Gun laws in the United States by state

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Gun laws in the United States regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition. State laws vary, and are independent of existing federal firearms laws, although they are sometimes broader or more limited in scope than the federal laws. For instance, some US states have created assault weapon bans that are similar to the expired federal assault weapons ban.

State level laws vary significantly in their form, content, and level of restriction. Forty-four states have a provision in their state constitutions similar to the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The exceptions are California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey, and New York. In New York, however, the statutory civil rights laws contain a provision virtually identical to the Second Amendment.[1][2] As well, the Supreme Court of the United States has held that the protections of the Second Amendment apply against state governments and their political subdivisions (such as in McDonald v. Chicago).[3]

Firearm owners are subject to the firearm laws of the state they are in, and not exclusively their state of residence. Reciprocity between states exists in certain situations, such as with regard to concealed carry permits. These are recognized on a state-by-state basis. For example, Idaho recognizes an Oregon permit, but Oregon does not recognize an Idaho permit. Florida issues a license to carry both concealed weapons and firearms, but others license only the concealed carry of firearms. Some states do not recognize out-of-state permits to carry a firearm at all, so it is important to understand the laws of each state when traveling with a handgun.[4]

In many cases, state firearms laws can be considerably less restrictive than federal firearms laws. This does not confer any de jure immunity against prosecution for violations of the federal laws. However, state and local police departments are not legally obligated to enforce federal gun law as per the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Printz v. United States.[5][6]

Common subjects of state laws[edit]

Firearm related matters that are often regulated by state or local laws include the following:


Alabama[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesAlabama is a shall issue state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYes*Open carry is generally permitted. However, open carry in a vehicle without a concealed carry license is prohibited. As of August 1, 2013, the law states that: "It shall be a rebuttable presumption that the mere carrying of a visible pistol, holstered or secured, in public place, in and of itself, is not disorderly conduct."
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes"The entire matter of handguns is reserved to the state legislature."
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?No*No*AOW's disguised as walking canes are the only illegal firearms in Alabama.

Alaska[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNoneNo
Firearm registration?NoNoNoneNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNoneNo
Owner license required?NoNoNoneNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesAS 18.65.700 through 18.65.778May carry concealed without permit, though permits can be issued for those who wish to have them.
Open Carry?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesAS 29.35.145Municipalities may enact and enforce local regulations only if they are identical to, and provide the same penalty as, State law.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoNoneNo
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.

Arizona[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit required to purchase?NoNoNoneNo
Firearm registration required?PartialPartialARS 13-3101State law duplicates some of the registration requirements of the National Firearms Act.
"Assault weapon" prohibition or restrictions?NoNoNoneNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNoNoneNo
Concealed Carry Weapon (CCW) permits issued?YesYesARS 13-3112
ARS 13-3102
In Arizona, a person over age 21 may legally carry a concealed firearm or deadly weapon without a permit within the state, except for certain prohibited locations, and must disclose the fact to a law enforcement officer if questioned. Although no longer required, a CCW permit may still be obtained and has certain advantages, including reciprocity with many other states having CCW laws.
Open carry allowed?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
State preemption of local restrictions?PartialPartialARS 13-3108Explained below
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoARS 13-3101Automatic weapons, short barreled rifles/ shotguns, and sound suppressors are legal as long as they are registered with the NFA and are in compliance with federal law.
Peaceable journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.

