Gurgaon

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Gurgaon
City
Gurgaon
Nickname(s): Millenium City
Location of Gurgaon district in Haryana
Gurgaon is located in India
Gurgaon
Location of Gurgaon in India
Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03[1]
Country India
StateHaryana
DistrictGurgaon district
Historic colonyKingdom of Great Britain A part of Punjab Province of British India
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation of Gurgaon
 • MayorVimal Yadav
 • Lok Sabha constituencyGurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency
 • Vidhan Sabha constituencyGurgaon City
 • Planning agencyHaryana Urban Development Authority
Area[1]
 • Total176.5 sq mi (457 km2)
Elevation[2]711.9 ft (217 m)
Population
 • Estimate (2011)876,824
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
ZIP code(s)122001 to 122017
Area code(s)0124
Websitegurgaon.nic.in
 
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Gurgaon
City
Gurgaon
Nickname(s): Millenium City
Location of Gurgaon district in Haryana
Gurgaon is located in India
Gurgaon
Location of Gurgaon in India
Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03Coordinates: 28°42′N 77°02′E / 28.7°N 77.03°E / 28.7; 77.03[1]
Country India
StateHaryana
DistrictGurgaon district
Historic colonyKingdom of Great Britain A part of Punjab Province of British India
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation of Gurgaon
 • MayorVimal Yadav
 • Lok Sabha constituencyGurgaon Lok Sabha Constituency
 • Vidhan Sabha constituencyGurgaon City
 • Planning agencyHaryana Urban Development Authority
Area[1]
 • Total176.5 sq mi (457 km2)
Elevation[2]711.9 ft (217 m)
Population
 • Estimate (2011)876,824
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
ZIP code(s)122001 to 122017
Area code(s)0124
Websitegurgaon.nic.in

Gurgaon is a city situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 19.9 miles (32 km) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 876,824.[3] Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become the city with the third highest per capita income in India,[4] even though the city grapples with the problem of lack of proper infrastructure and utilities, frequent power outages and rising crime.[5] Historically known as Guru Gram, the city's economic growth story started with the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited setting up a manufacturing plant in Gurgaon in 1970s[6] As of 2013, about 250 Fortune 500 companies have a base in Gurgaon.[5] Gurgaon is the most prosperous city in India based on ownership of consumer durables.[7]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the city's name can be traced back to ancient Hindu scriptures. It is believed that this land was owned by the legendary rulers Pandavas and Kauravas, who presented it to Guru Dronacharaya, their royal guru for warfare, as an appreciation of his training. The land came to be known as Guru Gram, which literally translated means "Village of the Guru", which in due course of time got distorted to the name Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city.[8]

History[edit]

Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur.[9] During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari[10] and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.

Geography[edit]

Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 176.5 square miles (457 km²)[11]

Topography[edit]

The average land elevation is 711.9 ft (217 m) above sea level.[12]

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa).[13] The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring, summer, autumn and winter, along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically very hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 110 °F (43 °C). Winters are very cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 37.4 °F (3 °C). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 28.1 inches (714 mm).[13]

Climate data for Gurgaon
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)70
(21.1)
75.6
(24.2)
86
(30.0)
97.2
(36.2)
103.3
(39.6)
102.7
(39.3)
95.2
(35.1)
91.9
(33.3)
93
(33.9)
91.2
(32.9)
82.9
(28.3)
73.4
(23.0)
88.5
(31.4)
Average low °F (°C)45.1
(7.3)
50.2
(10.1)
59.7
(15.4)
70.7
(21.5)
78.6
(25.9)
82.9
(28.3)
79.9
(26.6)
78.6
(25.9)
75.9
(24.4)
67.1
(19.5)
55
(12.8)
46.8
(8.2)
65.8
(18.8)
Rainfall inches (mm)0.799
(20.3)
0.591
(15.0)
0.622
(15.8)
0.264
(6.7)
0.689
(17.5)
2.161
(54.9)
9.114
(231.5)
10.185
(258.7)
5.031
(127.8)
1.429
(36.3)
0.197
(5.0)
0.307
(7.8)
31.389
(797.3)
Avg. rainy days1.71.31.20.91.43.610.011.35.41.60.10.639.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours213.9217.5238.7261.0263.5198.0167.4176.7219.0269.7246.0217.02,688.4
[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Gurgaon has an estimated population of 876,824[14] as per 2011 India census, of which 475,612 or 54.24% are males and 401,212 or 45.76% females. Gurgaon has a sex ratio is 844. The population under the age of six is 108,623, with 58,842 males and 49,781 females, making child sex ratio 846. The number of literates are 662,696 with 373,164 males and 289,805 females. The effective literacy rate of population aged 7+ is 86.30 of which the male rate is 89.54 and the female rate 82.46.[3]

