London Heathrow Airport

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London Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Logo 2013.svg
Heathrow T5.jpg
Heathrow Terminal 5
IATA: LHRICAO: EGLL
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerHeathrow Airport Holdings
OperatorHeathrow Airport Limited
ServesLondon, United Kingdom
LocationLondon Borough of Hillingdon
Hub forBritish Airways
Elevation AMSL83 ft / 25 m
Coordinates51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.47750°N 0.46139°W / 51.47750; -0.46139Coordinates: 51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.47750°N 0.46139°W / 51.47750; -0.46139
Websitewww.heathrowairport.com
Map
LHR/EGLL is located in Greater London
LHR/EGLL
LHR/EGLL
Location within Greater London
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
mft
09L/27R3,90212,802grooved asphalt
09R/27L3,66012,008grooved asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Passengers72,367,054 (Increase 3.3%)
Aircraft movements471,936 (Decrease 0.7%)
Economic impact$16.2 billion[1]
Social impact216.7 thousand[1]
Sources: UK AIP at NATS and Eurocontrol[2]
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[3]
 
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"Heathrow" and "LHR" redirect here. For other uses, see Heathrow (disambiguation) and LHR (disambiguation).
London Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Logo 2013.svg
Heathrow T5.jpg
Heathrow Terminal 5
IATA: LHRICAO: EGLL
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerHeathrow Airport Holdings
OperatorHeathrow Airport Limited
ServesLondon, United Kingdom
LocationLondon Borough of Hillingdon
Hub forBritish Airways
Elevation AMSL83 ft / 25 m
Coordinates51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.47750°N 0.46139°W / 51.47750; -0.46139Coordinates: 51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.47750°N 0.46139°W / 51.47750; -0.46139
Websitewww.heathrowairport.com
Map
LHR/EGLL is located in Greater London
LHR/EGLL
LHR/EGLL
Location within Greater London
Runways
DirectionLengthSurface
mft
09L/27R3,90212,802grooved asphalt
09R/27L3,66012,008grooved asphalt
Statistics (2013)
Passengers72,367,054 (Increase 3.3%)
Aircraft movements471,936 (Decrease 0.7%)
Economic impact$16.2 billion[1]
Social impact216.7 thousand[1]
Sources: UK AIP at NATS and Eurocontrol[2]
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[3]

London Heathrow Airport (IATA: LHRICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport in West London, England, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic. Heathrow is also the third busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic. In 2014, it handled a record 73.4 million passengers, a 1.4 increase from 2013.[4]

Heathrow lies 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) west[2] of Central London, and has two parallel east–west runways along with five terminals on a site that covers 12.14 square kilometres (4.69 sq mi). The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which itself is owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group that includes Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation.[5] Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic.

In September 2012, the British Government established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to look at various options for increasing capacity at UK airports. The commission shortlisted two options for expanding Heathrow in its interim report in 2013, along with a third option for expanding Gatwick Airport.[6] The final report, recommending which of the three options should go ahead, is due in mid-2015.[7]

The first phase of a new Terminal 2 complex opened in 2014.[8] Terminal 5 was voted Skytrax World's Best Airport Terminal 2014 in the Annual World Airport Awards.[9]

Location[edit]

A Qantas Boeing 747-400 on approach to London Heathrow 27L runway.[10]

Heathrow is 14 mi (23 km) west of central London,[2] near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Colnbrook in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls entirely under the Hounslow post town of the TW postcode area.

As the airport is west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner's landing approach is usually directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west.

Along with Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area, although only Heathrow and London City are within Greater London.

History[edit]

For a chronicled history of Heathrow Airport, see History of London Heathrow Airport.

Heathrow Airport started in 1929 as a small airfield (Great West Aerodrome) on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there: there was a "Heathrow Farm" about where Terminal 1 is now, a "Heathrow Hall" and a "Heathrow House". This hamlet was largely along a country lane (Heathrow Road) which ran roughly along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area.

Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very big airfield started in 1944: it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airfield as a civil airport; known as London Airport and later as Heathrow.

Operations[edit]

Facilities[edit]

Central waiting area in Terminal 5

Heathrow Airport is used by over 90 airlines flying to 170 destinations worldwide. The airport is the primary hub of British Airways, and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has five passenger terminals (numbered 1 to 5) and a cargo terminal.

Of Heathrow's 73.4 million passengers in 2014, 93% were international travellers, the remaining 7% were bound for UK destinations.[4] The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK airport in 2013.[11]

Concorde G-BOAB in storage at Heathrow

In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles in the shape of a hexagram () with the permanent passenger terminal in the middle and the older terminal along the north edge of the field, and two of its runways would always be within 30° of the wind direction. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has only two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram. From the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways. North of the northern runway and the former taxiway and aprons, now the site of extensive car parks, is the entrance to the access tunnel and the site of Heathrow's unofficial 'gate guardian'. For many years the home of a 40% model of a British Airways Concorde, G-CONC, the site has been occupied by a model of an Emirates Airbus A380 since 2008.[12]

Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Catholic, free church, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel in an underground vault adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place. The chaplains organise and lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room.[13]

The airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world.[14]

Most of Heathrow's internal roads are initial letter coded by area: N in the north (e.g. Newall Road), E in the east (e.g. Elmdon Road), S in the south (e.g. Stratford Road), W in the west (e.g. Walrus Road), C in the centre (e.g. Camborne Road).

