Héloïse d'Argenteuil

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Héloïse imagined in a mid-19th-century engraving

Héloïse d'Argenteuil (/ˈɛl.z/ or /ˈhɛl.z/; French: [elɔˈiz]; 1090?[1]/1100? – 16 May 1164) was a French nun, writer, scholar, and abbess, best known for her love affair and correspondence with Peter Abélard.

Background[edit]

Héloïse (variously spelled Helöise, Héloyse, Hélose, Heloisa, Helouisa, Eloise, and Aloysia, among other variations) was a brilliant scholar of Latin, Greek and Hebrew,[2] and had a reputation for intelligence and insight. Abélard writes that she was nominatissima, "most renowned" for her gift in reading and writing. Not a great deal is known of her immediate family except that in her letters she implies she is of a lower social standing (probably the Garlande family, who had money and several members in strong positions) than was Abélard, who was originally from the nobility, though he had rejected knighthood to be a philosopher.[3]

What is known is that she was the ward of an uncle, a canon in Paris named Fulbert.[4] By some point in her life she was renowned throughout Western Europe for her scholarship. By the time she became the student of Pierre Abélard (Peter Abelard), who was one of the most popular teachers and philosophers in Paris, she was already a reputed scholar.[5][6] Educated by Abelard in medicine and other traditional subjects taught in higher-education at the time, Heloise gained quite a reputation as a physician in her role as abbess of Paraclete.[7]

Historical events[edit]

Abaelardus and Héloïse in the manuscript Roman de la Rose (14th century)

In his Historia Calamitatum, an autobiographical piece written around 1132, Abélard tells the story of his seduction of Héloïse, whom he met when in 1115 he himself, like Fulbert, became a canon in Paris.

It is unclear how old Heloise was at this time. She is described as an adolescentula (young girl), and so it is often assumed that she was about seventeen at the time, having been born in 1100-1.[8] More recently, however, Constant Mews (and subsequently David Constant) have suggested that the age of seventeen is a seventeenth-century fabrication with no supporting contemporary evidence, and that she was probably as old as 27 at the time.[9] The main piece of evidence for this is that in a later letter, Peter the Venerable writes to Heloise that he remembers her when he was a young man and she was a woman; this, they suggest, implies that Heloise was at least as old and possibly older than Peter. Given that Peter was born in 1092, it would mean that Heloise would have been nearer 27 at the time of the affair. They suggest that this makes more sense of Abelard's later comment that he sought to seduce Heloise because she was the most famous woman in France for her studies – because, as they suggest, she would have been unlikely to have acquired this reputation by the age of 17. More tentatively, the extent of Heloise's accomplishment in Greek and Hebrew, and her mature response to the relationship, might indicate someone older than 17.

Abelard tells how he convinced Fulbert to let him move into his house, telling Fulbert that he could not afford to live in his current house while studying, and offering to tutor Heloise in return.[10] Abelard tells of their subsequent illicit relationship, which they continued until Héloïse fell pregnant. Abelard moved Heloise away from Fulbert and sent her to his own sister in Brittany, where Heloise gave birth to a boy, whom she called Astrolabe.[11] It is almost unknown what happened to Astrolabe in later life. He is never mentioned by Heloise in her letters to Abelard, and Abelard's only reference to him outside the Historia Calamitatum is in the verses of advice addressed to him, and thought to have been written about 1135. His death-day is recorded in the necrology of the Paraclete as 29 or 30 October, but no year is given. He is mentioned only once in a later letter, when Peter the Venerable writes to Heloise: "I will gladly do my best to obtain a prebend in one of the great churches for your Astrolabe, who is also ours for your sake".[12]

Abelard agreed to marry Heloise to conciliate Fulbert, although on the condition that the marriage should be kept secret so as not to damage Abélard's career; Heloise was initially reticent to agree to the secret marriage, but was eventually persuaded by Abelard.[13] Heloise returned from Brittany, and the couple were secretly married in Paris.

Fulbert, however, began to spread news of the marriage, in order to punish Abelard for the damage done to his reputation. Heloise attempted to deny this, but this ongoing situation eventually caused Abélard to place Heloise for her own safety in the convent of Argenteuil, where Heloise had been brought up. Fulbert and his friends, however, believed that Abelard had simply found a way of getting rid of Heloise, by making her a nun. So, to punish Abelard, a group of Fulbert's friends broke into Abelard's room one night and castrated him.[14]

After castration,[15] filled with shame at his situation, Abélard became a monk in the Abbey of St Denis in Paris. At the convent in Argenteuil, Héloïse took the habit at Abelard's insistence and much against her own wishes. She eventually became prioress there, but she and the other nuns were turned out in 1129 when the convent was taken over by the Abbey of St Denis. At this point Abélard arranged for them to enter the Oratory of the Paraclete, a deserted building near Nogent-sur-Seine in Champagne which had been established by Abelard himself in 1122 (though he had subsequently moved to become Abbot of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys in Lower Brittany). Héloïse became abbess of the new community of nuns there.[16]

Correspondence[edit]

About this time, correspondence began between the two former lovers. What exists today consists of seven letters (numbered Epistolae 2–8 in Latin volumes, since the Historia Calamitatum precedes them as Epistola 1). Four of the letters (Epistolae 2–5) are known as the 'Personal Letters', and contain personal correspondence. The remaining three (Epistolae 6–8) are known as the 'Letters of Direction'.

