Happy hour

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"Happy Hour" sign on a pub in Jerusalem. (in Hebrew: all draught beers, 1 + 1 free)

Happy hour is a marketing term for a period of time in which a public venue, such as a restaurant, bar, bowling alley, stadium, or state/county fair, offers discounts on alcoholic drinks, such as beer, wine, and cocktails.


One possible origin of the term is from the United States Navy. In early 1913, a group of "home makers" called the "Happy Hour Social" organized "semi-weekly smokers" on board the U.S.S. Arkansas (BB 33).[1][2] The name "Happy Hour Club," "Happy Hour Social Club," and similar variants, had been in use, primarily by women's social clubs since at least the early 1880s. By June 1913, the crew referred to the smokers as "Happy Hours."[3] The "Happy Hours" included a variety of entertainment, including boxing and wrestling matches, music, dancing and movies.[4] By the end of World War I, the practice of holding "Happy Hours" had spread throughout the entire Navy.[5]

The idea of drinking before dinner has its roots in the Prohibition era. When the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act were passed banning alcohol consumption, people would host "cocktail hours", also known as "happy hours", at a speakeasy (an illegal drinking establishment) before eating at restaurants where alcohol could not be served. Cocktail lounges continued the trend of drinking before dinner.

The Random House Dictinoary of American Slang dates "Happy hour," as a term for afternoon drinks in a bar, to a Saturday Evening Post article on military life in 1959. That article detailed the lives of government contractors and military personnel who worked at missile-tracking facilities in the Caribbean and the Atlantic. "Except for those who spend too much during “happy hour” at the bar – and there are few of these – the money mounts up fast."[4][6] Barry Popick's online etymology dictionary, The Big Apple, lists several pre-1959 citations to "Happy Hour" in print, mostly from places near Naval bases in California, from as early 1951.[7]


United States[edit]

Massachusetts was one of the first U.S. states to implement a state-wide ban on happy hours in 1984.[8] Other U.S. states also have similar restrictions.

In 1984, the U.S. military abolished happy hours at military base clubs.[citation needed]

In 2011, the Utah State Legislature passed a ban on happy-hours, effective January 1, 2012.

In July 2011, Pennsylvania extended the period of time for happy hour from two hours to four hours.[9]

In June 2012, happy hour became legal in Kansas after a 26-year ban.[10]


The Canadian province of Alberta created restrictions to happy hours that took effect in August 2008. All such promotions must end at 8 pm, and drink prices must conform to the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission's minimum price regulations at all times.[11]

In Ontario, while establishments may vary liquor prices as long as they stay above the minimum prices set by the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, they are not permitted to advertise these prices "in a manner that may promote immoderate consumption." In particular, the phrase "happy hour" may not be used in such advertisement.[12]


Happy hour has been illegal in the Republic of Ireland since 2003 under the Intoxicating Liquor Act.[13]

United Kingdom[edit]

Glasgow has banned happy hours to reduce binge drinking.[14]


The KHN, a hospitality sector lobby group, has agreed with its members to stop happy hours to discourage binge drinking by youth, but only if the government would vote to raise the minimum drinking age.[15] In March 2013, the law to raise the drinking age to 18 was passed.[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Brown, Peter Jensen. "Happy Hour Update". Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "U.S.S. Arkansas". Our Navy, The Standard magazine of the United States Navy 6 (11): 12. March 1913. 
  3. ^ "U.S.S. Arkansas". Our Navy, The Standard Magazine of the U.S. Navy 7 (3): 21. July 1913. 
  4. ^ a b Brown, Peter Jensen. "History and Etymology of Happy Hour". Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  5. ^ "Athletics in Our Fleet". Our Navy, the Standard Magazine of the U.S. Navy 12 (8): 66. December 1918. 
  6. ^ Martin, Harold H. (April 25, 1959). "The Men Who Chase Missiles". Saturday Evening Post. 
  7. ^ Popick, Barry. "The Big Apple". Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Happy hour ban starts in Massachusetts bars New York Times (11 December 1984)
  9. ^ Pennsylvania law allows longer happy hours in bars, restaurants | PennLive.com
  10. ^ New liquor law revives happy hour in Kansas - KCTV5
  11. ^ Alberta sets new rules to improve bar safety:Minimum drink prices, restricted happy hours among new policies to curb binge drinking. Alberta News Release, July 3, 2008.
  12. ^ [1]:Pricing and Promotion of Liquor by Liquor Sales Licensees. Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario Information Bulletin, July 2007.
  13. ^ Happy hour to end at midnight RTÉ News (17 August 2003)
  14. ^ City bans happy hours to curb binge drinking
  15. ^ DutchNews.nl - End of happy hours in sight - if the legal drinking age remains 16
  16. ^ "Wetsvoorstel verhoging alcoholleeftijd 16 naar 18 aangenomen". Retrieved 2013-06-04. 

External links[edit]