Flight movements[edit]

Aircraft on approach to the airport

Aircraft destined for Heathrow usually enter its airspace via one of four main reporting points: Bovingdon (BNN) over Hertfordshire, Lambourne (LAM) over Essex, Biggin Hill (BIG) over Bromley and Ockham (OCK) over Surrey.[15] Each is defined by a VOR radio-navigational beacon. When the airport is busy, aircraft orbit in the associated hold patterns. These holding areas lie to the northwest, northeast, southeast and southwest of the London conurbation. Aircraft hold between 7000 feet and 15000 feet at 1000 foot intervals. If these holds become full, aircraft are held at more distant points before being cleared onward to one of the four main holds.

Heathrow's control tower

Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Approach Control (based in Swanwick, Hampshire) then guide the aircraft to their final approach, merging aircraft from the four holds into a single stream of traffic, sometimes as close as 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) apart. Considerable use is made of continuous descent approach techniques to minimise the environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night.[16] Once an aircraft is established on its final approach, control is handed over to Heathrow Tower.

When runway alternation was introduced, aircraft generated significantly more noise on departure than when landing, so a preference for westerly operations during daylight was introduced, which continues to this day.[17] In this mode, aircraft depart towards the west and approach from the east over London, thereby minimising the impact of noise on the most densely populated areas. Heathrow's two runways generally operate in segregated mode, whereby arriving aircraft are allocated to one runway and departing aircraft to the other. To further reduce noise nuisance to people beneath the approach and departure routes, the use of runways 27R and 27L is swapped at 15:00 each day if the wind is from the west. When landings are easterly there is no alternation; 09L remains the landing runway and 09R the departure runway due to the legacy of the now rescinded Cranford Agreement, pending taxiway works to allow the roles to be reversed. Occasionally, landings are allowed on the nominated departure runway, to help reduce airborne delays and to position landing aircraft closer to their terminal, reducing taxi times.

Night-time flights at Heathrow are subject to restrictions. Between 23:00 and 07:00, the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) cannot be scheduled for operation. In addition, during the night quota period (23:30–06:00) there are four limits:

A trial of "noise relief zones" ran from December 2012 to March 2013, which concentrated approach flight paths into defined areas compared with the existing paths which were spread out. The zones used alternated weekly, meaning residents in the "no-fly" areas received respite from aircraft noise for set periods.[19] However, it was concluded that some residents in other areas experienced a significant disbenefit as a result of the trial and that it should therefore not be taken forward in its current form.

Regulation[edit]

Further information: Landing slot
British Airways aircraft at Terminal 5C

Until it was required to sell Gatwick and Stansted Airports, Heathrow Airport Holdings held a dominant position in the London aviation market, and has been heavily regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) as to how much it can charge airlines to land. The annual increase in landing charge per passenger was capped at inflation minus 3% until 1 April 2003. From 2003 to 2007 charges increased by inflation plus 6.5% per year, taking the fee to £9.28 per passenger in 2007. In March 2008, the CAA announced that the charge would be allowed to increase by 23.5% to £12.80 from 1 April 2008, and by inflation plus 7.5% for each of the following four years.[20] In April 2013, the CAA announced a proposal for Heathrow to charge fees calculated by inflation minus 1.3%, continuing until 2019.[21] Whilst the cost of landing at Heathrow is determined by the CAA and Heathrow Airport Holdings, the allocation of landing slots to airlines is carried out by Airport Co-ordination Limited (ACL).[22]

Until 2008, air traffic between Heathrow and the United States was strictly governed by the countries' bilateral Bermuda II treaty. The treaty originally allowed only British Airways, Pan Am and TWA to fly from Heathrow to the US. In 1991, PAA and TWA sold their rights to United Airlines and American Airlines respectively, while Virgin Atlantic was added to the list of airlines allowed to operate on these routes. The Bermuda bilateral agreement conflicted with the Right of Establishment of the United Kingdom in relation to its EU membership, and as a consequence the UK was ordered to drop the agreement in 2004. A new "open skies" agreement was signed by the United States and the European Union on 30 April 2007 and came into effect on 30 March 2008. Since then, additional US airlines, including Continental (since merged with United), US Airways (in the process of merging with American as of 2014), and Delta have started services to Heathrow.

