Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared 2.33 m (7 ft 712 in) in 1977 and then 2.35 m (7 ft 812 in) indoors in 1978.

Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were: Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, 1.73 metres (5 ft 8 in) tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared 2.32 m (7 ft 714 in), an astounding 0.59 metres (1 ft 11 in) over his head (a feat equaled 27 years later by Sweden's Stefan Holm); Chinese record-setters Ni-chi Chin and Zhu Jianhua; Germans Gerd Wessig and Dietmar Mögenburg; Swedish Olympic medalist and world record holder Patrik Sjöberg; and female jumpers Iolanda Balaş of Romania, Ulrike Meyfarth of Germany and Italy's Sara Simeoni.

Technical aspects[edit]

High jump shoes[edit]

High jump shoes are different from most other track shoes in that they have much thicker soles than ordinary "sprint spikes" - in order to provide stability and comfort at take-off, although in the 1960s and early 70s, when the straddle technique still predominated, a single shoe was often worn on the take-off foot where the built-up sole would allow the free leg to swing without spikes catching the ground. There are an additional four holes in the heel of the take-off shoe, where the user can insert spikes for increased traction. The total number of spikes allowed by the IAAF can not exceed 11 in the sole, and jump shoes are normally configured with six or seven in the front, and four in the heel: spikes may not exceed 12mm in length. The four heel spikes aid greatly in the last four to five steps of the J-approach, allowing the jumper to run on his or her curve at a fast speed without slipping. Some high jump shoes are even more technologically developed and in addition to the extra spikes on the heel, the shoes are modified to lean the direction of the approach to provide further support while running their curve. As well as the approach, high jump shoes also help and support the jumper's takeoff. The IAAF regulations specify a maximum sole thickness for both high jump and long jump shoes; competitors in all other events may wear shoes with soles of any thickness.

The approach[edit]

The approach of the high jump may actually be more important than the take off. If a high jumper runs with bad timing or without enough aggression, clearing a high bar becomes more of a challenge. The approach requires a certain shape or curve, the right amount of speed, and the correct number of strides. The approach angle is also critical for optimal height.

Most great straddle jumpers have a run at angles of about 30 to 40 degrees. The length of the run is determined by the speed of the person's approach. A slower run requires about 8 strides. However, a faster high jumper might need about 13 strides. A greater run speed allows a greater part of the body's forward momentum to be converted upward [2].

The J type approach, favored by Fosbury floppers, allows for horizontal speed, the ability to turn in the air (centripetal force), and good take-off position. The approach should be a hard controlled stride so that a person does not fall from creating an angle with speed. Athletes should run tall and lean from the ankles on the curve and not the hips [3]. Unlike the "classic" straddle technique, where the take-off foot is "planted" in the same spot at every height, flop-style jumpers must adjust their take-off as the bar is raised. Their J approach run must be adjusted slightly so that their take-off spot is slightly further out from the bar in order to allow their hips to clear the bar while still maintaining enough momentum to carry their legs across the bar. Jumpers attempting to reach record heights commonly fail when most of their energy is directed into the vertical effort, and they brush the bar off the standards with the backs of their legs as they stall-out in mid-air.

Drills can be practiced to solidify the approach. One drill is to run in a straight line (the linear part of the approach) and then run two to three circles spiraling into one another. Another is to run or skip a circle of any size, two to three times in a row [4]. It is important to train to leap upwards without first leaning into the bar, allowing the momentum of the J approach to carry the body across the bar.

Declaring the winner[edit]

In competition the winner is the person who cleared the highest height. In case of a tie, fewer failed attempts at that height are better: i.e., the jumper who makes a height on his/her first attempt is placed ahead of someone who clears the same height on the second or third attempt. If there still is a tie here, all the failed attempts at lower heights are added up, the one with the fewest number of total misses is declared the winner. If still tied a playoff is held. Starting height is the next larger height after the overjumped one. If all the competitors clear the height, the bar is raised 2 cm (0.79 in), and if they fail, the bar is lowered 2 cm. That continues until only one competitor succeeds in overjumping that height, he is declared the winner.

