Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

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Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Henry Louis Gates 2014 (cropped).jpg
Gates with his Peabody Awards for his documentary, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
BornHenry Louis Gates, Jr.
(1950-09-16) September 16, 1950 (age 64)
Keyser, West Virginia, US
OccupationAuthor, documentary filmmaker, essayist, literary critic, professor
Alma materYale University (BA)
Clare College, Cambridge (PhD)
GenreEssay, history, literature
SubjectAfrican American Studies
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Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
Henry Louis Gates 2014 (cropped).jpg
Gates with his Peabody Awards for his documentary, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross
BornHenry Louis Gates, Jr.
(1950-09-16) September 16, 1950 (age 64)
Keyser, West Virginia, US
OccupationAuthor, documentary filmmaker, essayist, literary critic, professor
Alma materYale University (BA)
Clare College, Cambridge (PhD)
GenreEssay, history, literature
SubjectAfrican American Studies

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (born September 16, 1950) is the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University. He is also an Emmy Award-winning filmmaker, literary scholar, journalist, cultural critic, and institution builder. Gates has written 17 books and created 14 documentary films, including Wonders of the African World, African American Lives, Black in Latin America, and Finding Your Roots, now in its second season on PBS. His six-part PBS documentary series, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross (2013), which he wrote, executive produced, and hosted, earned the News and Documentary Emmy Award for Outstanding Historical Program—Long Form, as well as the Peabody Award, Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Award, and NAACP Image Award. Having written for such leading publications as The New Yorker, The New York Times, and Time, Gates is editor-in-chief of TheRoot.com, a daily online magazine, while overseeing the Oxford African American Studies Center, the first comprehensive scholarly online resource in the field. In 2012, The Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Reader, a collection on his writings, was published. Gates's latest book is Finding Your Roots: The Official Companion to the PBS Series, released by the University of North Carolina Press in 2014.

The recipient of 53 honorary degrees and numerous prizes, Gates was a member of the first class awarded "genius grants" by the MacArthur Foundation in 1981, and in 1998, he became the first African-American scholar to be awarded the National Humanities Medal. He was named to the Time 25 Most Influential Americans list in 1997, to the Ebony Power 150 list in 2009, and to Ebony's Power 100 list in 2010 and 2012. He earned his B.A. in English Language and Literature, summa cum laude, from Yale University in 1973, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in English Literature from Clare College at the University of Cambridge in 1979. Gates has directed the W.E.B. Institute for African and African American Research—now the Hutchins Center—since arriving at Harvard University in 1991, and during his first 15 years on campus, he chaired the Department of Afro-American Studies as it expanded into the Department of African and African American Studies with a full-fledged doctoral program. He also is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters and serves on a wide array of boards, including the New York Public Library, the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the Aspen Institute, Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Whitney Museum of American Art, Library of America, and the Brookings Institution. He has chaired the Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards since 1995, and travels each September to Cleveland, Ohio, to lead a community celebration of the winners. He won the prize himself in 1989 for editing the 30 volumes of "The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Women Writers".

Early life and education[edit]

Gates was born in Keyser, West Virginia,[1] to Henry Louis Gates, Sr. and his wife Pauline Augusta (Coleman) Gates. He grew up in neighboring Piedmont, which he described in his memoir Colored People. His family is descended from the Yoruba nation in the country of Benin.[2] He also has some ancestry in the distinctive mixed-race West Virginia community of the Chestnut Ridge people.[3]

At the age of 14, he was injured playing touch football, fracturing the ball and socket joint of his hip, resulting in a slipped epiphysis. The injury was misdiagnosed by a physician, who told Gates' mother that his problem was psychosomatic. When the physical damage finally healed, his right leg was two inches shorter than his left. Because of the injury, Gates now uses a cane to help him walk.[4][5]

Gates graduated from Piedmont High School in 1968 and attended Potomac State College in Keyser, West Virginia. He completed his BA degree in History at Yale University, summa cum laude. The first African American to be awarded an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellowship, Gates sailed on the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 for England and Cambridge University, where he studied English literature at Clare College and earned a PhD.

Personal life[edit]

Gates married Sharon Lynn Adams in 1979.,[6] though they eventually divorced.[citation needed] They have two daughters.[7]


After a month at Yale Law School, Gates withdrew from the program. In October 1975 he was hired by Charles T. Davis as a secretary in the Afro-American Studies department at Yale. In July 1976, Gates was promoted to the post of Lecturer in Afro-American Studies with the understanding that he would be promoted to Assistant Professor upon completion of his dissertation. Jointly appointed to assistant professorships in English and Afro-American Studies in 1979, Gates was promoted to Associate Professor in 1984.

