Hee Haw

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Hee Haw
Hee Haw.jpg
GenreComedy
Music
Created byFrank Peppiatt
John Aylesworth
Bernie Brillstein
Presented byBuck Owens
Roy Clark
StarringArchie Campbell
Roy Acuff
Gordie Tapp
Grandpa Jones
Junior Samples
Lulu Roman
Minnie Pearl
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
Production
Location(s)Nashville, Tennessee, US
Running time60 minutes
Broadcast
Original channelCBS-TV; syndicated
Original runJune 15, 1969 (1969-06-15) – September 19, 1992 (1992-09-19)
Chronology
Related shows

Hee Haw Honeys

Hee Haw Silver
External links
Website
 
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Hee Haw
Hee Haw.jpg
GenreComedy
Music
Created byFrank Peppiatt
John Aylesworth
Bernie Brillstein
Presented byBuck Owens
Roy Clark
StarringArchie Campbell
Roy Acuff
Gordie Tapp
Grandpa Jones
Junior Samples
Lulu Roman
Minnie Pearl
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
Production
Location(s)Nashville, Tennessee, US
Running time60 minutes
Broadcast
Original channelCBS-TV; syndicated
Original runJune 15, 1969 (1969-06-15) – September 19, 1992 (1992-09-19)
Chronology
Related shows

Hee Haw Honeys

Hee Haw Silver
External links
Website

Hee Haw is an American television variety show featuring country music and humor with fictional rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. It aired on CBS-TV from 1969–1971 before a 20-year run in local syndication. The show was inspired by Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In,[1] the major difference being that Hee Haw was far less topical, and was centered on country music and rural Southern culture. Co-hosted by country artists Buck Owens and Roy Clark for most of the series' run, the show was equally well known for its voluptuous, scantily-clad women in stereotypical farmer's daughter outfits and country-style minidresses, and its cornpone humor.

Hee Haw's appeal, however, was not limited to a rural audience. It was successful in all of the major markets, including New York, Los Angeles and Chicago. Other niche programs such as The Lawrence Welk Show (which targeted older audiences) and Soul Train (a black-oriented program) also rose to prominence in syndication during the era. Like Laugh-In, the show minimized production costs by taping all of the recurring sketches for a season in batches— setting up for the Cornfield one day, the Joke Fence another, etc. At the height of its popularity, an entire year's worth of shows would be taped in two separate week-long sessions, then individual shows would be assembled from edited sections. Only musical performances were taped with a live audience; a laugh track was added to all other segments.

The series was taped at WLAC-TV (now WTVF)[2] and Opryland USA in Nashville.[3] The show was produced by Yongestreet Productions through the mid-1980s; it was later produced by Gaylord Entertainment, which distributed the show in syndication. The show's name was coined by show business talent manager and producer Bernie Brillstein and derives from a common English onomatopoeia used to describe the braying sound that a donkey makes.[1]

Creation and syndication[edit]

Much of Hee Haw's origin was Canadian. Two of the series' three creators, comedy writers Frank Peppiatt and John Aylesworth, were from Canada. Bernie Brillstein, the third, was from New York. From 1969 until the late 1980s, Hee Haw was produced by Yongestreet Productions, named after Yonge Street, a major thoroughfare in Toronto. Gordie Tapp and Don Harron, both writer/performers on the show, were also Canadian.

Hee Haw started on CBS-TV as a summer 1969 replacement for The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. Though the show had respectable ratings (it sat at #16 for the 1970-71 season), it was dropped in July 1971 by CBS as part of the so-called "Rural Purge" (along with fellow country-themed shows The Beverly Hillbillies, Mayberry R.F.D. and Green Acres), owing to network executives' feeling that its viewers reflected the "wrong"[citation needed] demographics (e.g. rural, somewhat older, and less affluent)[citation needed].

Undaunted, the producers put together a syndication deal for the show, which continued in roughly the same format for 20 more years (though Owens departed in 1986). After Owens left, Clark was assisted each week by a country music celebrity co-host.

During the show's peak in popularity, Hee Haw often competed in syndication against The Lawrence Welk Show, a long-running ABC program which had also been canceled in 1971, also in an attempt to purge the networks of older demographic-leaning programs. Like Hee Haw, Lawrence Welk was picked up for syndication in the fall of 1971, and there were some markets where the same station aired both programs. (The success of Hee Haw and Lawrence Welk in syndication, and the network decisions that led to their respective cancellations, were the inspiration for a novelty song called "The Lawrence Welk-Hee Haw Counter-Revolution Polka," performed by Clark; the song became a top 10 hit on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart in the fall of 1972.)