Athlete1.91 m1.93 m1.95 m1.97 m1.99 m2.01 mHeightRank
A--XOXOXOXXX1.991st
BO-OOXXX1.973rd
CO-XOXOX--XX1.974th
D-XOOXXOXXOXXX1.992nd
E---XXX5th

Top performers[edit]

Updated 1 June 2013.[2]

Men (outdoor)[edit]

Pos.MarkAthleteNationalityVenueDateRef
1.2.45 m (8 ft 014 in)Javier Sotomayor CubaSalamanca27 July 1993[3]
2.2.42 m (7 ft 1114 in)Patrik Sjöberg SwedenStockholm30 June 1987[3]
3.2.41 m (7 ft 1034 in)Igor Paklin Soviet UnionKobe4 September 1985
Bohdan Bondarenko UkraineLausanne4 July 2013[4]
5.2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)Rudolf Povarnitsyn Soviet UnionDonetsk11 August 1985[3]
Sorin Matei RomaniaBratislava20 June 1990[3]
Charles AustinUnited States USAZürich7 August 1991[3]
Vyacheslav VoroninRussia RussiaLondon5 August 2000[3]
Mutaz Essa BarshimQatar QatarEugene1 June 2013[5][6]
10.2.39 m (7 ft 10 in)Zhu JianhuaChina ChinaEberstadt10 June 1984[3]
Hollis ConwayUnited States USANorman30 July 1989[3]
Ivan UkhovRussia RussiaCheboksary5 July 2012

Women (outdoor)[edit]

Pos.MarkAthleteNationalityVenueDate
1.2.09 m (6 ft 1014 in)Stefka Kostadinova BulgariaRome30 August 1987
2.2.08 m (6 ft 934 in)Blanka Vlašić CroatiaZagreb31 August 2009
3.2.07 m (6 ft 914 in)Lyudmila Andonova BulgariaBerlin20 July 1984
Anna ChicherovaRussia RussiaCheboksary22 July 2011
5.2.06 m (6 ft 9 in)Kajsa Bergqvist SwedenEberstadt26 July 2003
Hestrie Cloete South AfricaParis31 August 2003
Yelena SlesarenkoRussia RussiaAthens28 August 2004
Ariane FriedrichGermany GermanyBerlin14 June 2009
9.2.05 m (6 ft 812 in)Tamara Bykova Soviet UnionKiev22 June 1984
Heike HenkelGermany GermanyTokyo31 August 1991
Inha Babakova UkraineTokyo15 September 1995
Tia Hellebaut BelgiumBeijing23 August 2008
Chaunté LoweUnited States USADes Moines26 June 2010

Men (indoor)[edit]

Updated to 10 February 2011[7]

Pos.MarkAthleteVenueDate
1.2.43 m (7 ft 1112 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Budapest4 March 1989
2.2.42 m (7 ft 1114 in) Carlo Thränhardt (FRG)Berlin26 February 1988
3.2.41 m (7 ft 1034 in) Patrik Sjöberg (SWE)Piraeus1 February 1987
4.2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) Hollis Conway (USA)Seville10 March 1991
 Stefan Holm (SWE)Madrid6 March 2005
 Ivan Ukhov (RUS)Athens25 February 2009
7.2.39 m (7 ft 10 in) Dietmar Mögenburg (FRG)Cologne24 February 1985
 Ralf Sonn (GER)Berlin1 March 1991
9.2.38 m (7 ft 912 in) Igor Paklin (USSR)Indianapolis7 March 1987
 Hennadiy Avdyeyenko (USSR)Indianapolis7 March 1987
 Steve Smith (GBR)Wuppertal4 February 1994
 Wolf-Hendrik Beyer (GER)Weinheim18 March 1994
 Sorin Matei (ROM)Wuppertal3 February 1995
 Matt Hemingway (USA)Atlanta4 March 2000
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS)Stockholm15 February 2005
 Linus Thörnblad (SWE)Gothenburg25 February 2007

Women (indoor)[edit]

Updated to 10 February 2011.[8]

Pos.MarkAthleteVenueDate
1.2.08 m (6 ft 934 in) Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)Arnstadt6 February 2006
2.2.07 m (6 ft 914 in) Heike Henkel (GER)Karlsruhe8 February 1992
3.2.06 m (6 ft 9 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Athens20 February 1988
 Blanka Vlašić (CRO)Arnstadt6 February 2010
 Anna Chicherova (RUS)Arnstadt4 February 2012
6.2.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Tia Hellebaut (BEL)Birmingham3 March 2007
 Ariane Friedrich (GER)Karlsruhe15 February 2009
8.2.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Alina Astafei (GER)Berlin3 March 1995
 Yelena Slesarenko (RUS)Budapest7 March 2004
 Antonietta Di Martino (ITA)Banská Bystrica9 February 2011