Cityscape[edit]

Skyline of Gurgaon at night.

Architecture[edit]

Cyber Green Building, Gurgaon, Haryana, India - 20070613.jpg

Gurgaon has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time period. Gurgaon's skyline with its many skyscrapers is nationally recognized, and the city has been home to several tall buildings with modern planning. Gurgaon has an estimated 1,100 residential skyscrappers.[15] The average cost of a 1,000 square feet two-bedroom apartment at a decent condominium in Gurgaon is at least $160,130 (₹100,000,000).[15]

Neighborhoods[edit]

The initial settlements in Gurgaon started in the area east to National Highway 8, a part of which shows urban planning. Gurgaon is divided into 36 wards, with each ward further divided into blocks.

Parks[edit]

Gurgaon has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the Haryana Urban Development Authority. The key parks are the Leisure Valley Park in Sector 29, which is spread over 36 acres; Tau Devi Lal Biodiversity Botanical Garden in Sector 52; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Park in Sector 14, popularly known as HUDA Garden; and Tau Devi Lal park in Sector 23. However, most of the parks in Gurgaon are small and ill-maintained.[16]

Culture[edit]

Historically occupied by distinct ethnic groups and traditionally engaged in farming, Gurgaon has seen a 360 degrees change of culture over the years. The city now has significant migrant population from almost all parts of India, who come to work in the city and are employed in all sectors from construction to Information technology across all profiles. The city also has a few international workers who mainly stay on work visa and usually work at significant positions. The melting pot of ethnicities have enriched the local culture, adding a variety to arts, music, cuisine and festivals. A major change happened due to the proximity of the city to Delhi, where the industry and housing projects found a cheaper alternative. Gurgaon does not have any significant LGBT culture.

Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

Gurgaon is home to a few arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the city include Epicentre in Sector 44, Nautanki Mehal at the Kingdom of Dreams near IFFCO Chowk and Shiamak Davar's Institute for the Performing Arts. However, the local community prefers to watch a movie at a multiplex cinema or visit a shopping mall than attending a performing arts event, an opera or a musical. Raj Yadav, a famous Bollywood actor, was born in Gurgaon.

Cuisine[edit]

The city's food culture includes a variety of cuisines with regional specialities. A large number of restaurants serve a range of items including traditional north Indian recipes, including dal makhani, shahi paneer, butter chicken and kebab. samosa, golgappa, dahi bhalla, aloo tikki, bread pakora, pav bhaji and fruit chaat . Breakfast includes aloo paratha and chole bhature. Wheat, in the form of roti, and rice form an essential part of the food intake. A large portion of the local population is vegetarian. The city also houses global good chains like McDonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Domino's Pizza, Subway, Starbucks and Costa Coffee. People typically buy fresh produce like vegetables, eggs, milk and meat from small unorganized retail vendors, including small shops and unlicensed mobile vendors.

Several dabbawalas, on the lines of food supply chain system developed in Mumbai, operate in city to deliver freshly cooked hot food in a lunch box or tiffin carrier.[17]

Languages and dialect[edit]

The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. However, English is spoken with a thick accent.[citation needed] Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training for accent reduction. Punjabi is another popular language here.

Religion[edit]

Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, mosques and churches.

Sports[edit]

The city has two major sports stadiums: Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Sector 38, which has facilities for cricket, football, basketball and athletics as well as a sports hostel, and Nehru Stadium which is designed for football and athletics. Amity United FC is a tenant of Tau Devi Lal Stadium. Gurgaon is home to Joginder Rao, an international cricket player.