Mirroring the long downward trend in the popularity of variety shows in general that had taken place in the 1970s, ratings began to decline for Hee Haw by the mid-1980s, a trend that continued into the early 1990s. In the fall of 1991, in an attempt to win back viewers and attract a younger audience, the show's format and setting underwent a dramatic overhaul. The changes included a new title (The Hee Haw Show), more pop-oriented country music, and the barnyard-cornfield setting replaced by a city street and shopping mall set. The first of the new shows aired in January 1992.

Despite the attempt to keep the show fresh, the changes alienated many of its longtime viewers while failing to gain the hoped-for younger viewers, and the ratings continued their decline.

During the summer of 1992, a decision was made to end first-run production, and instead air highlights of the show's earlier years in a revamped program called Hee Haw Silver (as part of celebrating the show's 25th year). Under the new format, Clark hosted a mixture of classic clips and new footage. The show debuted as a mid-season replacement in June 1969 and because of this its first season is considered to be those first few months on the summer schedule. Its 24th season is referred to the batch of shows that aired from January through May 1992 when it was re-titled The Hee Haw Show. The fall of 1992 marked the beginning of the program's 25th season on the air.

The Hee Haw Silver episodes spotlighted many of the classic comedy skits and moments from the show, with a series of retrospective looks at performers who had since died, such as David "Stringbean" Akeman, Archie Campbell, Junior Samples, and Kenny Price. According to the show's producer, Sam Lovullo, the ratings showed improvement with these classic reruns; however, the series was finally canceled in 1993 at the conclusion of its 25th season. Hee Haw continued to pop up in reruns (see below for details) throughout the 1990s and later during the following decade, in a series of successful DVD releases from Time Life.

Reruns[edit]

After the show's syndication run ended, reruns aired on The Nashville Network from 1993 until 1996. Upon the cancellation of reruns in 1996 the program resurfaced, in reruns, the following year for a limited run on the same network. Its 21 years in TV syndication (1971–1992) was the record for a U.S. program, until Soul Train surpassed it in 1993; Hee Haw is currently the fifth-longest-running off-network American TV program, though the longest-running of its genre.

During the 2006-2007 season CMT aired a series of reruns and TV Land also recognized the series with an award presented by k.d. lang; in attendance were Roy Clark, Gunilla Hutton, Barbi Benton, the Hager twins, Linda Thompson, Misty Rowe and others. It was during this point, roughly between the years of 2004 and 2007, that Time Life began selling episodes of the show on DVD. Among the DVDs offered was the 1978 10th anniversary special that hadn't been seen since its original airing. To date the 20th anniversary special from 1988 hasn't been issued on DVD. CMT only sporadically aired the series, usually in graveyard slots, and primarily held the rights in order to be able to air the musical performances as part of their music video library (such as during the "Pure Vintage" block on CMT Pure Country).

Reruns of Hee Haw began airing on RFD-TV in September 2008, and the show has aired there since, currently anchoring the network's Sunday night lineup, although beginning in January 2014 the show airs on Saturday afternoon and is rerun on Sunday night. In 2011 the network began re-airing the earliest episodes from 1969-1970 on Thursday evenings. In the summer of 2011 a lot of the surviving cast and an ensemble of country artists taped a Country's Family Reunion special, entitled Salute to the Kornfield, which aired on RFD-TV in January 2012. Concurrent with this special was the unveiling of a Hee Haw exhibit, titled Pickin' and Grinnin', at the Oklahoma History center.

Cast members[edit]

Two rural-style comedians, already well known in their native Canada, gained their first major U.S. exposure — Gordie Tapp and Don Harron (whose KORN Radio character, newscaster Charlie Farquharson, had been a fixture of Canadian television since 1952 and later appeared on The Red Green Show).