Best year performances[edit]

Men's outdoor[edit]

YearHeightAthleteVenue
19712.29 m (7 ft 6 in) Pat Matzdorf (USA)Berkeley
19722.25 m (7 ft 412 in) Jüri Tarmak (URS)Moscow
19732.30 m (7 ft 612 in) Dwight Stones (USA)Munich
19742.28 m (7 ft 534 in) Dwight Stones (USA)Oslo
19752.28 m (7 ft 534 in) Dwight Stones (USA)New York
19762.32 m (7 ft 714 in) Dwight Stones (USA)Philadelphia
19772.33 m (7 ft 712 in) Vladimir Yashchenko (URS)Richmond
19782.34 m (7 ft 8 in) Vladimir Yashchenko (URS)Tbilisi
19792.32 m (7 ft 714 in) Dietmar Mögenburg (FRG)Ottawa
19802.36 m (7 ft 834 in) Gerd Wessig (GDR)Moscow
19812.33 m (7 ft 712 in) Aleksey Demyanyuk (URS)Leningrad
19822.33 m (7 ft 712 in) Zhu Jianhua (CHN)Delhi
19832.38 m (7 ft 912 in) Zhu Jianhua (CHN)Shanghai
19842.39 m (7 ft 10 in) Zhu Jianhua (CHN)Eberstadt
19852.41 m (7 ft 1034 in) Igor Paklin (URS)Kobe
19862.38 m (7 ft 912 in) Igor Paklin (URS)Rieti
19872.42 m (7 ft 1114 in) Patrik Sjöberg (SWE)Stockholm
19882.43 m (7 ft 1112 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Salamanca
19892.44 m (8 ft 0 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)San Juan
19902.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) Sorin Matei (ROM)Bratislava
19912.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)
 Charles Austin (USA)
Saint-Denis
Zürich
19922.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Steve Smith (GBR)Seoul
19932.45 m (8 ft 014 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Salamanca
19942.42 m (7 ft 1114 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Seville
19952.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Mar del Plata
19962.39 m (7 ft 10 in) Charles Austin (USA)Atlanta
19972.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Athens
19982.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Javier Sotomayor (CUB)Maracaibo
19992.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS)Seville
20002.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS)London
20012.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS)Eberstadt
20022.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Jacques Freitag (RSA)Durban
20032.36 m (7 ft 834 in) Aleksander Walerianczyk (POL)Bydgoszcz
20042.36 m (7 ft 834 in) Stefan Holm (SWE)Eberstadt
20052.38 m (7 ft 912 in) Jacques Freitag (RSA)
 Andriy Sokolovskyy (UKR)
Oudtshoorn
Rome
20062.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Andrey Silnov (RUS)Monaco
20072.35 m (7 ft 812 in) Donald Thomas (BAH)
 Stefan Holm (SWE)
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS)
 Kyriacos Ioannou (CYP)
Salamanca
Stockholm
Osaka
Osaka
20082.38 m (7 ft 912 in) Andrey Silnov (RUS)London
20092.35 m (7 ft 812 in) Andra Manson (USA)
 Ivan Ukhov (RUS)
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS)
Austin
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
20102.36 m (7 ft 834 in) Ivan Ukhov (RUS)Opole
20112.37 m (7 ft 914 in) Jesse Williams (USA)Eugene
20122.39 m (7 ft 10 in) Ivan Ukhov (RUS)
 Mutaz Essa Barshim (QAT)
Cheboksary
Lausanne
20132.41 m (7 ft 1034 in) Bohdan Bondarenko (UKR)Lausanne

Women's outdoor[edit]