In 1984, Gates was recruited by Cornell University with an offer of tenure; Gates then asked Yale if they would match Cornell's offer, but they declined.[8] Accordingly, Gates moved to Cornell in 1985, where he taught until 1989. Following a two-year stay at Duke University, he was recruited to Harvard University in 1991. At Harvard, Gates teaches undergraduate and graduate courses as the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor, an endowed chair he was appointed to in 2006, and as Professor of English.[9] Additionally, he is the Director of the Hutchins Center for African & African American Research.

As a literary theorist and critic, Gates has combined literary techniques of deconstruction with native African literary traditions; he draws on structuralism, post-structuralism, and semiotics to textual analysis and matters of identity politics. As a black intellectual and public figure, Gates has been an outspoken critic of the Eurocentric literary canon. He has insisted that black literature must be evaluated by the aesthetic criteria of its culture of origin, not criteria imported from Western or European cultural traditions that express a "tone deafness to the black cultural voice" and result in "intellectual racism".[5] In his major scholarly work, The Signifying Monkey, a 1989 American Book Award winner, Gates expressed what might constitute a black cultural aesthetic. The work extended application of the concept of "signifyin(g)" to analysis of African-American works; it thus rooted African-American literary criticism in the African-American vernacular tradition.[citation needed]

While Gates has stressed the need for greater recognition of black literature and black culture, he does not advocate a "separatist" black canon. Rather, he works for greater recognition of black works and their integration into a larger, pluralistic canon. He has affirmed the value of the Western tradition, but has envisioned a more inclusive canon of diverse works sharing common cultural connections:

Gates has argued that a separatist, Afrocentric education perpetuates racist stereotypes. He maintains that it is "ridiculous" to think that only blacks should be scholars of African and African-American literature. He argues,

"It can't be real as a subject if you have to look like the subject to be an expert in the subject,"[10] adding, "It's as ridiculous as if someone said I couldn't appreciate Shakespeare because I'm not Anglo-Saxon. I think it's vulgar and racist whether it comes out of a black mouth or a white mouth."[11]

Supporters of Afrocentrics such as Molefi Asante and others say that they assert not that the study of Africa should be exclusively black, but that the approach of Afrocentricity is critical for setting up black people as agents of their own history.[12][13]

As a mediator between those advocating separatism and those who believe in a fixed Western canon, Gates has been criticized by both. Some critics suggest that adding black literature will diminish the value of the Western canon, while separatists say that Gates is too accommodating to the dominant white culture in his advocacy of integration of the canon.[citation needed] Gates is occasionally criticized as non-representative and a detractor of black people by such African-Americans as John Henrik Clarke, Molefi Asante and the controversial Maulana Karenga.[14][15][16]

As a literary historian committed to the preservation and study of historical texts, Gates has been integral to the Black Periodical Literature Project, an archive of black newspapers and magazines created with financial assistance from the National Endowment for the Humanities.[17] To build Harvard's visual, documentary, and literary archives of African-American texts, Gates arranged for the purchase of The Image of the Black in Western Art, a collection assembled by Dominique de Ménil in Houston, Texas.

As a result of research as a MacArthur Fellow, Gates discovered Our Nig by Harriet E. Wilson, written in 1859 and thus the first novel in the United States written by a black person. He acquired and authenticated the manuscript of The Bondwoman's Narrative by Hannah Crafts, a novel from the same period that scholars believe may have been written as early as 1853. It would have precedence as the first known novel written by a black person in the United States. (Note: Clotel; or, The President's Daughter (1853) is recognized as the first novel published by an African American, but William Wells Brown wrote and published it in London.) The Bondwoman's Narrative was first published in 2002 and became a bestseller.

As a prominent black intellectual, Gates has concentrated on building academic institutions to study black culture. Additionally, he has worked to bring about social, educational, and intellectual equality for black Americans. His writing includes pieces in The New York Times that defend rap music, and an article in Sports Illustrated that criticizes black youth culture for glorifying basketball over education. In 1992, he received a George Polk Award for his social commentary in The New York Times. Gates' prominence has led to his being called as a witness on behalf of the controversial Florida rap group 2 Live Crew in an obscenity case. He argued that the material which the government charged was profane, had important roots in African-American vernacular speech, games, and literary traditions, and should be protected.