Other cast members over the years included, but not limited to: Roy Acuff, Cathy Baker, Billy Jim Baker, Barbi Benton, Jennifer Bishop, Archie Campbell, Harry Cole (Weeping Willie), John Henry Faulk, Marianne Gordon (Rogers), Jim and Jon Hager, Victoria Hallman, Diana Goodman Gunilla Hutton, Grandpa Jones, Zella Lehr (the "unicycle girl"), George Lindsey (reprising his "Goober" character from The Andy Griffith Show), Jimmy Little, Irlene Mandrell, Rev. Grady Nutt, Minnie Pearl, Claude "Jackie" Phelps, Slim Pickens, Kenny Price, Anne Randall, Susan Raye, Jimmie Riddle, Lulu Roman, Misty Rowe, Junior Samples, Gailard Sartain, Gerald Smith (the "Georgia Quacker"), Jeff Smith, Roni Stoneman, Linda Thompson, Lisa Todd, Nancy Traylor, and Jonathan Winters, among many others.

The Buckaroos (Buck Owens' band) initially served as the house band on the show and consisted of members Don Rich, Jim Shaw, Jerry Brightman, Jerry Wiggins, Rick Taylor, Doyle Singer (Doyle Curtsinger), Don Lee, Ronnie Jackson, Terry Christoffersen, Doyle Holly, and in later seasons Victoria Hallman, who sang Don Rich's harmony vocals (Rich was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1974). In later seasons, harmonica player Charlie McCoy joined the cast and became the show's music director, forming the Hee Haw Band, which became the house band for the rest of the series' run. The Nashville Edition, a singing group made up of two men and two women, served as the background singers for most of the musical performances.

Some of the cast members made national headlines: Lulu Roman was twice charged with drug possession in 1971, David "Stringbean" Akeman and his wife were murdered in November 1973 during a robbery at their home; and as mentioned above, Buck Owens' lead guitarist and harmony singer Don Rich of the Buckaroos was killed in a motorcycle crash in 1974.

Some cast members, such as Charlie McCoy and Tennessee Ernie Ford, originally appeared on the show as guest stars.

After Buck Owens left the show, a different country music artist would accompany Roy Clark as a guest co-host each week until the Hee Haw Silver season, which Clark hosted by himself.

Recurring sketches and segments[edit]

Some of the most popular sketches and segments on Hee Haw included:

"Where, oh where, are you tonight?
Why did you leave me here all alone?
I searched the world over, and I thought I'd found true love,
You met another, and PFFT! You was gone!"

The "PFFT" would be done as "blowing a raspberry", and occasionally, they would break up into laughter after the "PFFT", unable to finish the song; who got spat upon during the "PFFT" would change each show. Following Campbell's death, whole groups and even women would be part of the refrain, with regular George Lindsay often singing the first verse. Occasionally, in the later years, Roni Stoneman (in her role as Ida Lee Nagger) would sometimes do the first verse. In some episodes, which had several major guest stars, the routine appeared several times in the show so that each guest would have the chance to be part of this tradition.

"Hee Haw" magazine (Vol. 1, No. 2, July 1970, A Charlton Publication) attributes this song to Susan Heather (a pseudonym used by Marian B. Yarneall),[4] © 1952, 1965 by Mamy Music Corp out of Paoli, Pa. Later references show copyrights held by Gaylord Program Services, Inc. out of Nashville, TN, but this may be because Gaylord holds the copyrights for "Hee Haw." It appears that this song Phfft! you were gone, with lyrics and arrangement by Heather, was originally composed as a gospel tune. Bob Newman recorded a hillbilly music version of this song on July 3, 1952 as the second single for his 45 record (Catalog #1131) mastered at King Records. Subsequently, this song was then reissued on his "The Kentucky Colonel" album in 1959. Newman is listed as a comedian, so it is probable that this version was the first parody of the original Gospel song. Later artists performing comical versions of this song included Archie Campbell on his Have A Laugh On Me album in 1966, and Buck Owens on his album Too Old To Cut The Mustard in 1972.

"Gloom, despair and agony on me-e!
Deep dark depression, excessive misery-y!
If it weren't for bad luck I'd have no luck at all!
Gloom, despair and agony on me-e-e!"

Each quartet member sang one line of the verse- a different one for each performance, followed by each cast member reciting some humorous reason for his misery in spoken form, then (in the first several seasons) the quartet would reprise the chorus and end with all four sobbing in typical overstated manner. (In later seasons the female cast got their own version of the song, first just lip-synching the male vocals, but later getting their own feminized version complete with female howls of mourning.)