YearHeightAthleteVenue
19701.87 m (6 ft 112 in) Antonina Lazareva (URS)Kiev
19711.92 m (6 ft 312 in) Ilona Gusenbauer (AUT)Vienna
19721.94 m (6 ft 414 in) Yordanka Blagoeva (BUL)Zagreb
19731.92 m (6 ft 312 in) Yordanka Blagoeva (BUL)Warsaw
19741.95 m (6 ft 434 in) Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR)Rome
19751.94 m (6 ft 414 in) Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR)Nice
19761.96 m (6 ft 5 in) Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR)Dresden
19772.00 m (6 ft 612 in) Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR)Berlin
19782.01 m (6 ft 7 in) Sara Simeoni (ITA)Brescia
19791.99 m (6 ft 614 in) Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR)Turin
19801.98 m (6 ft 534 in) Sara Simeoni (ITA)Turin
19811.97 m (6 ft 512 in) Pamela Spencer (USA)Brussels
19822.02 m (6 ft 712 in) Ulrike Meyfarth (FRG)Athens
19832.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Tamara Bykova (URS)Pisa
19842.07 m (6 ft 914 in) Lyudmila Andonova (BUL)Berlin
19852.06 m (6 ft 9 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Moscow
19862.08 m (6 ft 934 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Sofia
19872.09 m (6 ft 1014 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Rome
19882.07 m (6 ft 914 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Sofia
19892.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Silvia Costa (CUB)Barcelona
19902.02 m (6 ft 712 in) Yelena Yelesina (URS)Seattle
19912.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Heike Henkel (GER)Tokyo
19922.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)San Marino
19932.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Fukuoka
19942.00 m (6 ft 612 in) Silvia Costa (CUB)
 Inga Babakova (UKR)
 Britta Bilač (SLO)
Havana
Moscow
Helsinki
19952.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Inga Babakova (UKR)Tokyo
19962.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)Atlanta
19972.02 m (6 ft 712 in) Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)
 Inga Babakova (UKR)
Osaka
Fukuoka
19982.03 m (6 ft 734 in) Venelina Veneva (BUL)Kalamátai
19992.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Hestrie Cloete (RSA)Monaco
20002.02 m (6 ft 712 in) Monica Iagăr (ROM)Villeneuve d'Ascq
20012.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Venelina Veneva (BUL)Kalamáta
20022.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)Poznań
20032.06 m (6 ft 9 in) Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)
 Hestrie Cloete (RSA)
Eberstadt
Saint-Denis
20042.06 m (6 ft 9 in) Yelena Slesarenko (RUS)Athens
20052.03 m (6 ft 734 in) Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)Sheffield
20062.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)London
20072.07 m (6 ft 914 in) Blanka Vlašić (CRO)Stockholm
20082.06 m (6 ft 9 in) Blanka Vlašić (CRO)Istanbul
Madrid
20092.08 m (6 ft 934 in) Blanka Vlašić (CRO)Zagreb
20102.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Chaunté Lowe (USA)
 Blanka Vlašić (CRO)
Des Moines
Split
20112.07 m (6 ft 914 in) Anna Chicherova (RUS)Cheboksary
20122.05 m (6 ft 812 in) Anna Chicherova (RUS)London
20132.04 m (6 ft 814 in) Brigetta Barrett (USA)Des Moines

Most successful athletes[edit]

Athletes who have won multiple titles at the two most important competitions, the Olympic Games and the World Championships:

Men[edit]

Women[edit]

Note: Kostadinova and Sotomayor are the only high jumpers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion and broken the World Record.

Athletes with most medals[edit]

Men[edit]

AthleteOlympic GamesWorld ChampionshipsWorld Indoor ChampionshipsContinental ChampionshipsContinental Indoor ChampionshipsUniversiadeRegional Games
Mediterranean
Pan American
Asian
Total
Gold medal olympic.svgSilver medal olympic.svgBronze medal olympic.svgGold medal world centered-2.svgSilver medal world centered-2.svgBronze medal world centered-2.svgGold medal world centered-2.svgSilver medal world centered-2.svgBronze medal world centered-2.svgGold medal europe.svgSilver medal europe.svgBronze medal europe.svgGold medal europe.svgSilver medal europe.svgBronze medal europe.svgGold FISU.svgSilver FISU.svgBronze FISU.svgGold MedGames.svgSilver MedGames.svgBronze MedGames.svgGold medal icon.svgSilver medal icon.svgBronze medal icon.svg
Cuba Javier Sotomayor110220410201---1003001341
West Germany Dietmar Mögenburg100000010100521000---731
Sweden Stefan Holm100010400011210000---721
Sweden Patrik Sjöberg021100111000400000---632
South Korea Lee Jin-Taek000000000310---101200611
Soviet Union Igor Paklin000010100100000200---410
Soviet Union Valeriy Brumel110000000100000200---410
China Zhu Jianhua001001000200---000200402
Russia Yaroslav Rybakov001130140100011100---382
Serbia Dragutin Topić000000001100102100001304
Soviet Union Vladimir Yashchenko000000000100200000---300
Soviet Union Gennadiy Avdeyenko100110010000001000---221
United States Hollis Conway011001100000---110001223