The airport has been criticised in recent years for overcrowding and delays;[23] according to Heathrow Airport Holdings, Heathrow's facilities were originally designed to accommodate 55 million passengers annually. The number of passengers using the airport reached a record 70 million in 2012.[24] In 2007 the airport was voted the world's least favourite, alongside Chicago O'Hare in a TripAdvisor survey.[25] However, the opening of Terminal 5 in 2008 has relieved some pressure on terminal facilities, increasing the airport's terminal capacity to 90 million passengers per year. A tie-up is also in place with McLaren Applied Technologies to optimise the general procedure, reducing delays and pollution.[26]

With only two runways, operating at over 98% of their capacity, Heathrow has little room for more flights, although the increasing use of larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 will allow some increase in passenger numbers. It is difficult for existing airlines to obtain landing slots to enable them to increase their services from the airport, or for new airlines to start operations.[27] To increase the number of flights, Heathrow Airport Holdings has proposed using the existing two runways in 'mixed mode' whereby aircraft would be allowed to take off and land on the same runway. This would increase the airport's capacity from its current 480,000 movements per year to as many as 550,000 according to British Airways CEO Willie Walsh.[28] Heathrow Airport Holdings has also proposed building a third runway to the north of the airport, which would have significantly increased traffic capacity (see Future expansion below).[29]

Security[edit]

Policing of the airport is the responsibility of the aviation security unit of the Metropolitan Police, although the army, including armoured vehicles of the Household Cavalry, has occasionally been deployed at the airport during periods of heightened security.

Full body scanners are now used at the airport, and passengers who object to their use after being selected are not allowed to fly. These display passengers' bodies as a cartoon-style figure, with indicators showing where concealed items may be.[30] The new imagery was introduced initially as a trial in September 2011 following complaints over privacy.[31]

Terminals[edit]

Terminal 1[edit]

Terminal 1 opened in 1968 and was formally inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1969.[32] Before Terminal 5 opened, Terminal 1 was the base for British Airways' domestic network from Heathrow and for a few of its long haul routes.

In 2005, a substantial redesign and redevelopment of the terminal saw the opening of the new Eastern Extension, doubling the size of the departure lounge and creating additional seating as well as retail space. The terminal has an area of 74,601 m2 (803,000 sq ft). Since the buyout of British Midland International, British Airways serves some short-haul and medium-haul destinations from this terminal. Other occupants include El Al, Icelandair and TAM Airlines. Some of the newer boarding gates used by airlines present in Terminal 1 are numbered in Terminal 2 (i.e. gate 2xx instead of gate 1xx). Those recently built gates are retained as part of the new Terminal 2 after Terminal 2 officially opened.

Terminal 1 will close in June 2015 once all airlines have moved to other Heathrow terminals.[33]

Terminal 2[edit]

Main Terminal 2 building under construction, September 2011

Terminal 2 opened to passengers on 4 June 2014.[34] The main terminal, officially known as the Queen's Terminal,[35] was built on the site of the original Terminal 2 and the Queen's Building. The building is designed by Luis Vidal + Architects (LVA).[8][36] The main Terminal 2 building was completed in November 2013 and underwent 6 months of testing prior to opening for passengers. The project includes the main Terminal 2 building, a 522-metre (1,713 ft) satellite pier (T2B), a 1,340 space car park and an energy centre and cooling station. Passengers can choose from a selection of 52 shops and 17 bars and restaurants.[37]

The terminal is used by all Star Alliance members currently operating at Heathrow (consolidating the airlines under Star Alliance's co-location policy "Move Under One Roof") with the exception of Air India which operates out of Terminal 4. Aer Lingus, Little Red (Virgin Atlantic's domestic operations) and Germanwings also operate out of the terminal. The airlines moved from their original terminals in phases over a period of six months with only 10% of flights operating in the first six weeks (United Airlines' transatlantic flights to Heathrow) to avoid the opening challenges witnessed at Terminal 5.[38]

The original Terminal 2 building was the airport's oldest terminal, opening as the Europa Building in 1955. It had an area of 49,654 square metres (534,470 sq ft) and was designed to handle around 1.2 million passengers annually; in its final years of operation it often accommodated around 8 million. A total of 316 million passengers passed through the terminal in its lifetime. The terminal was demolished in 2010,[39] and the site was combined with that of the Queen's Building to form the new site.

Terminal 3[edit]

Terminal 3 bird's-eye view

Terminal 3 opened as The Oceanic Terminal on 13 November 1961 to handle flight departures for long-haul routes.[40] At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service to Central London from the gardens on the roof of the terminal building. Renamed Terminal 3 in 1968, it was expanded in 1970 with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities added included the UK's first moving walkways. In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed[41] to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo; Singapore Airlines, Emirates and Qantas now operate regular flights from Terminal 3 using the Airbus A380. These three airlines have nearly a dozen daily A380 flights.

Redevelopment of Terminal 3's forecourt through the addition of a new four lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza, complete with canopy to the front of the terminal building, was completed in 2007. These improvements were intended to improve passengers' experiences, reduce traffic congestion and improve security.[42] As part of this project, Virgin Atlantic was assigned its own dedicated check-in area, known as 'Zone A', which features a large sculpture and atrium.