Economy[edit]

A commercial area in DLF Cyber City

Once a small dusty agricultural village, Gurgaon has now emerged to become the city with the third highest per capita income in India.[4] Popularly known as Millennium City,[18] Gurgaon has the presence of about 250 or 50% of the Fortune 500 companies. Gurgaon's proximity to Delhi means easy access to political decision makers. Maurti Suzuki Private Limited was the first company that set up a manufacturing unit in the city in 1970s making cars.[6] Eventually, DLF Limited, a real estate company acquired vast stretches of land in the city. The first major American brand to set up a unit in Gurgaon was General Electric in 1997, and is regarded as the first foreign company in India that was established for outsourcing software work.[19] GE's setup in Gurgaon prompted other companies, both international as well as domestic, to follow suit. Today, Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most important offshoring centers in the world,[19] providing outsourcing solutions in software, IT, service and sales through delivery facilities and call centers. However, due to the lack of proper public transport and the inability of most of the employees to afford a personal vehicle, most of the call centers provide pooled-in cars to and from their offices.[19] Apart from Business process outsourcing and IT sectors, the city is home to several other companies that specialize in domain expertise. Siemens Industry Software, in Gurgaon Business Park, made a portfolio of design software that was used by NASA to digitally design, simulate and assemble the vehicle before any physical prototypes were built.[19] Various international companies, including Coca-Cola, Pepsi, IBM, American Express, Agilent Technologies, Microsoft, and Bank of America, have chosen Gurgaon to be their Indian corporate headquarters.[19] All the major companies in the city depend on their own backup, given the fact that Gurgaon does not have reliable power and water supply, public transport and utilities. Retail is an important industry in Gurgaon, with the presence of 26 shopping malls.[20] Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. Gurgaon is home to some of the nation's most valuable real estate.

Law and government[edit]

Gurgaon is based on Municipal corporation form of government, where Mayor acts as the head of the city government. In June 2011, Vimal Yadav was the first person to hold this position[21] when the city became eligible to follow this kind of government due to population increase. Only 43% of Gurgaon citizens have registered themselves to vote for any political elections.

Crime[edit]

The crime graph is on a rise in Gurgaon. The city reported 89 homicides in 2012. Another rising concern is the increase in number of rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts including motor vehicle thefts. Gurgaon is experiencing high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence and prostitution. Several street gangs operate in the city.

Policing in Gurgaon is provided by Gurgaon Police, which forms a part of the Haryana Police.[22] Gurgaon Police has a separate traffic police department headquartered in sector 51.[23] Fire protection within the city limits is provided by Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon through four fire stations, located in sector 29, sector 37, Udyog Vihar and Bhim Nagar.[24]

Education[edit]

The city's public school system, managed by the government of Haryana, is administered by Haryana Board of School Education. The city also has a large number of private schools, where education is often expensive and the quality usually better than the government schools. Schools like The Shri Ram School, Aravali, The Heritage School, and Delhi Public School, sector 45 are among the top 10 schools in the city.[25]

There are seven universities located in Gurgaon and its nearby areas, that form a part of Gurgaon district: Ansal Institute of Technology, ITM University, Sector 23A, GD Goenka University, Sohna Road, KR Mangalam University, Sohna Road, Amity University, Manasar, Apeejay Stya University, Palwal Road, Sohna and Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Budhera.[26] Gurgaon is also home to one of India's top ranked business school, Management Development Institute.

Transportation[edit]

The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 17.2 miles (27.7 km) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.[27]

Public transit in Gurgaon is mostly provided by government buses, Rapid Metro and Delhi Metro. Private buses & vans, and shared auto rickshaws also ply in the city. There are five subway or metro stations, Huda City Centre, IFFCO Chowk, MG Road, Sikanderpur and Guru Droncharya, managed by Delhi Metro and six stations operated by Rapid Metro: Sikanderpur, Phase 2, Vodafone Belvedere Towers, IndusInd Bank Cyber City, Micormax Moulsari Avenue and Airtel Phase 3. Two stations, Shankar Chowk and Gateway tower, are scheduled to become operational soon. The first phase of Rapid Metro became operational in November 2013 and covers a distance of 3.3 mi.[28] Two more phases of the project are in the pipeline and would take the total number of subway stations in Gurgaon to 16.

Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.

Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, hosts private and government bus lines which connect to other cities.

Gurgaon is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, just outside the city limits and located within the jurisdiction of Delhi near National Highway 8. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.[citation needed]

The city lacks facilities for pedestrians with almost no proper sidewalks. There are no proper routes for bicycles, though a large part of the population in the city use bicycles for commuting. With no designated bicycle lanes in Gurgaon, riding a bicycle is dangerous due to uncontrolled driving of cars and lack of infrastructure.[29] The number of bicycles in Gurgaon is 76,984, as compared to 83,757 cars and 98,983 motorcycles and scooters.[30]

Infrastructure[edit]

Utilites[edit]

Electricity in Gurgaon is provided by government owned Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam. Gurgaon has power consumer base of 360,000 with average power load of 700-800 MW.[31] There are frequent power outages in the city, especially during the peak consumption season of summer.[32]

Health systems[edit]

Gurgaon has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits including Fortis Hospital, Medanta and Max Hospital. The city has become an increasingly popular destination for medical tourism.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011". Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Julka, Harsimran (Sep 30, 2011). "IT firms looking beyond Gurgaon, Noida to other cities in north India". The Economic Times. ET Bureau. Retrieved 2 October2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Crime graph up, Gurgaon police get act together". Hindustan Times. May 20, 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Kumar, K.P. Narayana. "Gurgaon: How not to Build a City". Forbesindia.com. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  7. ^ Gupta, Surojit (Nov 11, 2013). "Punjab tops states in prosperity, Kerala on equity". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  8. ^ "HISTORICAL BACKGROUND". District Administration, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  9. ^ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html? objectid=DS405.1.I34_V12_409.gif "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 403."]. Digital South Asia Library. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "History of Gurgaon". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  11. ^ "Demographics". Municipal Corporation, Gurgaon. 
  12. ^ "GGN/Gurgaon(3)". India Rail Info. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Travel Info". The Metropolitan Hotel and Spa New Delhi. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  14. ^ dabas, maninder (Sep 17, 2013). "dna special: Gurgaon is booming with gun culture". dna. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Anand, Deevakar (May 10, 2013). "Gurgaon’s better than Delhi, but way behind Shanghai". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  16. ^ "How green was Gurgaon’s parks". The Times of India. TNN. Dec 30, 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  17. ^ Khurana, Natasha (Nov 23, 2013). "Healthy, exotic or ghar-ka-khana wala dubbas for Gurgaon offices". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "UK minister inaugurates business centre in Gurgaon". The Times of India. TNN. Sep 20, 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Kannan, Shilpa. "Gurgaon: From fields to global tech hub". BBC. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  20. ^ "Gurgaon as IT outsourcing hub". Amit Arun and Associates. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  21. ^ Joseph, Joel (Jun 22, 2011). "Gurgaon gets first mayor after month's wait". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  22. ^ "Gurgaon Police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  23. ^ "Gurgaon police". Gurgaon Police, Govt. of Haryana. 
  24. ^ "Gurgaon’s fourth fire station opens in Udyog Vihar". Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. TNN. Apr 16, 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013. 
  25. ^ "Top Ten Schools in Gurgaon". Hindustan Times. September 3, 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  26. ^ "Universities & Colleges". University Grants Commission. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  27. ^ Dash, Dipak Kumar (Dec 7, 2012). "NH8 stretch on Delhi-Gurgaon border is India’s deadliest road". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  28. ^ Joseph, Joel (Nov 13, 2013). "From tomorrow, Gurgaon will finally have its Rapid Metro". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  29. ^ Gill, Vineet (Oct 22, 2013). "Why doesn't Gurgaon have cycling lanes?". TNN. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "Raahgiri Day: Let’s start a revolution 'on two wheels'". The Times of India. TNN. Nov 12, 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  31. ^ "Essar withdraws application for distribution licence in Gurgaon". PTI. October 22, 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  32. ^ "Priority power lines to cut blackouts". The Times of India. TNN. Nov 5, 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  33. ^ Kalra, Dr., B (2012-01-23). "Gurgaon may become a medical tourism hub". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]