Women[edit]

AthleteOlympic GamesWorld ChampionshipsWorld Indoor ChampionshipsContinental ChampionshipsContinental Indoor ChampionshipsUniversiadeRegional Games
Mediterranean
Pan American
Commonwealth
Total
Gold medal olympic.svgSilver medal olympic.svgBronze medal olympic.svgGold medal world centered-2.svgSilver medal world centered-2.svgBronze medal world centered-2.svgGold medal world centered-2.svgSilver medal world centered-2.svgBronze medal world centered-2.svgGold medal europe.svgSilver medal europe.svgBronze medal europe.svgGold medal europe.svgSilver medal europe.svgBronze medal europe.svgGold FISU.svgSilver FISU.svgBronze FISU.svgGold MedGames.svgSilver MedGames.svgBronze MedGames.svgGold medal icon.svgSilver medal icon.svgBronze medal icon.svg
Bulgaria Stefka Kostadinova110200500100410000---1320
Italy Sara Simeoni1200000001024002122001024
Croatia Blanka Vlašić010200211100000000100621
South Africa Hestrie Cloete020200000300000000100620
West Germany Heike Henkel100100112100201000---613
Romania Iolanda Balaş200000000210000200---610
Sweden Kajsa Bergqvist001102200101110000---514
East Germany Rosemarie Ackermann100000000110300000---510
Russia Anna Chicherova101120021000100100---442
Soviet Union Tamara Bykova001110110010110101---422
Romania Germany Alina Astafei010010100001211100---432
Belgium Tia Hellebaut100000100100100000---400
West Germany Ulrike Meyfarth200010000000100010---320
Russia Yelena Slesarenko100000210000000001---311
Italy Antonietta Di Martino000011010000100000110231

High Jump Differentials[edit]

All time lists of athletes with the highest recorded jumps above their own height.[9][10]

Men[edit]

Athleteborntalljumpyeardiff.
1Sweden Stefan Holm19761.81 m (5 ft 1114 in)2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) †20050.59 m (1 ft 11 in)
United States Franklin Jacobs19571.73 m (5 ft 8 in)2.32 m (7 ft 714 in) †1978
3Sweden Linus Thörnblad19851.80 m (5 ft 1034 in)2.38 m (7 ft 912 in) †20050.58 m (1 ft 1034 in)
Germany Anton Riepl19691.75 m (5 ft 834 in)2.33 m (7 ft 712 in) †1993
United States Rick Noji19671.73 m (5 ft 8 in)2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)1992
6United States Hollis Conway19671.83 m (6 ft 0 in)2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in) †19890.57 m (1 ft 1014 in)
7Japan Takahiro Kimino19731.76 m (5 ft 914 in)2.32 m (7 ft 714 in)19930.56 m (1 ft 10 in)
United States Charles Austin19671.84 m (6 ft 014 in)2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)1991
Romania Sorin Matei19631.84 m (6 ft 014 in)2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)1990
10Poland Robert Wolski19821.84 m (6 ft 014 in)2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)20060.55 m (1 ft 912 in)
India Hari Shankar Roy19861.70 m (5 ft 634 in)2.25 m (7 ft 412 in)2004
Italy Marcello Benvenuti19641.78 m (5 ft 10 in)2.33 m (7 ft 712 in)1986
Canada Milton Ottey19591.78 m (5 ft 10 in)2.33 m (7 ft 712 in)1986
14Japan Hikaru Tsuchiya19861.71 m (5 ft 714 in)2.25 m (7 ft 412 in)20090.54 m (1 ft 914 in)
United States Jeremy Fischer19761.75 m (5 ft 834 in)2.29 m (7 ft 6 in)2000
Japan Motochika Inoue19671.74 m (5 ft 812 in)2.28 m (7 ft 534 in)1987
Japan Takashi Katamine19581.73 m (5 ft 8 in)2.27 m (7 ft 514 in)1983

† Indoor performance.