Arkansas[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNoneNo
Firearm registration?NoNoNoneNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNoneNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNoNoneNo
Carry permits issued?NoYes5-73-301 - 5-73-320As of August 16, 2013, concealed carry of a handgun without a permit is legal, although CCW permits are still available on a "Shall-Issue" basis. On July 8, 2013 Arkansas Attorney General clarified that the ban on openly carrying handguns in public remains in effect.[7]
Open Carry?YesNo
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes5-73-120
NFA weapons restricted?N/AN/A5-73-120
Peaceable Journey laws? ?Yes5-73-120 (c)(4)[Weapons are allowed if] The person is carrying a weapon when upon a journey, unless the journey is through a commercial airport when presenting at the security checkpoint in the airport or is in the person's checked baggage and is not a lawfully declared weapon. "Journey" is defined as "travel beyond the county in which a person lives." (5-73-120(B)(3))

California[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoPartial*§26500, §12071, §12082All firearm sales (except long guns more than 50 years old) must be completed through a dealer. *Handgun purchases require a Handgun Safety Certificate and proof of residency.
Firearm registration?NoYes§12025 and §12031All handgun serial numbers and sales are recorded by the state (registered) in the Department of Justice’s Automated Firearms System. Long arm serial numbers are not recorded, only the sale. While there is no requirement for California residents to register previously owned handguns or firearms with law enforcement, §12025 and §12031 enhance several misdemeanor offenses to felonies if the handgun is not on file in the Department of Justice’s Automated Firearms System. California §12025 states that handguns must be transported unloaded and in a locked container other than the glove compartment or utility box in a motor vehicle. A "locked container" is further defined to mean "a secure container which is fully enclosed and locked by a padlock, key lock, combination lock, or similar locking device." New residents must register handguns (purchased outside of California) with DOJ within 60 days.
Owner license required?NoNoNone
"Assault weapon" law?YesYes§12280, §12285Illegal to possess, import, or purchase assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles, unless such weapons were acquired by the owner prior to June 1, 1989. Legally defined assault weapons and .50 BMG rifles listed by make and model by the DOJ must be registered. Their sale and transfer is prohibited. Military look-alike rifles that are not chambered for .50 BMG and are not on the DOJ roster are legal to purchase or possess, with some restrictions in configuration – known as "banned features." Active-duty military members residing out of state and assigned to duty in California may bring personally-owned assault weapons into the state. The military member's residence must be in a state that permits private citizens to own and possess assault weapons, and the firearms must be registered with the California Department of Justice prior to the servicemember's arrival in California by submitting the registration form with a copy of the member's Permanent Change of Station (PCS) orders and an authorization letter from the installation commander.
Detachable Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYes§12020It is unlawful for any person to manufacture, cause to be manufactured, keep for sale, or offer or expose for sale, or give or lend, any large-capacity magazine. A large capacity magazine means any ammunition feeding device with the capacity to accept more than 10 rounds, but shall not be construed to include a feeding device that has been permanently altered so that it cannot accommodate more than 10 rounds, a tubular magazine that is contained in a lever-action firearm, or a .22 caliber tube ammunition feeding device. However, the possession of large capacity magazines purchased outside CA (and not imported by means of interstate commerce), is legal except in the city and county of Los Angeles.
Carry permits issued?YesYes§12050May issue, depending on jurisdiction. County sheriff's or local Police Chief's discretion, many counties are de facto "no-issue," while others are "shall-issue" in practice. CCW permits valid statewide. Out-of-state permits not valid in California.
Open Carry?Partial*Partial*§26350*Long guns may be carried in unincorporated rural areas where open carry is permitted by local ordinance. In a county with a population of less than 200,000 residents, a permit to carry a handgun "loaded and exposed" may be issued by the county sheriff.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes§53701 GCMost but not all local restrictions preempted.
Castle Doctrine Law?YesYesCalifornia never requires a duty to retreat whether in your own home or not. The state acknowledges a legal presumption that an intruder poses a deadly threat if in your own home or property that is owned and controlled by yourself.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYes§12220, §12020, §12020Possession of automatic weapons or short-barreled shotguns or rifles prohibited without DOJ "Dangerous Weapons Permit"; permission rarely granted outside of film industry. Suppressors (aka silencers) prohibited. Destructive devices are prohibited unless are designated as curios & relics, in which case a collectors permit can be obtained. The only AOW's that are permitted are smoothbore pistols and firearms with a combination of a smoothbore and rifle barrel.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoCalifornia courts have ruled that large capacity magazines that are disassembled or LCM parts are legal to possess. Otherwise federal rules are observed.