As of 2013, Terminal 3 has an area of 98,962 m2 (1,065,220 sq ft) and in 2011 handled 19.8 million passengers on 104,100 flights.[43]

Terminal 4[edit]

Terminal 4 bird's-eye view

Opened in 1986, Terminal 4 is situated to the south of the southern runway next to the cargo terminal and is connected to Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. The terminal has an area of 105,481 m2 (1,135,390 sq ft) and is now home to the SkyTeam alliance, as well as some unaffiliated carriers. It has recently undergone a £200m upgrade to enable it to accommodate 45 airlines with an upgraded forecourt to reduce traffic congestion and improve security. An extended check-in area with renovated piers and departure lounges, a new baggage system installed as well as the construction of two new stands to accommodate the Airbus A380 with Malaysia Airlines and Qatar Airways operating regular A380 flights.[44]

Terminal 5[edit]

Terminal 5 bird's-eye view

Terminal 5 lies between the northern and southern runways at the west end of the Heathrow site and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008,[45] some 19 years after its inception. It opened to the public on 27 March 2008. The first passenger to enter Terminal 5 was a UK ex-pat from Kenya who passed through security at 04:30 on the day to be presented with a boarding pass by the British Airways CEO Willie Walsh for the first departing flight, BA302 to Paris. During the two weeks after its opening, operations were disrupted by problems with the terminal's IT systems, coupled with insufficient testing and staff training, which caused over 500 flights to be cancelled.[46] Until March 2012, Terminal 5 was exclusively used by British Airways as its global hub; however, because of the merger, on 25 March Iberia's operations at Heathrow were moved to the terminal, making it the home of International Airlines Group.

Built at a cost of £4.3 billion, the new terminal consists of a four-storey main terminal building (Concourse A) and two satellite buildings linked to the main terminal by an underground people mover transit system. The second satellite (Concourse C), includes dedicated aircraft stands for the Airbus A380. It became fully operational on 1 June 2011.

The main terminal building (Concourse A) has an area of 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) while Concourse B covers 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft).[47] It has 60 aircraft stands and capacity for 30 million passengers annually as well as more than 100 shops and restaurants.[48]

A further building, designated Concourse D and of similar size to Concourse C, may yet be built to the East of the existing site, providing up to another 16 stands. Following British Airways' merger with Iberia, this may become a priority since the newly combined business will require accommodation at Heathrow under one roof to maximise the cost savings envisaged under the deal. A proposal for Concourse D featured in Heathrow's most recent capital investment plan.

The transport network around the airport has been extended to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. A dedicated motorway spur links the M25 between junctions 14 and 15 to the terminal, which includes a 3,800 space multi-storey car park. A more distant long-stay car park for business passengers is connected to the terminal by a personal rapid transit system, which became operational in Spring 2011.[49] New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station.

Cargo terminal[edit]