Women[edit]

Athleteborntalljumpyeardiff.
1Italy Antonietta Di Martino19781.69 m2.04 m *20110.35 m (1 ft 134 in)
2Sweden Kajsa Bergqvist19761.75 m2.08 m *20060.33 m (1 ft 034 in)
Greece Niki Bakoyianni19681.70 m2.03 m1998
4United States Yolanda Henry19641.68 m2.00 m *19900.32 m (1 ft 012 in)
Bulgaria Emilia Dragieva19651.68 m2.00 m *1987
6France Marie Collonvillé19731.63 m1.94 m19970.31 m (1 ft 0 in)
7United Kingdom Jessica Ennis19861.65 m1.95 m20070.30 m (0 ft 1134 in)
Russia Viktoriya Seryogina19731.70 m2.00 m2002
Italy Antonella Bevilacqua19711.69 m1.99 m1996
Bulgaria Lyudmila Andonova19601.77 m2.07 m1984
United States Cindy Holmes19621.53 m1.83 m1982

Female two metres club[edit]

At 31 January 2013 included, 65 different female athletes had ever been able to jump 2.00 metres (outdoor and indoor).[11][12] The following table shows the only ten countries from which more than one athlete has a personal best of at least 2.00 metres.

#NationsNr.Athletes
1 Russia15Anna Chicherova 2.07, Elena Slesarenko 2.06, Tamara Bykova 2.05, Irina Gordeeva 2.04, Marina Kuptsova 2.03,
Svetlana Shkolina 2.03, Tatyana Babashkina 2.03, Yelena Yelesina 2.02, Yelena Gulyayeva 2.01, Svetlana Lapina 2.00,
Ekaterina Savchenko 2.00, Larisa Kositsyna 2.00, Viktoriya Klyugina 2.00, Viktoriya Seryogina 2.00, Yuliya Lyakhova 2.00
2 United States8Chaunté Lowe 2.05, Brigetta Barrett 2.03, Louise Ritter 2.03, Amy Acuff 2.01, Tisha Waller 2.01,
Coleen Sommer 2.00, Jan Wohlschlag 2.00, Tisha Waller 2.00, Yolanda Henry 2.00
3 Germany8Heike Henkel 2.07, Ariane Friedrich 2.06, Alina Astafei 2.04, Ulrike Meyfarth 2.03, Gabriele Günz 2.01, Heike Balck 2.01,
Daniela Rath 2.00, Meike Kröger 2.00
4 Bulgaria5Stefka Kostadinova 2.09, Lyudmila Andonova 2.07, Venelina Veneva-Mateeva 2.04, Emilia Dragieva 2.00, Svetlana Isaeva-Leseva 2.00
5 Ukraine5Inha Babakova 2.05, Vita Styopina 2.02, Iryna Mykhalchenko 2.01, Vita Palamar 2.01, Lyudmila Avdeyenko 2.00
6 Italy3Antonietta Di Martino 2.04, Sara Simeoni 2.01, Alessia Trost 2.00 m
7 South Africa3Hestrie Cloete 2.06, Desiré Du Plessis 2.01, Charmaine Gale-Weavers 2.00
8 Sweden2Kajsa Bergqvist 2.08, Emma Green Tregaro 2.01
9 Cuba2Silvia Costa 2.04, Ioamnet Quintero 2.01
10 East Germany2Susanne Beyer 2.02, Rosemarie Ackermann 2.00

National records[edit]

Updated June 2013.

Men[edit]