Asked by NEH Chairman Bruce Cole to describe his work, Gates responded: "I would say I'm a literary critic. That's the first descriptor that comes to mind. After that I would say I was a teacher. Both would be just as important."[10] After his 2003 NEH lecture, Gates published his 2003 book, The Trials of Phillis Wheatley.

Other activities[edit]

In 1995 Gates presented a program in the BBC series Great Railway Journeys (produced in association with PBS). The program documents a 3000-mile journey Gates took through Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania, with his then-wife Sharon Adams and daughters Liza and Meggie Gates. This trip came 25 years after Gates worked at a hospital in Kilimatinde near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a 19-year-old pre-medical student at Yale University.[18]

Gates was the host and co-producer of African American Lives (2006) and African American Lives 2 (2008) in which the lineage of more than a dozen notable African Americans is traced using genealogical and historic resources, as well as DNA testing. In the first series, Gates learned that he is 60% European ancestry, 34% African, 6% Asian and was descended from the mulatto John Redman.[19] In addition, he discussed findings with guests about their complex ancestries.[19]

In the second series of episodes, Gates learned that he is part of a genetic subgroup possibly descended from or related to the 4th-century Irish king, Niall of the Nine Hostages. He also learned that his ancestors included the Yoruba people of Nigeria. The two series demonstrated the many strands of heritage and history among African Americans.

Gates hosted Faces of America, a four-part series presented by PBS in 2010. This program examined the genealogy of 12 North Americans of diverse ancestry: Elizabeth Alexander, Mario Batali, Stephen Colbert, Louise Erdrich, Malcolm Gladwell, Eva Longoria, Yo-Yo Ma, Mike Nichols, Queen Noor, Dr. Mehmet Oz, Meryl Streep, and Kristi Yamaguchi.

Since 1995, Gates has been the jury chair for the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award, which honor written works that contribute to society's understanding of racism and the diversity of human culture. Gates was an Anisfield-Wolf prize winner in 1989 for The Schomburg Library of Women Writers.

He hosted a PBS TV series, airing in 2012, called Finding Your Roots – with Henry Louis Gates, Jr..[20] The second season of the series, featuring 30 prominent guests across 10 episodes, with Gates as the narrator, interviewer, and genealogical investigator, aired on PBS in Fall 2014.

Gates's critically acclaimed six-part PBS documentary series, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross, traced 500 years of African-American history through to the second inauguration of President Barack Obama. Gates wrote, executive produced, and hosted the series, which earned the 2013 Peabody Award and NAACP Image Award.

"Ending the Slavery Blame-Game" op-ed[edit]

In 2010, Gates wrote an op-ed in The New York Times that discussed the role played by Africans in the slave trade.[21] In an article for Newsweek, journalist Lisa Miller reported on the reaction to Gates' article:

The enemy of individuality is groupthink, Gates says, and here he holds everyone accountable. Recently, he has enraged many of his colleagues in the African-American studies field—especially those campaigning for government reparations for slavery—by insistently reminding them, as he did in a New York Times op-ed last year, that the folks who captured and sold blacks into slavery in the first place were also Africans, working for profit. "People wanted to kill me, man", Gates says of the reaction to that op-ed. "Black people were so angry at me. But we need to get some distance from the binary opposition we were raised in: evil white people and good black people. The world just isn't like that."

Lolita Buckner Inniss, a professor at the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, wrote a letter to The New York Times in response to the Gates piece in which she argues that regardless of who did the capturing, it was white people who created the market for African slaves and perpetuated the practice even after the import trade was banned. "Up until that recent piece, people would have thought of him as someone who took a cautious and nuanced approach to questions like reparations." Gates has such an eminent reputation, she said, and "so much gravitas. Many of us were troubled."[22]

The op-ed begins and ends with the observation that it is very difficult to decide whether or not to give reparations to the descendants of American slaves, in other words whether they should receive compensation for their ancestors' unpaid labor and bondage. Gates also points out that it is equally difficult to decide who should get these reparations and who should pay them.