Heathrow's cargo terminal is located south of the runways, towards the west. It was built in or soon before 1968.[when?] The Cargo Tunnel connects it to Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with the Western Tug Road connecting it to Terminal 5. Stands 607, 608 & 609, as well as the 'Zulu' cul de sac, are the main areas used for the dedicated cargo flights.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsTerminal
Aegean AirlinesAthens, Larnaca (resumes 30 March 2015)[50]2
Aer LingusBelfast–City, Cork, Dublin, Shannon2
AeroflotMoscow–Sheremetyevo4
AeroméxicoMexico City4
Air AlgérieAlgiers4
Air AstanaAstana4
Air CanadaCalgary, Halifax, Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto–Pearson, St. John's, Vancouver
Seasonal: Edmonton[51]
2
Air ChinaBeijing–Capital2
Air FranceParis–Charles de Gaulle4
Air IndiaDelhi, Mumbai4
Air MaltaMalta4
Air MauritiusMauritius4
Air New ZealandAuckland, Los Angeles2
Air SerbiaBelgrade4
AlitaliaMilan–Linate, Rome–Fiumicino4
All Nippon AirwaysTokyo–Haneda2
American AirlinesChicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK, Raleigh/Durham3
Arik AirLagos4
Asiana AirlinesSeoul–Incheon2
Austrian Airlines
operated by Tyrolean Airways
Vienna2
AviancaBogotá2
Azerbaijan AirlinesBaku4
Biman Bangladesh AirlinesDhaka, Sylhet4
British AirwaysAmman–Queen Alia, Baku, Beirut, Bilbao (begins 29 March 2015),[52] Cairo, Hanover, Luxembourg, Lyon, Marseille, Rotterdam (ends 28 March 2015)[53]1
British AirwaysBarcelona, Budapest, Gibraltar, Helsinki, Lisbon, Prague, Vienna, Warsaw–Chopin3
British AirwaysAberdeen, Abu Dhabi, Abuja, Accra, Almaty, Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Austin, Bahrain, Baltimore, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Basel/Mulhouse, Beijing–Capital, Belfast–City, Bergen, Berlin–Tegel, Bologna, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest-Otopeni, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Calgary, Cape Town, Chengdu, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Denver, Doha, Dubai–International, Dublin, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Entebbe, Frankfurt, Freetown (suspended),[54] Geneva, Glasgow–International, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Grand Cayman, Hamburg, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Ibiza, Istanbul–Atatürk, Jeddah, Johannesburg–Tambo, Kiev–Boryspil, Kraków (begins 1 May 2015),[55] Kuala Lumpur (resumes 27 May 2015),[56] Kuwait, Lagos, Larnaca, Las Vegas, Leeds/Bradford, Los Angeles, Luanda, Madrid, Manchester, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa, Monrovia (suspended),[54] Montreal–Trudeau, Moscow–Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Muscat, Nairobi–Kenyatta, Nassau, New York–JFK, Newark, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Oslo–Gardermoen, Palma de Mallorca, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pisa, Providenciales (ends 22 March 2015),[57] Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Riyadh, Rome–Fiumicino, St Petersburg, San Diego, San Francisco, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Sofia, Stavanger, Stockholm Arlanda, Stuttgart, Sydney, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Toulouse, Tripoli (suspended),[58] Vancouver, Venice–Marco Polo, Washington–Dulles, Zagreb, Zürich
Seasonal: Corfu (begins 1 May 2015),[59] Faro, Kos (begins 1 May 2015),[59] Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Malaga, Mykonos, Olbia (begins 2 May 2015),[60] Porto, Santorini, Split (begins 1 May 2015)[61]
5
Brussels AirlinesBrussels2
Bulgaria AirSofia4
Cathay PacificHong Kong3
China Eastern AirlinesShanghai–Pudong4
China Southern AirlinesGuangzhou4
Croatia AirlinesZagreb
Seasonal: Rijeka, Split
2
Delta Air LinesAtlanta, Boston, Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Newark (begins 29 March 2015),[62] Seattle/Tacoma3
Delta Air LinesDetroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Philadelphia (begins 8 April 2015) [63]4
EgyptAirCairo, Luxor2
El AlTel Aviv–Ben Gurion1
EmiratesDubai–International3
Ethiopian AirlinesAddis Ababa2
Etihad AirwaysAbu Dhabi4
EVA AirBangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan2
FinnairHelsinki3
GermanwingsBerlin–Tegel, Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart2
Germanwings operated by EurowingsHamburg2
Gulf AirBahrain4
IberiaMadrid5
Iberia ExpressGran Canaria (begins 30 March 2015),[64] Tenerife-North (begins 29 March 2015) [64]5
IcelandairReykjavík–Keflavík1
Iran AirTehran–Imam Khomeini3
Japan AirlinesTokyo–Haneda3
Jet AirwaysDelhi, Mumbai4
Kenya AirwaysNairobi–Kenyatta4
KLMAmsterdam4
KLM
operated by KLM Cityhopper
Amsterdam4
Korean AirSeoul–Incheon4
Kuwait AirwaysKuwait, New York–JFK4
Libyan AirlinesTripoli4
LOT Polish AirlinesWarsaw–Chopin2
LufthansaFrankfurt, Munich2
Malaysia AirlinesKuala Lumpur4
Middle East AirlinesBeirut3
Oman AirMuscat3
Pakistan International AirlinesIslamabad, Karachi, Lahore3
Philippine AirlinesManila4
QantasDubai–International, Melbourne, Sydney3
Qatar AirwaysDoha4
Royal Air MarocCasablanca, Marrakech, Tangier4
Royal Brunei AirlinesBandar Seri Begawan, Dubai–International4
Royal JordanianAmman–Queen Alia3
SaudiaJeddah, Riyadh
Seasonal: Medina
4
Scandinavian AirlinesCopenhagen, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stavanger, Stockholm–Arlanda2
Singapore AirlinesSingapore2
South African AirwaysJohannesburg–Tambo2
SriLankan AirlinesColombo-Bandaranaike3
Swiss International Air LinesGeneva, Zürich2
TAM AirlinesSão Paulo–Guarulhos1
TAP PortugalLisbon
Seasonal: Funchal
2
TAROMBucharest-Otopeni4
Thai AirwaysBangkok–Suvarnabhumi2
Transaero AirlinesMoscow–Vnukovo, St Petersburg4
TunisairTunis4
Turkish AirlinesIstanbul–Atatürk2
Turkmenistan AirlinesAshgabat3
United AirlinesChicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles2
US AirwaysCharlotte, Philadelphia3
Uzbekistan AirwaysTashkent4
Vietnam AirlinesHanoi (begins 31 March 2015),[65] Ho Chi Minh City (begins 1 April 2015)[65]4
Virgin AtlanticAtlanta, Boston, Delhi, Detroit (begins 1 June 2015),[66] Dubai–International, Hong Kong, Johannesburg–Tambo, Lagos, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK, Newark, San Francisco, Shanghai–Pudong,Washington–Dulles
Seasonal: Cape Town (ends 27 April 2015),[67] Chicago–O'Hare
3
Virgin Atlantic
operated by Aer Lingus
Aberdeen (ends 26 September 2015),[68] Edinburgh (ends 26 September 2015),[68] Manchester (ends 28 March 2015)[68]2
VuelingA Coruña, Bilbao (ends 28 March 2015)3

Terminal assignments and rearrangements[edit]

Following the opening of Terminal 5 in March 2008, a hugely complex programme of terminal moves was implemented. This saw many airlines move so as to be grouped in terminals by airline alliance as far as possible.[69] However, the process was complicated by the acquisition of Star Alliance member BMI by Oneworld member British Airways, the transfer of Continental Airlines from SkyTeam to Star Alliance prior to its merger with United Airlines, and formerly non-aligned carriers such as EVA Air and Malaysia Airlines joining alliances.

