Hatch Act of 1939

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The Hatch Act of 1939, officially An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, is a United States federal law whose main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president, vice-president, and certain designated high-level officials of that branch, from engaging in partisan political activity. The law was named for Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico. It was most recently amended in 2012.

Background[edit]

Widespread allegations that local Democratic Party politicians used employees of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) during the congressional elections of 1938 provided the immediate impetus for the passage of the Hatch Act. Criticism centered on Kentucky,[1] Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. In Pennsylvania, Republicans and dissident Democrats publicized evidence that Democratic politicians were consulted on the appointment of WPA administrators and case workers and that they used WPA jobs to gain unfair political advantages.[2] In 1938, a series of newspaper articles exposed WPA patronage and political contributions in return for employment, prompting an investigation by the Senate Campaign Expenditures Committee, headed by Sen. Morris Sheppard, a Texas Democrat.[3]

Despite that investigation's inconclusive findings, many in both parties determined to take action against the growing power of the WPA and its chief administrator, Harry Hopkins, an intimate of the president. The Act was sponsored by Senator Carl Hatch, a Democrat from New Mexico. At the time, Roosevelt was struggling to purge the Democratic party of its more conservative members who were increasingly aligned with the administration's Republican opponents. The president considered vetoing the legislation or allowing it to become law without his signature, but instead signed it on the last day he could do so. His signing message welcomed the legislation as if he had called for it and emphasized the protection his administration would provide for political expression on the part of public employees.[4]

Provisions[edit]

The 1939 Act forbade the intimidation or bribery of voters and restricts political campaign activities by federal employees. It prohibits using any public funds designated for relief or public works for electoral purposes. It forbade officials paid with federal funds from using promises of jobs, promotion, financial assistance, contracts, or any other benefit to coerce campaign contributions or political support. It provided that persons below the policy-making level in the executive branch of the federal government must not only refrain from political practices that would be illegal for any citizen, but must abstain from "any active part" in political campaigns, using this language to specify those who are exempt:[5]

The language was crafted so that the Secretary of State was covered by the Act's restrictions on political activity.[5]

The act also precluded federal employees from membership in "any political organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government,"[6] a provision meant to prohibit membership in organizations on the far left and far right, such as the German-American Bund and the Communist Party USA.[7]

An amendment on July 19, 1940 extended the Act to certain employees of state and local governments whose positions are primarily paid for by federal funds. It has been interpreted to bar political activity on the part of employees of state agencies administering federal unemployment insurance programs and appointed local law enforcement agency officials with oversight of federal grant funds. The Hatch Act bars state and local government employees from running for public office if any federal funds support the position, even if the position is funded almost entirely with local funds.[8]

The Merit Systems Protection Board and its Office of Special Counsel are responsible for enforcement of the Hatch Act.[9]

Supreme Court challenges[edit]

The Supreme Court has several times declined to hear challenges to the act and has twice upheld its constitutionality. In a 1947 case brought by the CIO, a divided court found that Congress had properly exercised its authority as long as it had not affected voting rights. Justice William O. Douglas objected to the assertion that "clean politics" required the act's restrictions: "it would hardly seem to be imperative to muzzle millions of citizens because some of them, if left to their constitutional freedoms, might corrupt the political process."[10] In 1973, in a case brought by the National Association of Letter Carriers, a 6 to 3 decision found the act neither too broad nor unclear. The court's three most liberal justices, Douglas, William J. Brennan, and Thurgood Marshall, dissented. Douglas wrote: "It is no concern of government what an employee does in his or her spare time, whether religion, recreation, social work or politics is his hobby, unless what he or she does impairs efficiency or other facets of the merits of his job."[11]

Amendments[edit]

In 1975, the House passed legislation allowing federal employees to participate in partisan elections and run for office, but the Senate took no action.[12] In 1976, Democrats who controlled Congress had sought to win support by adding protections against the coercion of employees by their superiors and federal employee unions had supported the legislation. It passed the House on a vote of 241 to 164 and the Senate on a vote of 54 to 36. President Ford vetoed the legislation on April 12. He noted that coercion could be too subtle for the law to eliminate and that the Supreme Court had said in 1973 that the Hatch Act had achieved "a delicate balance between fair and effective government and the First Amendment rights of individual employees."[13] President Carter proposed similar legislation in 1977.[14] A proposed amendment to permit federal workers to participate in political campaigns passed the House on a 305 to 112 vote in 1987.[15] In 1990 a similar bill passed the House on a vote of 334 to 87 and the Senate on a vote of 67 to 30. President George H.W. Bush vetoed the legislation,[16] which the House voted to override 327 to 93 and the Senate sustained on a vote of 65 to 35, with 55 Democrats and 10 Republicans voting to override and 35 Republicans supporting the president's veto.[17]

In 1993 the advocates for removing or modifying restrictions on the political activities of federal employees succeeded in enacting the Hatch Act Reform Amendments of 1993 (107 Stat. 1001) that removed the prohibition on participation in "political management or political campaigns." Federal employees are still forbidden to use their authority to affect the results of an election. They are also forbidden to run for office in a partisan election, to solicit or receive political contributions, and to engage in political activities while on duty or on federal property.[citation needed]

President Barack Obama signed the Hatch Act Modernization Act of 2012 on December 28, 2012. It modified penalties under the Hatch Act to allow for disciplinary actions in addition to removal for federal employees; clarified the applicability to the District of Columbia of provisions that cover state and local governments; limited the prohibition on state and local employees running for elective office to employees whose salary is paid completely by federal loans or grants.[18]

Applicability to U.S. military personnel[edit]

The Hatch Act does not apply to actively serving uniformed members of the U.S. armed forces, although it does apply to Department of Defense civil servants, as well as Department of Homeland Security civil servants in direct support of the United States Coast Guard. Uniformed personnel are subject to Department of Defense Directive 1344.10 (DoDD 1344.10), Political Activities by Members of the Armed Forces, and the spirit and intent of that directive is effectively the same as that of the Hatch Act for Federal civil servants. By agreement between the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security, DoDD 1344.10 also applies to uniformed personnel of the Coast Guard at all times, whether it is operating as a service in the Department of Homeland Security or as part of the Navy under the Department of Defense.