"Now, we're not ones to go 'round spreadin' rumors,
Why, really we're just not the gossipy kind,
No, you'll never hear one of us repeating gossip,
So you'd better be sure and listen close the first time!"

The song was in the same format as "Gloom, Despair..." and featured a new verse every episode. Misty Rowe, a mainstay member of the "Gossip Girls", would enhance the comedy of the sketch by singing her part of the verse out of tune (as a young child would do). In later years, the guys, in drag, would sometimes replace the girls in the skit, in retaliation for the girls singing "Gloom, Despair...". In later seasons, the four female cast members sang about a male cast member in the Cornfield.

(For the first few seasons of each skit, the "Gossip Girls" and "Gloom, Despair.." songs began with the chorus, followed by the new verse, and ended with a repeat of the chorus; but in later years the repeat of the chorus was discontinued.)

Guest stars often participated in some of the skits (mostly the PFFT! You Was Gone skit); however, this did not occur until later seasons.

While the meat of the segments were comedy-based, there were several serious, music-based segments, including:

At the end of the show, hosts Clark and Owens, backed by the entire cast, sang the original closing song with the following lyrics:

"We loved the time we spent with you,
To share a song and a laugh or two,
May your pleasures be many, your troubles be few..."

And ended with Owens and Clark saying:

"So long everybody! We'll see you next week on...HEE-HAW!!"
"So long, we sure had a good time! So long, gee, the company was fine! Singin' and a dancin', Laughin' and a prancin', Adios, farewell, goodbye, God bless, so long...HEE-HAW!! "

Musical legacy[edit]

Hee Haw was a premiere showcase on commercial television during the 1970s and early 1980s for country, bluegrass, gospel, and other styles of American traditional music, featuring hundreds of elite musical performances that were paramount to the success, popularity and legacy of the series for a broad audience of Southern, rural and purely music fans alike.

Guest appearances[edit]