Following the opening of Phase 1 of the new Terminal 2 in June 2014, all Star Alliance member airlines (with the exception of new member Air India) along with Aer Lingus, Germanwings and Virgin Atlantic Little Red domestic flights relocated to Terminal 2 in a phased process completed on 22 October 2014. Additionally, by 30 June 2015 all airlines will have left Terminal 1 in preparation of its demolition to make room for the construction of Phase 2 of Terminal 2.

Current terminal assignments

As of October 2014, the terminals are assigned to airline alliances as follows:

Scheduled terminal moves
Upon completion

From July 2015, the terminal organisation will be as follows:

Cargo[edit]

Cathay Pacific Cargo Boeing 747-400F taxiing at Heathrow Airport.
DHL Air Airbus A300F taxiing at Heathrow Airport.
AirlinesDestinations
Cathay Pacific CargoDelhi, Hong Kong, Milan–Malpensa, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
DHL AviationAmsterdam, Brussels, East Midlands, Frankfurt, Madrid–Barajas, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Etihad CargoAbu Dhabi, Frankfurt
Ethiopian Airlines CargoLagos
EVA Air CargoBangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dubai, Taipei–Taoyuan
IAG CargoMadrid–Barajas, New York–JFK
IAG Cargo
operated by Qatar Airways Cargo
Hong Kong
Korean Air CargoSeoul–Incheon
MASkargoKuala Lumpur
Royal Air Maroc CargoCasablanca
Royal Jordanian CargoAmman–Queen Alia
Singapore Airlines CargoCopenhagen, Sharjah, Singapore
Swiss WorldCargoZürich
Turkish Airlines Cargoİstanbul

Other facilities[edit]

The Compass Centre, the head office of Heathrow Airport Holdings

The head office of Heathrow Airport Holdings (formerly BAA Limited) is located in the Compass Centre by Heathrow's northern runway, a building that previously served as a British Airways flight crew centre.[72] The World Business Centre Heathrow consists of buildings one and two. 1 World Business Centre houses offices of Heathrow Airport Holdings, Heathrow Airport itself, and Scandinavian Airlines.[73] International Airlines Group has its head office in 2 World Business Centre.[74][75]

At one time the British Airways head office was located within Heathrow Airport at Speedbird House[76] before the completion of Waterside, the current BA head office in Harmondsworth, in June 1998.[77]

To the north of the airfield lies the Northern Perimeter Road, along which most of Heathrow's car rental agencies are based, and Bath Road, which runs parallel to it, but outside the airport campus – this is nicknamed by locals as "The Strip" owing to its continuous line of airport hotels.

Traffic and statistics[edit]

Development of passenger numbers, aircraft movements and air freight between 1986 and 2014

When ranked by passenger traffic, Heathrow is third busiest internationally, behind Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport and Beijing Capital International Airport, as of September 2014.[78] From 2000 to 2013 it was in third place for 10 out of those 14 years, with an average place of 3.14.

In 2011, Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in total passenger traffic, with 13.9% more passengers than Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport[79] and 23.0% more than Frankfurt Airport,[80] However, it was in second place behind Charles de Gaulle in total aircraft movements in 2011 with 5.1% fewer landings and take offs than its French counterpart.[79] Heathrow was the third busiest European airport by cargo traffic in 2013, after Paris Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt.[81]

Busiest routes[edit]

Busiest domestic and British overseas routes (2013)
RankAirportPassengers handled % Change
2012 / 13
1Edinburgh1,355,929Increase 8.0
2Glasgow–International869,957Increase 5.0
3Manchester797,263Increase 0.6
4Aberdeen712,184Increase 7.3
5Belfast–City671,941Increase 34.6
6Newcastle481,307Decrease 1.7
7Leeds Bradford118,717Steady New Route
8Gibraltar108,372Increase 13.6
9Grand Cayman36,112Increase 19.1
10Providenciales9,196Increase 13.4
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority[82]
Busiest international routes (2013)
RankAirportPassengers handled 2013 % Change
2012/13
Passengers Handled 2012
1New York–JFK3,015,218Increase6.212,839,007
2Dubai–International2,240,193Increase14.341,959,169
3Dublin1,663,903Increase5.471,577,649
4Frankfurt1,497,262Increase0.991,482,459
5Amsterdam1,443,564Increase0.961,429,800
6Hong Kong1,382,093Decrease-0.361,387,036
7Los Angeles1,339,455Increase2.711,304,076
8Madrid1,265,281Increase5.631,197,825
9Paris–CDG1,209,683Increase3.611,167,557
10Chicago–O'Hare1,181,465Decrease-0.561,188,005
11Newark1,179,521Increase1.001,167,792
12Munich1,162,022Increase4.651,110,398
13Singapore1,150,299Decrease-1.451,167,226
14Delhi1,047,731Increase14.03918,860
15Mumbai1,046,095Increase17.32891,607
16Zürich1,038,671Increase2.661,011,799
17Toronto–Pearson1,014,249Increase6.64951,078
18Miami1,010,183Decrease-2.041,031,276
19Rome–Fiumicino980,860Decrease-5.441,037,310
20San Francisco978,381Increase1.31965,712
21Geneva971,086Increase1.66955,215
22Copenhagen969,359Increase1.23957,538
23Washington–Dulles931,749Decrease-2.33953,954
24Stockholm–Arlanda921,490Increase5.13876,446
25Johannesburg–Tambo915,238Increase6.13862,348
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority[82]