Héloïse responded, both on the behalf of the Paraclete and herself. In letters which followed, Héloïse expressed dismay at problems that Abélard faced, but scolded him for years of silence following the attack upon him, since Abélard was still wed to Héloïse.

Thus began a correspondence both passionate and erudite. Héloïse encouraged Abélard in his philosophical work, and he dedicated his profession of faith to her. But there is an underlying tenor of despair on Heloise's part. She reminds him that she did not want to marry him, that she preferred to be his whore rather than his wife, preferring freedom to chains.[17] Abélard insisted that he had never truly loved her, but only lusted after her, and that their relationship was a sin against God. He then recommended her to turn her attention toward the only one who ever truly loved her, Jesus Christ, and to consecrate herself fully from then on to her religious vocation.

At this point the tenor of the letters change.In the 'Letters of Direction', Heloise writes the fifth letter, declaring that she will no longer speak of the hurt that Abelard has caused her. . The sixth is a long letter by Abelard in response to Heloise's first question in the fifth letter about the origin of nuns. In the long final, seventh letter, Abelard provides a Rule for the nuns at the Oratory of the Paraclete, again as requested by Heloise at the outset of the fifth letter.

The Problemata Heloissae (Héloïse's Problems) is a letter from Héloïse to Abélard containing 42 questions about difficult passages in Scripture, interspersed with Abelard's answers to the questions, probably written at the time when she was abbess at the Paraclete.

Héloïse and Abélard, circa 1882

Disputed Issues[edit]

Attribution of Works[edit]

The authorship of the writings connected with Héloïse has been a subject of scholarly disagreement for much of their history.

The most well-established documents, and correspondingly those whose authenticity has been disputed the longest, are the series of letters that begin with Abelard's Historia Calamitatum (counted as letter 1) and encompass four "personal letters" (numbered 2-5) and "letters of direction" (numbers 6-8). Most scholars today accept these works as having been written by Héloïse and Abelard themselves, but some continue to disagree. John Benton is the most prominent modern sceptic of these documents. Etienne Gilson and Peter Dronke, on the other hand, have been particularly important proponents the mainstream view that the letters are genuine, both by offering explanations of the problems with the texts themselves and by arguing that the skeptical viewpoint is fueled in large part by its advocates' pre-conceived notions.[18]

More recently, it has been argued that an anonymous series of letters, the Epistolae Duorum Amantium, were in fact written by Héloïse and Abelard during their initial romance (and, thus, before the later and more broadly known series of letters). This argument has been advanced most forcefully by Constant J. Mews, based on earlier work by Ewad Könsgen. These letters represent a significant expansion to the corpus of surviving writing by Héloïse, and thus open several new directions for further scholarship. However, because the attribution "is of necessity based on circumstantial rather than on absolute evidence," it is not accepted by all scholars.[19]

There are similar scholarly disputed about other works attributed to Héloïse.

Relationship with Abelard[edit]

The great majority of scholars (as well as casual readers) have interpreted the story of Héloïse's relationship with Abelard as a tragic romance. However, in 1989, Mary Ellen Waithe argued that Héloïse was strongly opposed to a sexual relationship with Abelard; according to Waithe, she "withheld her consent [to sex] and physically and verbally resisted [Abelard's] advances to the best of her ability." Thus, in Waithe's view, Abelard's conduct amounted to abuse and rape.[20] Waithe's argument is based primarily on a sentence from the fifth letter, in which Abelard, in the context of arguing to Héloïse that their youthful sexual conduct was sinful and should be repented, not fondly recalled, writes: "When you objected to [sex] yourself and resisted with all your might, and tried to dissuade me from it, I frequently forced your consent (for after all you were the weaker) by threats and blows."[21]

While no other scholar has directly responded to Waithe's claim, other academics come to very different conclusions about the nature of Héloïse's relationship with Abelard. Their view is informed in large part by Héloïse's own writings (as opposed to Abelard's letters to her), in which she expresses a much more positive attitude toward their past relationship than does Abelard and does not "accept that his love for her could die, even by the horrible act of Abelard’s castration."[22] A more mainstream interpretation of those parts of Abelard's writing like the sentence Waithe finds so troubling is the one given by David Wulstan: "Much of what Abelard says in the Historia Calamitatum does not ring true: his arrogation of blame for the cold seduction of his pupil is hardly fortified by the letters of Heloise; this and various supposed violations seem contrived to build a farrago of supposed guilt which he must expiate by his retreat into monasticism and by distancing himself from his former lover."[23] In fact, even Waithe herself indicated in a 2009 interview with Karen Warren that she has "softened the position [she] took earlier" in light of Mews' subsequent attribution of the Epistolae Duorum Amantium to Abelard and Héloïse (which Waithe accepts), though she continues to find the passage troubling.[24]