NationHeightAthleteVenueDateRef
 CUB2.45 m (8 ft 014 in)Javier SotomayorSalamanca1993-07-27
 SWE2.42 m (7 ft 1114 in)Patrik SjöbergStockholm1987-06-30
Germany GER2.42 m (7 ft 1114 in)Carlo ThränhardtBerlin1988-02-26
 KGZ2.41 m (7 ft 1034 in)Igor PaklinKobe1985-09-04
 UKR2.41 m (7 ft 1034 in)Bohdan BondarenkoLausanne4 July 2013[4]
 ROM2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)Sorin MateiBratislava1990-06-20
United States USA2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)Charles AustinZürich1991-08-07
Russia RUS2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)Vyacheslav VoroninLondon2000-08-05
Qatar QAT2.40 m (7 ft 1014 in)Mutaz Essa BarshimEugene1 June 2013[6]
 PRC2.39 m (7 ft 10 in)Zhu JianhuaBeijing1983-06-11
 SRB2.38 m (7 ft 912 in)Dragutin TopicBelgrad1993-08-01
 BAH2.38 m (7 ft 912 in)Troy KempNice1995-07-12
 POL2.38 m (7 ft 912 in)Artur PartykaEberstadt1996-08-18
 RSA2.38 m (7 ft 912 in)Jacques FreitagOudtshoorn2005-03-05
Canada CAN2.38 m (7 ft 912 in)Derek DrouinMoscow2013-08-15
 AZE2.37 m (7 ft 914 in)Valeriy SeredaRieti1984-09-02
 GBR2.37 m (7 ft 914 in) mSteve SmithSeoul1992-09-20
Stuttgart1993-08-22
Robbie GrabarzLausanne2012-08-23[13]
 BEL2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Eddy AnnysGhent1985-05-26
 SVK2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Jan ZvaraPrague1987-08-23
 CZE2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Jaroslav BabaRome2005-07-08
 BER2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Clarence SaundersAuckland1990-02-01
 BUL2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Georgi DakovBrussels1990-08-10
 GRE2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Lambros PapakostasAthens1992-07-21
Australia AUS2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Tim ForsythMelbourne1997-03-02
 NOR2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Steinar HoenOslo1997-07-01
 ISR2.36 m (7 ft 834 in)Konstantin MatusevichPerth2000-02-05
France FRA2.35 m (7 ft 812 in)Jean-Charles GicquelParis1994-03-13
 CYP2.35 m (7 ft 812 in)Kyriakos IoannouOsaka2007-08-29
 LTU2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Rolandas VerkysWarsaw1991-06-16
 ESP2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Arturo OrtízBarcelona1991-06-22
 BLR2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Andrey SankovichGomel1993-05-15
 KOR2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Lee Jin-TaekSeoul1997-06-20
 ALG2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Abderrahmane HammadAlgiers2000-07-14
 JAM2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Germaine MasonSanto Domingo2003-08-09
 BOT2.34 m (7 ft 8 in)Kabelo KgosiemangAddis Ababa2008-05-04
 ITA2.33 m (7 ft 712 in)Marcello BenvenutiVerona1989-09-12
 COL2.33 m (7 ft 712 in)Gilmar MayoPereira1994-10-17
Japan JPN2.33 m (7 ft 712 in)Naoyuki DaigoKobe2006-07-02
 UZB2.32 m (7 ft 714 in)Gennadiy BelkovTashkent1982-05-29
 BRA2.32 m (7 ft 714 in)Jessé de LimaLausanne2008-09-02
  SUI2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)Roland DalhäuserEberstadt1981-06-07
 TJK2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)Oleg PalaschevskiyBryansk1990-08-12
 BIH2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)Elvir KrehmicZagreb1998-07-07
 FIN2.31 m (7 ft 634 in)Mika PolkuHämeenkyrö2000-07-22
Toni HuikuriBratislava2002-06-11
 NED2.30 m (7 ft 612 in)Wilbert PenningsEberstadt7 August 1999[14]
 PER2.30 m (7 ft 612 in)Hugo MunozLima1995-10-29
 EST2.30 m (7 ft 612 in)Marko TurbanRakvere1996-06-05
 LAT2.30 m (7 ft 612 in)Normunds SietiņšNurmijärvi1992-07-20
 IRL2.30 m (7 ft 612 in)Adrian O'DwyerAlgiers2004-06-24
 ISL2.28 m (7 ft 534 in)Einar Karl HjartarsonReykjavík2001-02-20
 MAS2.27 m (7 ft 514 in)Lee Hup WeiBeijing2008-05-25
 SRI2.27 m (7 ft 514 in)Manjula Kumara WijesekaraColombo2004-07-23
Incheon2005-09-04

Women[edit]