Annual passenger numbers[edit]

Passenger numbers at Heathrow[3]
Year
Passengers
handled[nb 1]
Passenger
% Change
Cargo
(tonnes)
Cargo
% Change
Aircraft
Movements
Aircraft
% Change
198631,675,779Steady537,131Steady315,753Steady
198735,079,755Increase10.7574,116Increase6.9329,977Increase 4.3
198837,840,503Increase7.9642,147Increase11.8351,592Increase 6.1
198939,881,922Increase5.4686,170Increase6.9368,429Increase 4.6
199042,950,512Increase7.7695,347Increase1.3390,372Increase 5.6
199140,494,575Decrease5.7654,625Decrease5.9381,724Decrease 2.3
199245,242,591Increase11.7754,770Increase15.3406,481Increase 6.1
199347,899,081Increase5.9846,486Increase12.2411,173Increase 1.1
199451,713,366Increase8.0962,738Increase13.7424,557Increase 3.2
199554,461,597Increase5.31,031,639Increase7.2434,525Increase 2.3
199656,049,706Increase2.91,040,486Increase0.9440,343Increase 1.3
199758,185,398Increase3.81,156,104Increase11.1440,631Increase 0.1
199860,683,988Increase4.31,208,893Increase4.6451,382Increase 2.4
199962,268,292Increase2.61,265,495Increase4.7458,300Increase 1.5
200064,618,254Increase3.81,306,905Increase3.3466,799Increase 1.8
200160,764,924Decrease6.01,180,306Decrease9.6463,567Decrease 0.7
200263,362,097Increase4.31,234,940Increase4.6466,545Increase 0.6
200363,495,367Increase0.21,223,439Decrease0.9463,650Decrease 0.6
200467,342,743Increase6.11,325,173Increase8.3476,001Increase 2.6
200567,913,153Increase0.81,305,686Decrease1.5477,887Increase 0.4
200667,527,923Decrease0.61,264,129Decrease3.2477,048Decrease 0.2
200768,066,028Increase0.81,310,987Increase3.7481,476Increase 0.9
200867,054,745Decrease1.51,397,054Increase6.6478,693Decrease 0.6
200966,036,957Decrease1.51,277,650Decrease8.5466,393Decrease 2.6
201065,881,660Decrease0.21,472,988Increase15.3454,823Decrease 2.5
201169,433,230Increase5.41,484,351Increase0.8480,906Increase 5.4
201270,037,417Increase0.91,464,390Decrease1.3475,176Decrease 1.2
201372,367,054Increase3.31,422,939Decrease2.8471,936Decrease 0.7

Access[edit]

Public transport[edit]

Train[edit]

Heathrow Express train at Paddington station
Heathrow area rail services
Crossrail Crossrail
London Underground Circle LineHammersmith & City Line | Bakerloo LineCircle LineDistrict Line
enlarge… London Paddington National Rail London Underground
Heathrow Connect
Heathrow Express
Central Line Central and District Line District lines
Ealing Broadway National Rail London Underground
West Ealing National Rail
Hanwell National Rail
Southall National Rail
Hayes & Harlington National Rail
Piccadilly Line Piccadilly line
Airport Junction
Great Western Main Line
to Slough and Reading
Hatton Cross London Underground
Heathrow Junctionclosed 1998
London Heathrow Airport Heathrow Airport
Terminal 4(London Underground) Airport interchange
Terminal 4(
Shuttle from
Heathrow C.
) Airport interchange
Terminals 1,2,3 London Underground Bus interchange Airport interchange
Heathrow Central Bus interchange Airport interchange
Terminal 5 London Underground Bus interchange Airport interchange

Bus and coach[edit]

Many buses and coaches operate from the large Heathrow airport central bus station serving Terminals 1 and 3, and also from bus stations at Terminals 4 and 5. Services include the following:

Between 1981 and 2004, the airport was linked to central London by a group of routes known as Airbus. These routes carried A prefixes before their numbers; one route, A10, operates with such a number to Uxbridge.

Inter-terminal transport[edit]

Terminals 1 and 3 are within walking distance of each other. Transfers to Terminal 4 and 5 are by Heathrow Express trains or bus. Heathrow Express and Heathrow Connect services between Heathrow Central and Terminals 4 and 5 are free of charge.[88] Normal fare rules apply to London Underground services between terminals. Local buses throughout the airport area are provided free of charge under the "Heathrow FreeFlow" scheme;[89] passengers should tell the driver their destination to ensure they are not charged a fare.