Burial[edit]

Heloise's place of burial is uncertain. Abelard's bones were moved to the Oratory of the Paraclete after his death, and after Heloise's death in 1163 her bones were placed alongside his. The bones of the pair were moved more than once afterwards, but they were preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French Revolution, and now are presumed to lie in the well-known tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery in eastern Paris. The transfer of their remains there in 1817 is considered to have considerably contributed to the popularity of that cemetery, at the time still far outside the built-up area of Paris. By tradition, lovers or lovelorn singles leave letters at the crypt, in tribute to the couple or in hope of finding true love.

This remains, however, disputed. The Oratory of the Paraclete claims Abélard and Héloïse are buried there and that what exists in Père-Lachaise is merely a monument[25] or cenotaph. Others believe that while Abelard is buried in the tomb at Père-Lachaise, Heloïse's remains are elsewhere.

Cultural references[edit]

In literature[edit]

In music[edit]

In poetry[edit]

Onstage and onscreen[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clanchy, Michael (1997). Abelard: A Medieval Life. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 173–74. 
  2. ^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2008). The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history, Volume 1. Heloise: Oxford University Press. p. 445. ISBN 0-19-514890-8. 
  3. ^ Matheson, Lister M (2011). Icons of the Middle Ages: Rulers, Writers, Rebels, and Saints. Abelard's Early life and Education. p. 2. ISBN 9781573567800. 
  4. ^ Shaffer, Andrew (2011). Great Philosophers Who Failed at Love. Harper Perennial. p. 8. ISBN 0-06-196981-8. 
  5. ^ Shaffer 2011, pp. 8–9
  6. ^ Smith 2008, p. 445
  7. ^ Notable women in the life sciences : a biographical dictionary (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. 1996. ISBN 0-313-29302-3.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  8. ^ Historia Calamitatum, in Betty Radice, trans, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, (Penguin, 1974), p66
  9. ^ Constant J Mews, Abelard and Heloise, (Oxford, 2005), p59
  10. ^ Historia Calamitatum, in Betty Radice, trans, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, (Penguin, 1974), p67
  11. ^ Historia Calamitatum, in Betty Radice, trans, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, (Penguin, 1974), p69
  12. ^ Betty Radice (trans.), The Letters of Abelard and Heloise (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 287
  13. ^ Historia Calamitatum, in Betty Radice, trans, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, (Penguin, 1974), pp70-4. The reason for wanting the marriage to remain secret is not entirely clear. The most likely explanation is that Abelard must have been in Orders (something on which scholarly opinion is divided), and given that the church was just beginning to forbid marriage to priests and the higher orders of clergy, public marriage would have been a bar to Abelard's advancement in the church.
  14. ^ Historia Calamitatum, in Betty Radice,trans, The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, (Penguin, 1974), p75
  15. ^ Abelard, Peter (2007). The letters and other writings. Hackett Pub Co. ISBN 0-87220-875-3. 
  16. ^ Rosser, Sue Vilhauer (2008). Women, science, and myth: gender beliefs from antiquity to the present. ABC-CLIO. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-59884-095-7. 
  17. ^ Nouvet, Claire (Sep 1990). "The Discourse of the 'Whore': An Economy of Sacrifice". MLN 105 (4). 
  18. ^ David Wulstan, "'Novi modulaminis melos: the music of Heloise and Abelard," Plainsong and Medieval Music 11 (2002): 1-2. doi:10.1017/S0961137102002012
    For what the Epistoalae project at Columbia University calls "a sensible discussion of the problem," see Barbara Newman, "Authority, authenticity, and the repression of Heloise," Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22 (1992), 121-57. [1]
  19. ^ "Heloise, abbess of the Paraclete," in Epistoalae: Medieval Women's Latin Letters, ed. Joan M. Ferrante (Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning), published online
  20. ^ Mary Ellen Waithe, "Heloise: Biography," in A History of Women Philosophers, vol. 2, ed. Mary Ellen Waithe (Boston: Nijhoff, 1989), 67 doi:10.1007/978-94-009-2551-9_3
  21. ^ trans. Etienne Gilson, qtd in Waithe (1989), 67
  22. ^ Wulstan, "Novi modulaminis melos" 2
  23. ^ Wulstan, "Novi modulaminis melos" 2
  24. ^ Warren, Karen (2009). An Unconventional History of Western Philosophy: Conversations Between Men and Women Philosophers. Views on Love: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 0-7425-5924-6. 
  25. ^ Clannish, M. T. (1999). Abelard: A Medieval Life. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 328. ISBN 0-631-21444-5. 

Further reading[edit]

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