NationHeightAthleteVenueDateRef
 BUL2.09 m (6 ft 1014 in)Stefka KostadinovaRome1987-08-30
 CRO2.08 m (6 ft 934 in)Blanka VlašićZagreb2009-08-31
 SWE2.08 m (6 ft 934 in)Kajsa BergqvistArnstadt2006-02-04
Germany GER2.07 m (6 ft 914 in)Heike HenkelKarlsruhe1992-02-08
Russia RUS2.07 m (6 ft 914 in)Anna ChicherovaCheboksary2011-07-22
 RSA2.06 m (6 ft 9 in)Hestrie CloeteParis2003-08-31
 UKR2.05 m (6 ft 812 in)Inga BabakovaTokyo1995-09-15
 BEL2.05 m (6 ft 812 in)Tia HellebautBirmingham2007-03-03
United States USA2.05 m (6 ft 812 in)Chaunte LoweDes Moines2010-06-26
 CUB2.04 m (6 ft 814 in)Silvia CostaBarcelona1989-09-09
 ITA2.04 m (6 ft 814 in)Antonietta Di MartinoBanská Bystrica2011-02-09
 GRE2.03 m (6 ft 734 in)Niki BakogianniAtlanta1996-08-03
 ROM2.03 m (6 ft 734 in)Monica IagarBucharest1999-01-23
 ESP2.02 m (6 ft 712 in)Ruth BeitiaSan Sebastián2007-08-04
 KAZ2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)Olga TurchakMoscow1986-07-07
 NOR2.01 m (6 ft 7 in)Hanne HauglandZürich1997-08-13
 YUG2.00 m (6 ft 612 in)Biljana PetrovićSaint-Denis1990-06-22
 BLR2.00 m (6 ft 612 in)Tatyana ShevchikGomel1993-05-14
 CZE2.00 m (6 ft 612 in)Zuzana HlavoňováPrague2000-06-05
 SLO2.00 m (6 ft 612 in)Britta BilačHelsinki1994-08-14
 HUN2.00 m (6 ft 612 in)Dóra GyörffyNyiregyhaza2001-07-26
 POL1.99 m (6 ft 614 in)Kamila StepaniukOpole9 June 2013[15]
 UZB1.98 m (6 ft 534 in)Lyudmila ButuzovaSochi1984-06-10
Canada CAN1.98 m (6 ft 534 in)Debbie BrillRieti1984-09-02
Australia AUS1.98 m (6 ft 534 in)Alison InverarityIngolstadt1989-02-12
 LCA1.98 m (6 ft 534 in)Levern SpencerAthens, GA2010-05-08
China CHN1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Jin LingHamamatsu1989-05-07
 LAT1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Valentīna GotovskaVilnius1992-30-03
 AUT1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Sigrid KirchmannStuttgart1993-08-21
 MDA1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Olga BolşovaRieti1993-09-05
 ARG1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Solange WitteveenManaus2001-05-19
 DOM1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Juana Rosario ArrendelSan Salvador2002-12-02
 KGZ1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Tatyana EfimenkoRome2003-07-11
 MEX1.97 m (6 ft 512 in)Romary RifkaXalapa2004-04-04
 EST1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)Anna IljuštšenkoViljandi2011-08-09
Japan JPN1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)Miki ImaiYokohama2001-09-15
 LTU1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)Nelė ŽilinskienėAtlanta1996-08-03
Airinė PalšytėShenzhen2011-08-21
 GBR1.95 m (6 ft 434 in)Diana Elliott (Davies)Oslo1982-06-26
Susan MoncrieffBremen2001-06-24
Jessica EnnisDesenzano2007-05-05
 IRL1.95 m (6 ft 434 in)Deirdre RyanDaegu2011-09-01
France FRA1.95 m (6 ft 434 in)Maryse Ewanje-EpeeGöteborg1984-03-04
 ISR1.94 m (6 ft 414 in)Danielle FrenkelParis2011-03-05
 VIE1.94 m (6 ft 414 in)Bui Thi NhungBangkok2005-05-04
 BIH1.94 m (6 ft 414 in)Amra TemimVaraždin1987-08-15
 SRB1.94 m (6 ft 414 in)Amra TemimThessaloniki1988-09-16
 TUR1.93 m (6 ft 334 in)[16]Candeğer OğuzIstanbul2004-05-16
 BRA1.92 m (6 ft 312 in)Orlane dos SantosBogotá1989-08-11
 FIN1.92 m (6 ft 312 in)Hanna MikkonenTampere2005-06-12

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]