Transit passengers remaining airside are provided free dedicated transfer buses between terminals.

ULTra Personal Rapid Transport opened in April 2011 to shuttle passengers between Terminal 5 and the business carpark at a speed of up to 40 km/h (25 mph). There are 21 small transportation pods that can carry up to four adults, two children, and their luggage and carry passengers. The pods are battery powered and are used on a four kilometre track.The capsules run on demand. The provider claims a 95% availability rate and no accidents so far.[90] Plans to use the same technology to connect terminals 2 and 3 to remote car parks were included in the draft 2014–2019 five year master plan but have since been deferred due to other priorities.[91]

Taxi[edit]

Taxis are available at all terminals.[92]

Car[edit]

Entrance at the southern end of the M4 Motorway, showing a scale model of Concorde, there in 2006 but since replaced with the Emirates A380 scale model.

Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway or A4 road (Terminals 1–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5), and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop-off and pick-up areas at all terminals and short-[93] and long-stay[94] multi-storey car parks. There are further car parks, not run by Heathrow Airport Holdings, just outside the airport: the most recognisable is the National Car Parks facility, although there are many other options; these car parks are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses.

Four parallel tunnels under the northern runway connect the M4 motorway and the A4 road to Terminals 1–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being used instead.

Bicycle[edit]

There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes to some of the terminals.[95] Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, at Terminal 4, and to the North and South of Terminal 5's Interchange Plaza.[96]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

British Airways flight BA038 which crash landed just short of the runway on 17 January 2008

Terrorism and security incidents[edit]

Other incidents[edit]

Future expansion[edit]

Runway and terminal expansion[edit]

British Airways aircraft queuing for take-off

In January 2009 the Transport Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that the UK government supported the expansion of Heathrow by building a third 2,200-metre (7,200 ft) runway and a sixth terminal building.[129] This decision followed the 2003 white paper on the future of air transport in the UK,[130] and a public consultation in November 2007.[131] This was a controversial decision which met with widespread opposition because of the expected greenhouse gas emissions, impact on local communities, as well as noise and air pollution concerns.

Before the 2010 General Election the Conservative and Liberal Democrats parties announced that they would prevent the construction of any third runway or further material expansion of the airport's operating capacity. The Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has taken the position that London needs more airport capacity, but favours constructing an entirely new airport in the Thames Estuary rather than expanding Heathrow.[132] After the Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition took power, it was announced that the third runway expansion was cancelled.[133] Two years later, leading Conservatives were reported to have changed their minds.[134]

Another proposed plan for expanding Heathrow's capacity is the Heathrow Hub, which aims to extend both runways to a total length of about 7,000 metres and divide them into four so that they each provide two, full length runways, allowing simultaneous take-offs and landings while decreasing noise levels.[135][136]

In July 2013, the airport submitted three new proposals for expansion to the Airports Commission, which was established to review airport capacity in the southeast of England. Each involved the construction of a third runway, either to the north, northwest or southwest of the airport.[137] The commission released its interim report in December 2013, shortlisting the northwest third runway option at Heathrow, extending an existing runway at Heathrow and a second runway at Gatwick Airport. The full report is due to be published in 2015.[138] Following the publication of the interim report, the government confirmed that no options had been ruled out for airport expansion in the southeast, and that a new runway would not be built at Heathrow before 2015.[6]

Heathrow railway hub[edit]

A plan to make Heathrow an international railway exchange has also been proposed with the potential construction of Heathrow Hub railway station,[139] built on a link to the High Speed 2 railway line.[140]

Airtrack[edit]

In July 2009, Heathrow Airport Limited submitted an application to the Secretary of State for Transport seeking to gain authorisation to develop a new rail link to Heathrow Terminal 5 to be known as Heathrow Airtrack.[141] The rail link would address the current lack of public transport available to the South West of the Airport by connecting to Guildford, Reading and London Waterloo. BAA stated that the scheme should add significantly to its aim of increasing the proportion of people using public transport to travel to the airport.[142] In April 2011 BAA announced that it was abandoning the project,[143] citing the unavailability of government subsidy and other priorities for Heathrow,[144] such as linking to Crossrail and HS2.

Heathrow/Gatwick rail link[edit]

Main article: Heathwick

In late 2011 the Department for Transport began studying the feasibility of a high-speed rail link between Gatwick and Heathrow Airport. This rail link would form part of a plan to combine the UK's two biggest airports into a "collective" or "virtual hub" dubbed Heathwick. The scheme envisages a 35-mile (56 km) high-speed rail route linking the two airports in 15 minutes, with trains travelling at a top speed of 180 miles per hour (290 km/h) parallel to the M25 and passengers passing through immigration or check-in only once.[145]

Future plans[edit]

Heathrow City Airport[edit]

There are plans, if Heathrow Airport ever closes, to replace it by a large built-up area.[146][147][148][149][150] Some of the plans seem to show terminal 5, or part of it, kept as a shopping centre.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Number of passengers including domestic, international and transit

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