Cambridge arrest[edit]

On July 16, 2009, Gates returned home from a trip to China to find the door to his house jammed. His driver attempted to help him gain entrance. A passerby called police reporting a possible break-in after reporting to 911 "an individual" forcing the front door open. A Cambridge police officer was dispatched. The resulting confrontation resulted in Gates being arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. Prosecutors later dropped the charges.[23] The incident spurred a politically charged exchange of views about race relations and law enforcement throughout the United States. The arrest attracted national attention after U.S. President Barack Obama declared that the police "acted stupidly" in arresting Gates. The President eventually extended an invitation to both Gates and the officer involved to share a beer with him at the White House.[24]

On March 9, 2010, Gates claimed on The Oprah Winfrey Show that he, Sgt. James Crowley, the arresting officer in the Cambridge incident, and Jonathan Johnson (Deputy Comptroller) all share a common ancestor, an ancient Irish king, Niall of the Nine Hostages.[citation needed]

Awards and honors[edit]


Books (author)
Books (editor)



  1. ^ Maya Jaggi (July 6, 2002). "Henry the first". the Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  2. ^ "African American Lives The Past Is Another Country 2 4of4 - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-09-21. 
  3. ^ "Finding Your Roots: Decoding Our Past Through DNA". PBS.org. Public Broadcasting System. 
  4. ^ O'Hagan, Sean (July 20, 2003). "The biggest brother: interview with Henry Louis Gates, black America's foremost intellectual". The Observer (London). Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c Contemporary Black Biography. Vol. 67. Gale, 2008. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center, Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2009.
  6. ^ West Virginia Weslesyan College biography
  7. ^ Adam Begley, "Black Studies' New Star: Henry Louis Gates Jr.", The New York Times, April 1, 1990.
  8. ^ Ambinder, Marc J. (February 14, 2000). "Yale Afro-Am Chair Resigns After Remarks of Yale Pres.". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 21, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b History of American Civilization Program (2008). "Henry Louis Gates, Jr.". Harvard University. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b Bruce Cole (2002). "Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Interview". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  11. ^ Clarke, Breena, and Susan Tifft, "A 'Race Man' Argues for a Broader Curriculum: Henry Louis Gates Jr. Wants W. E. B. DuBois, Wole Soyinka and Phyllis Wheatley on the Nation's Reading Lists, As Well As Western Classics like Milton and Shakespeare", Time: 137(16). April 22, 1991: 16.
  12. ^ "Afrocentricity: Toward a New Understanding of African Thought in the World Molefi Asante". Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  13. ^ "The Removal of Agency from Africa". Owen Alik Shahadah, African Holocaust Society. Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Papers by Molefi Asante". Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  15. ^ "Papers by John Henrik Clarke". Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  16. ^ Molefi Kete Asante, "Henry Louis Gates is Wrong about African Involvement in the Slave Trade", Asante.net.
  17. ^ W. E. B. Du Bois Institute (2008). "Black Periodical Literature Project". Harvard University. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  18. ^ "Great Railway Journeys". BBC. Retrieved February 6, 2010.
  19. ^ a b c Staff writers (September 14, 2006). "Sons of American Revolution welcome Gates". The Harvard University Gazette. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  20. ^ Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., PBS.
  21. ^ Gates, Jr. H. L. (April 23, 2010). Ending the Slavery Blame-Game. The New York Times, p. A27.
  22. ^ Miller, L. (April 18, 2011). "Skip Gates's Next Big Idea". Newsweek. 157 (16), pp. 42–45.
  23. ^ "Charge dropped against Harvard scholar", The Washington Times, July 22, 2009.
  24. ^ Neary, Lynn (July 23, 2009). "Black And Blue: Police And Minorities". Talk of the Nation (National Public Radio). Retrieved July 27, 2009. 
  25. ^ Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  26. ^ Henry Louis Gates, "Mister Jefferson and The Trials of Phillis Wheatley," text of Jefferson Lecture at NEH website.
  27. ^ Henry Louis Gates, The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America's First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers (Basic Civitas Books, 2003), ISBN 0-465-02729-6.
  28. ^ "2015 Alfred I. duPont-Columbia Award Winners Announced", Columbia Journalism School.
  29. ^ Stephen A. Crockett, Jr. "Henry Louis Gates Jr. Receives duPont Award for The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross", The Root, January 21, 2015.
  30. ^ "Read Henry Louis Gates Jr.’s Acceptance Speech for the duPont Award", The Root, January 22, 2015.
  31. ^ "Encarta Africana, the First Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Black History and Culture, Launches Today" (Press release). Microsoft. January 8, 1999. Retrieved August 7, 2008. 
  32. ^ America Beyond the Color Line With Henry Louis Gates Jr.PBS (2004)

External links[edit]