Hee Haw featured at least two, and sometimes three or four, guest celebrities each week. While most of the guest stars were of course country music artists, a wide range of other famous luminaries were featured. Those making guest appearances included, but were not limited to: Alabama, Atlanta, Buddy Alan, The Aldridge Sisters, Jed Allan, Rex Allen, Paul Anka, Bill Anderson, John Anderson, Lynn Anderson, Garner Ted Armstrong, Eddy Arnold, Chet Atkins, Gene Autry, Hoyt Axton, Baillie & the Boys, Razzy Bailey, Butch Baker, Moe Bandy, Ava Barber, Billy Barty, Molly Bee, Johnny Bench, Matraca Berg, Byron Berline, Amanda Blake, Suzy Bogguss, Randy Boone, Tony Booth, actor Ernest Borgnine, former pro football player and current FOX NFL Sunday co-host Terry Bradshaw, comedian Foster Brooks, Garth Brooks, Brooks & Dunn, the Bellamy Brothers, Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown, Family Brown, Jim Ed Brown, Marty Brown, T. Graham Brown, The Buckaroos (Buck Owens' band), Jethro Burns, Johnny Bush, comedianne Ruth Buzzi, West Virginia senator Robert Byrd, Glen Campbell, Eric Carmen, Billy Carter, June Carter, Lionel Cartwright, Johnny Cash, Bill Caswell, Ray Charles, Don Cherry, comedian Jerry Clower, Mark Collie, Jessi Colter, John Conlee, David L Cook, Helen Cornelius, Beverly Cotten-Dillard, Billy "Crash" Craddock, Floyd Cramer, Rob Crosby, Scatman Crothers, Vic Damone, Charlie Daniels, Dave & Sugar, Desert Rose Band, Gail Davies, Danny Davis, Linda Davis, singer/actor Sammy Davis, Jr., Skeeter Davis, Billy Dean, pro baseball player and commentator Dizzy Dean, Jimmy Dean, Diamond Rio, Dillard & Clark, The Dillards, Al Downing, Connie Eaton, Dale Evans, Exile, Barbara Fairchild, Donna Fargo, pool player Minnesota Fats, Freddy Fender, Lester Flatt, Bela Fleck, The Flying Burrito Brothers, Eugene Fodor, Tennessee Ernie Ford, The Forester Sisters, Janie Fricke, David Frizzell, Larry Gatlin, Crystal Gayle, Will Geer, Don Gibson, TV personality Kathie Lee Gifford, Vince Gill, Mickey Gilley, Johnny Gimble, The Glaser Brothers, George Gobel, Southern gospel quartet Gold City, Bobby Goldsboro, Billy Grammer, Amy Grant, Lee Greenwood, Clinton Gregory, Lewis Grizzard, Oscar the Grouch, Merle Haggard, Gus Hardin, Phil Harris, Freddie Hart, John Hartford, Tom T. Hall, Dick Haynes, Roy Head, Hugh Hefner, John Hiatt, Highway 101, Becky Hobbs, David Holt, David Houston, David Huddleston, Tommy Hunter, Southern gospel group The Inspirations, Alan Jackson, Wanda Jackson, Jana Jae, Sonny James, Waylon Jennings, Jim & Jesse, George Jones, The Judds, Kieran Kane, Stan Kann, The Kendalls, Hal Ketchum, Merle Kilgore, Alan King, Alison Krauss, k.d. lang, pro baseball manager Tommy Lasorda, Brenda Lee, Dickey Lee, Johnny Lee, Robin Lee, Jerry Lee Lewis, Lloyd Lindroth, George Lindsey, LaWanda Lindsey, Eddie London, Trini Lopez, Kenny Lovelace, Lyle Lovett, Loretta Lynn, Shelby Lynne, Larry Mahan, Barbara Mandrell, Louise Mandrell, Mickey Mantle, Kathy Mattea, C. W. McCall, Charly McClain, O. B. McClinton, Mel McDaniel, Pake McEntire, Reba McEntire, The McGuire Sisters, Catherine McKinnon, TV personality Ed McMahon, Terry McMillan, actress Ethel Merman, Jody Miller, Roger Miller, the Million Dollar Band, Mission Mountain Wood Band, Ronnie Milsap, Bill Monroe, Lorrie Morgan, Gary Morris, Dude Mowrey, comedian Gary Mule Deer, pro baseball player Stan Musial, Willie Nelson, actor Leslie Nielsen, The Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, The Oak Ridge Boys (including the time when they were still a gospel group, before Joe Bonsall became a member), Mark O'Connor, Marie Osmond, Tommy Overstreet, Patti Page, Dolly Parton, Stella Parton, Johnny Paycheck, Carl Perkins, TV personality Regis Philbin, Vernon Presley (Elvis' father), Ray Price, Charley Pride, Ronnie Prophet, Jeanne Pruett, Eddie Rabbitt, Boots Randolph, Wayne Raney, Eddy Raven, Susan Raye, Shotgun Red, Jerry Reed, The Remingtons, Charlie Rich, Riders in the Sky, Jeannie C. Riley, John Ritter (actor and son of Tex Ritter), Marty Robbins, TV evangelist Oral Roberts, Dale Robertson, Johnny Rodriguez, Linda Ronstadt, Kenny Rogers, Roy Rogers, John Schneider, TV personality Willard Scott, Doc Severinson, Victoria Shaw, Jean Shepard, T. G. Sheppard, actor Sonny Shroyer, Ricky Skaggs, Cal Smith, Connie Smith, Margo Smith, Sons of the Pioneers, Billie Jo Spears, Jim Stafford, Joe Stampley, Kenny Starr, The Statler Brothers, Keith Stegall, Skip Stephenson, Ray Stevens, Roni Stoneman, George Strait, Sweethearts of the Rodeo, Sylvia, Dub Taylor, Les Taylor, comedian Rip Taylor, B.J. Thomas, Hank Thompson, Sue Thompson, Mel Tillis, Pam Tillis, Aaron Tippin, Diana Trask, Merle Travis, Randy Travis, Buck Trent, Travis Tritt, Ernest Tubb, Tanya Tucker, Mary Lou Turner, Conway Twitty, Donna Ulisse, Conny Van Dyke, Bobby Vinton, Steve Wariner, former NASCAR race car driver and current NASCAR commentator Darrel Waltrip, B. B. Watson, Gene Watson, actor Dennis Weaver, Kitty Wells, Dottie West, Shelly West, former Dallas Cowboys quarterback Danny White, The Whites, Boxcar Willie, Don Williams, Leona Williams, Paul Williams, Hank Williams, Jr., Sheb Wooley, Tom Wopat, Tammy Wynette, Faron Young, Henny Youngman, and Red Zellner, along with numerous lesser known artists and young aspiring performers. Also, several clogging groups frequently performed on the show, and occasionally the show featured child singers who would perform top country songs of the day.