As a directive, DoDD 1344.10 is considered to be in the same category as an order or regulation, and military personnel violating its provisions can be considered in violation of Article 92 (Failure to obey order or regulation) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice.[19][20][21]

Recent events[edit]

Current restrictions[edit]

(See U.S. Office of Special Counsel "Hatch Act for Federal Employees")

Permitted and prohibited activities for employees who may participate in partisan political activity[edit]

These federal and D.C. employees may:

These federal and D.C. employees may not:

Agencies and employees prohibited from engaging in partisan political activity[edit]

Employees of the following agencies (or agency components), or in the following categories, are subject to more extensive restrictions on their political activities than employees in other Departments and agencies:

(career positions described at 5 U.S.C. § 3132(a)(4))

Permitted and prohibited activities for employees who may not participate in partisan political activity[edit]

These federal employees may:

These federal employees may not:

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Robert J. Leupold (1975). "The Kentucky WPA: Relief and Politics, May–November, 1935". Filson Club History Quarterly 49 (2): 152–168. 
  2. ^ Priscilla F. Clement (1971). "The Works Progress Administration In Pennsylvania: 1935–1940". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 95 (2): 244–260. JSTOR 20090543. 
  3. ^ Tindall, George B. (1967). The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945. Louisiana State University Press. pp. 629–20. 
  4. ^ Smith, Jason Scott (2006). Building New Deal Liberalism: The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933-1956. NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–6. 
  5. ^ a b "Envoys Declared Outside Hatch Act". New York Times. 24 October 1940. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  6. ^ Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (1998). Secrecy: The American Experience. Yale University Press. p. 159. 
  7. ^ Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W.W. Norton. p. 342. 
  8. ^ Jason C. Miller, The Unwise and Unconstitutional Hatch Act: Why State and Local Government Employees Should be Free to Run for Public Office, 34 S. Ill. U. L.J.___ (forthcoming 2010)
  9. ^ William V. Luneburg. Hatch Act (1939). enotes.com
  10. ^ Walz, Jay (February 11, 1947). "CIO Fails in Highest Court to Void 'Clean Politics' Act". New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Supreme Court Upholds Hatch Act, 6-3; Says Curbs on Political Activity Are Fair". New York Times. June 26, 1973. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  12. ^ Madden, Richard (December 21, 1975). "Congressional Session Marked by Clashes with Ford on Energy and Tax Cut". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  13. ^ Naughton, James M. (April 13, 1976). "Ford Vetoes Bill to Ease Hatch Act". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  14. ^ Weaver, Jr., Warren (March 23, 1977). "Carter Proposes End of Electoral College in Presidential Votes". New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Pear, Robert (November 18, 1987). "House Approves Bill to Lift Curbs On Federal Employees in Politics". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  16. ^ Dowd, Maureen (June 16, 1990). "President Vetoes a Bill and Makes a Threat on Second". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  17. ^ Berke, Richard L. (June 22, 1990). "Senate Upholds Veto of Bill On U.S. Workers in Politics". New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Statement by the Press Secretary...". Statements and Releases. whitehouse.gov. Retrieved February 9, 2013. 
  19. ^ Directive 1344.10. Political Activities by Members of the Armed Forces. Department of Defense (2008-02-19).
  20. ^ Cpl. R. Drew Hendricks, "DoD policy limits political practices in the workplace". Marine Forces Pacific. marines.mil (2008-01-31).
  21. ^ Christopher Garcia. Political Activities. Office of Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel & Readiness.
  22. ^ Loftin, Josh. (2006-11-01) Police chief plans to stay in Senate race. Deseret Morning News. Retrieved on 2012-07-08.
  23. ^ OSC: High Level NASA Hatch Investigations Present Cautionary Tale, Office of Special Counsel, January 1, 2007
  24. ^ Doan's fate up to president; Hatch Act violation could prompt firing, Federal Times, May 28, 2007
  25. ^ Rood, Justin (2008-05-06). "FBI Raids Bush Official's Office – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  26. ^ Shenon, Philip (May 7, 2008). "F.B.I. Raids Office of Special Counsel". New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  27. ^ Feds to look into Lee County Sheriff Scott's 'Hussein' Obama comment at Palin rally. news-press.com (2008-10-06).
  28. ^ Lee sheriff under federal investigation for stumping in uniform. naplesnews.com (2008-10-07).
  29. ^ Korb challenging Melcher's election as commissioner November 18, 2008 Evansville Courier & Press
  30. ^ Bowman, James S.; West, Jonathan P. (2009). "To 'Re-Hatch' Public Employees or Not? An Ethical Analysis of the Relaxation of REstrictions on Political Activities in Public Service". Public Administration Review 69 (1): 52–63. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.01940.x. 
  31. ^ "White House indicates Sebelius won't be punished over Hatch Act violation". Fox News. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 

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