Hare

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Hares
European hare (Lepus europaeus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Lagomorpha
Family:Leporidae
Genus:Lepus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Lepus timidus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text

 
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Hares
European hare (Lepus europaeus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Lagomorpha
Family:Leporidae
Genus:Lepus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Lepus timidus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text

Brooklyn Museum - California Hare - John J. Audubon

Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. A hare less than one year old is called a leveret. Four species commonly known as types of hare are classified outside of Lepus: the hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), and three species known as red rock hares (Pronolagus spp.).

Hares are very fast-moving animals; the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) is able to run at speeds of up to 56 km/h (35 mph).[1][2] The five species of jackrabbit found in central and western North America are able to run at 64 km/h (40 mph), and can leap up to 3m (ten feet) at a time.[3] They live solitarily or in pairs, while a "drove" is the collective noun for a group of hares.

A common type of hare in Arctic North America is the snowshoe hare, replaced farther south by the black-tailed jackrabbit, white-tailed jackrabbit, and other species.

Normally a shy animal, the European brown hare changes its behavior in spring, when hares can be seen in broad daylight chasing one another around meadows; this appears to be competition between males to attain dominance (and hence more access to breeding females). During this spring frenzy, hares can be seen "boxing"; one hare striking another with its paws (probably the origin of the term "mad as a March hare"). For a long time, this had been thought to be intermale competition, but closer observation has revealed it is usually a female hitting a male to prevent copulation.[4]

Differences from rabbits[edit]

Wild hare doe in city yard, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Hares do not bear their young below ground in a burrow as do other leporids, but rather in a shallow depression or flattened nest of grass called a form. Young hares are adapted to the lack of physical protection, relative to that afforded by a burrow, by being born fully furred and with eyes open. They are hence able to fend for themselves soon after birth; they are precocial. By contrast, the related rabbits and cottontail rabbits are altricial, having young that are born blind and hairless.

All rabbits (except the cottontail rabbits) live underground in burrows or warrens, while hares (and cottontail rabbits) live in simple nests above the ground, and usually do not live in groups. Hares are generally larger than rabbits, with longer ears, and have black markings on their fur. Hares have not been domesticated, while rabbits are kept as house pets. The domestic pet known as the "Belgian hare" is a rabbit that has been selectively bred to resemble a hare.

The hare's diet is similar to the rabbit's. They are both in the order Lagomorpha.

Hares have jointed, or kinetic, skulls, unique among mammals.

They have 48 chromosomes (44 for the rabbit).

Classification[edit]

The 32 species listed are:

Jackrabbit
Cape hare Lepus capensis

As food[edit]

Hares and rabbits are plentiful in many areas, adapt to a wide variety of conditions, and reproduce quickly, so hunting is often less regulated than for other varieties of game. In rural areas of North America and particularly in pioneer times,[6] they were a common source of meat. However, because of their extremely low fat content, they are a poor choice as a survival food.[7]

Hares can be prepared in the same manner as rabbits—commonly roasted or taken apart for breading and frying.

Young Hare, a watercolour, 1502, by Albrecht Dürer

Hasenpfeffer (also spelled Hasenfeffer) is a traditional German stew made from marinated rabbit or hare. Pfeffer is not only the name of a spice, but also of a dish where the animal's blood is used as a gelling agent for the sauce. Wine or vinegar is also a prominent ingredient, to lend a sourness to the recipe.

Lagos Stifado (Λαγός στιφάδο) hare stew with pearl onions, vinegar, red wine and cinnamon is a much prized dish enjoyed in Greece and Cyprus and communities in the diaspora particularly in Australia where the hare is hunted as a feral pest.

Jugged hare (known as civet de lièvre in France), is a whole hare, cut into pieces, marinated, and cooked with red wine and juniper berries in a tall jug that stands in a pan of water. It traditionally is served with the hare's blood (or the blood is added right at the very end of the cooking process) and port wine.[8][9][10][11]

Jugged hare is described in the influential 18th century cookbook, The Art of Cookery by Hannah Glasse, with a recipe titled, "A Jugged Hare", that begins, "Cut it into little pieces, lard them here and there...." The recipe goes on to describe cooking the pieces of hare in water in a jug set within a bath of boiling water to cook for three hours.[12] Beginning in the 19th century, Glasse has been widely credited with having started the recipe with the words "First, catch your hare," as in this citation.[9] This attribution is apocryphal.

However, having a freshly caught, or shot, hare enables one to obtain its blood. A freshly killed hare is prepared for jugging by removing its entrails and then hanging it in a larder by its hind legs, which causes the blood to accumulate in the chest cavity. One method of preserving the blood after draining it from the hare (since the hare itself is usually hung for a week or more) is to mix it with red wine vinegar to prevent it coagulating, and then to store it in a freezer.[13][14]

Many other British cookbooks from before the middle of the 20th century have recipes for jugged hare. Merle and Reitch[15] have this to say about jugged hare, for example:

The best part of the hare, when roasted, is the loin and the thick part of the hind leg; the other parts are only fit for stewing, hashing, or jugging. It is usual to roast a hare first, and to stew or jug the portion which is not eaten the first day. [...]
To Jug A Hare. This mode of cooking a hare is very desirable when there is any doubt as to its age, as an old hare, which would be otherwise uneatable, may be made into an agreeable dish. [...]