In addition to hosts Buck Owens and Roy Clark, who would perform at least one song each week, other cast members—such as Gunilla Hutton, Misty Rowe, Victoria Hallman, and Diana Goodman—would occasionally perform a song on the show; and the show would almost always open with a song performed by the entire cast.

A set of an interior of a barn was used as the main stage for most of the musical performances from the show's premiere until the debut of the "Hee Haw Honky Tonk" sketch in the early 1980s. Afterwards, the "Hee Haw Honky Tonk" set would serve as the main stage for the rest of the series' run. Other settings for the musical performances throughout the series' run included a haystack (where the entire cast performed songs), the living room of a Victorian house, the front porch and lawn of the Samuel B. Sternwheeler home, and a grist mill (where Roy Clark performed many of his songs in earlier seasons).

Elvis Presley was a fan of Hee Haw and wanted to appear as a guest on the program in the 1970s, but his manager, Colonel Tom Parker, would not allow him to do so. A similar situation occurred when Elvis' friend Johnny Cash asked Presley to appear on his show. Two of the Hee Haw Honeys dated Presley: Linda Thompson in the early 1970s and Diana Goodman shortly afterwards. Shortly after Presley's death, his father, Vernon Presley, made an appearance on the show and paid tribute to his late son, noting how much he enjoyed watching the show.

Sheb Wooley, one of the original cast members, wrote the show's theme song. After filming the initial 13 episodes, other professional demands caused him to leave the show, but he returned from time to time as a guest.

Loretta Lynn was the first guest star of Hee Haw and made more guest appearances than any other artist. She also co-hosted the show more than any other guest co-host and therefore appears on more of the DVD releases for retail sale than any other guest star.

From 1990-1992, country superstar Garth Brooks appeared on the show four times. In 1992, producer Sam Lovullo tried unsuccessfully to contact Brooks because he wanted him for the final show. Brooks surprised Lovullo by showing up last minute, ready to don his overalls and perform for the final episode.[6]

Hee Haw Honeys (spin-off series)[edit]

Hee Haw produced a short-lived spin-off series, Hee Haw Honeys, for the 1978-79 television season. The musical sitcom starred Kathie Lee Johnson (Gifford) along with Hee Haw regulars Misty Rowe, Gailard Sartain, Lulu Roman, and Kenny Price as a family who owned a truck stop restaurant (likely inspired by the "Lulu's Truck Stop" skit on Hee Haw). Their restaurant included a bandstand, where guest country artists would perform a couple of their hits of the day, sometimes asking the cast to join them.[7] Cast members would also perform songs occasionally.

Legacy[edit]

Hee Haw continues to remain beloved and popular with its long-time fans and those who've discovered the program through DVD releases or its reruns on RFD-TV. In spite of the loving support of the series by its fans, the program has never been a favorite of television critics or reviewers.

On at least 4 episodes of the animated Fox series Family Guy, when the storyline hits a dead-end, a cutaway to Conway Twitty performing a song is inserted. The handoff is done in Hee Haw style, and often uses actual footage from the show.

Lulu Roman released a new album entitled At Last on January 15, 2013. The album features Lulu's versions of 12 classics and standards including guest appearances by Dolly Parton, T. Graham Brown, Linda Davis, and Georgette Jones (daughter of George Jones and Tammy Wynette).[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Brillstein, Bernie; David Rensin (1999). Where Did I Go Right?: You're No One In Hollywood Unless Someone Wants You Dead!. Little, Brown and Company. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-316-11885-9. "Suddenly it hit me: How about a country Laugh-In? I turned to Laura and said, "What does a donkey say when he makes that fucking sound?" "Hee-haw," she said. "That's it!"" 
  2. ^ newschannel5.com
  3. ^ heehaw.com
  4. ^ U.S. Copyright Office (1997-12-03). "Phfft! you were gone.". Copyright Catalog (1978 to present). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  5. ^ Grandpa Jones booed[Video Removed]
  6. ^ Martin, Jeff [1], This Land, January 2011, accessed July 6, 2011.
  7. ^ The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946-Present. Ballantine Books. 2003. ISBN 0-345-45542-8. 
  8. ^ Record Label (December 7, 2012). "Homesick Entertainment Projects". Homesick Entertainment. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 

External links[edit]