In 2006, a survey of 2021 people for the television channel UKTV Food found only 1.6% of the people under 25 recognized jugged hare by name. Seven of 10 stated they would refuse to eat jugged hare if it were served at the house of a friend or a relative.[16][17]

The hare (and in recent times, the rabbit) is a staple of Maltese cuisine. The dish was presented to the island's Grandmasters of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as well as Renaissance Inquisitors resident on the island, several of whom went on to become pope.

According to Jewish tradition, the hare is among mammals deemed not kosher, and therefore not eaten by observant Jews. However, according to Islamic dietary laws, Muslims deem coney[clarification needed] meat halal. The Shia, though, have difference in opinion.

In England, a now rarely served dish is potted hare. The hare meat is cooked, then covered in at least one inch (preferably more) of butter. The butter is a preservative (excludes air); the dish can be stored for up to several months. It is served cold, often on bread or as an appetizer.

Folklore and mythology[edit]

"How to allure the Hare": Facsimile of a miniature in the manuscript of Phoebus (15th century)

The hare in African folk tales is a trickster; some of the stories about the hare were retold among African slaves in America, and are the basis of the Brer Rabbit stories. In Britain, the hare was associated with the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre and whose pagan attributes were appropriated into the Christian tradition as the Easter Bunny. The hare also appears in English folklore in the saying "as mad as a March hare" and in the legend of the White Hare that alternatively tells of a witch who takes the form of a white hare and goes out looking for prey at night or of the spirit of a broken-hearted maiden who cannot rest and who haunts her unfaithful lover.[18][19] In Irish folklore, the hare is often associated with Sidh (Fairy) or other pagan elements. In these stories, characters who harm hares often suffer dreadful consequences.

Many cultures, including the Chinese, Japanese, and Mexican, see a hare in the pattern of dark patches in the moon (see Moon rabbit); this tradition forms the basis of the Angelo Branduardi song "The Hare in the Moon".[20] The constellation Lepus represents a hare.

One of Aesop's fables tells the story of The Tortoise and the Hare. The hare was regarded as an animal sacred to Aphrodite and Eros because of its high libido. Live hares were often presented as a gift of love.

Famous hares in fiction[edit]

Rabbits in culture and literature

Famous hares in art[edit]

Three hares[edit]

Dreihasenfenster (Window of Three Hares) in Paderborn Cathedral

A study in 2004 followed the history and migration of a symbolic image of three hares with conjoined ears. In this image, three hares are seen chasing each other in a circle with their heads near its centre. While each of the animals appears to have two ears, only three ears are depicted. The ears form a triangle at the centre of the circle and each is shared by two of the hares. The image has been traced from Christian churches in the English county of Devon right back along the Silk Road to China, via western and eastern Europe and the Middle East. Before its appearance in China, it was possibly first depicted in the Middle East before being reimported centuries later. Its use is associated with Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Buddhist sites stretching back to about AD 600.[21]

Place names[edit]

The hare has given rise to local place names, as they can often be observed in favoured localities. An example in Scotland is 'Murchland', the Scots word for a hare being 'murchen'.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McKay, George; McGhee, Karen (10 October 2006). National Geographic Encyclopedia of Animals. National Geographic Books. p. 68. ISBN 9780792259367. 
  2. ^ Vu, Alan. "Lepus europaeus: European hare". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Jackrabbits, Jackrabbit Pictures, Jackrabbit Facts - National Geographic". Animals.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  4. ^ The myth of the mad March hare, Nature 309, 549 - 550. Holly, Anthony J. F. et al. Retrieved July 03 2010.
  5. ^ Hoffman, R. S.; Smith, A. T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 195–205. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  6. ^ Posted by Brock (2009-05-18). "Mormon Pioneer Foodways: Rabbit, anyone?". Pioneerfoodie.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-03-20. 
  7. ^ Gary L. Benton. "Survival Nutrition". Simple Survival. Retrieved 2010-03-20. 
  8. ^ Tom Jaine. "A Glossery of Cookery and other Terms". The History of English Cookery. Prospect Books. 
  9. ^ a b "Chips are down for Britain's old culinary classics". The Guardian. 2006-07-25. p. 6. 
  10. ^ "Jugged". The Great British Kitchen. The British Food Trust. 
  11. ^ "Recipes: Game: Jugged Hare". The Great British Kitchen. The British Food Trust. 
  12. ^ Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy. London, 1747. page 50
  13. ^ Bill Deans. "Hares, Brown, Blue or White.". 
  14. ^ John and Sally Seymour (September/October 1976). "Farming for Self-Sufficiency Independence on a 5-acre (20,000 m2) Farm". Mother Earth News (41). 
  15. ^ Gibbons Merle and John Reitch (1842). The domestic dictionary and housekeeper's manual. London: William Strange. p. 113. 
  16. ^ "Bygone food quiz reveals pig ignorance among young". The Scotsman. 2006-07-24. 
  17. ^ Martin Hickman (2006-07-24). "Young diners lose taste for traditional British dishes". The Independent. 
  18. ^ "The White Hare". Folk-this.tripod.com. 1969-05-13. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  19. ^ "Legends of Britain: The White Hare". Britannia.com. Retrieved 2013-01-12. 
  20. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/6016/fablfant.html&date=2009-10-25+11:40:03
  21. ^ Chris Chapman (2004). "The three hares project". Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  22. ^ Warrack, Alexander Edit. Chambers Scots Dictionary. Pub. W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]