Colorado[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?PartialPartialDRMC § 38-130No except in the City and County of Denver
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesCRS §§ 18-12-302, 18-12-303 (HB 13-1224)After July 1, 2013, magazines holding more than 15 rounds may not be sold or transferred within the state.
Owner license required?NoNo
Concealed Carry permits issued?YesYesCRS § 18-12Colorado is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry?PartialPartialCRS § 18-12;
DRMC §§ 38-117(b), 38-118
Legal without permit requirements except in the City and County of Denver.
Concealed within a vehicle?YesYesCRS §§ 18-12, 33-6-125;
DRMC §§ 38-117(f), 38-118, 14-92
Without a round chambered (applies to rifles/shotguns, not pistols).
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesCRS § 18-12Local ordinances are preempted by state law, but Denver bans assault weapons, Saturday night specials, and open carry.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable Journey laws?YesYesCRS § 18-12-105.6; DRMC §§ 38-117(f), 38-118Denver's restrictions on transport/possession of firearms in vehicles do not apply to persons traveling to or from other jurisdictions; see Trinen v. City & County of Denver, 53 P.3d 754
Castle Doctrine?YesYesA legal resident of a property has the right to use deadly force to defend themselves, other occupants, and property from armed or unarmed intruders.
Stand Your Ground Law?YesYesA person does not have to attempt to retreat from any place where they have a legal right to be before they may defend themselves or others with deadly force.

Connecticut[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?YesYesCGS 29–36(f),
CGS 29–36(g)
Certificate of Eligibility for Pistol and Revolvers or Long Guns or Ammunition required to purchase handguns, long guns or ammunition, respectively. Applicants must complete an approved safety course, and pass a NICS background check prior to issuance of certificate. Certificate of Eligibility valid for five years. There is a 14-day waiting period for the purchase of long guns, with exceptions for peace officers, Active-Duty military members, and holders of carry permits. With the passing of Public Act 13-3, hunting licenses (which take approximately 12 hours to complete versus the eight hours the NRA Basic Pistol Course takes) may no longer be used to purchase ammunition or long rifles.
Firearm registration?No*No*CGS 53–202*Registration required for assault weapons purchased before October 1, 1993/April 1, 2014 and for machine guns. There is a de facto registry of the sale (but not the serial numbers) of handguns and long guns purchased in state that is maintained by the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection (DESPP). Any transfer, be it from a dealer or private party, must be accompanied by an authorization number issued by the DESPP and a form containing personal and weapon identification (DPS-3-C) must be submitted to DESPP and local police. This form is collected and maintained on all guns purchased from FFL dealers as well. Firearms purchased out of state have no special requirements (other than they cannot be "assault weapons") and are not required to be regrestired.
"Assault weapon" law?YesYesCGS 53–202Selective fire weapons, some .50 BMG variants, and semiautomatic center-fire firearms with one defined feature; banned weapons lawfully possessed prior to this date must be registered with DESPP. Registered weapons may only be sold or transferred to a licensed gun dealer, to the State Police or local police department or transferred to a recipient outside of Connecticut. Exceptions exist for active and retired law enforcement and military members.
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesAs of April 4, 2013, magazines holding more than 10 rounds are considered Large Capacity Magazines (LCM), and such magazines manufactured after that date may not be sold or transferred within the state. Existing owners of LCMs may possess such magazines if they declare them with the DESPP before January 1, 2014. Owners of registered LCMs may not load such magazines with more than 10 rounds except when inside the owner's home or on the premises of a licensed shooting range. Even if an individual has a permit to carry a pistol or revolver, they can never carry, other than at a shooting range, a pistol that has an LCM loaded with more than 10 bullets.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesCGS 29–28May-Issue by statute, but Shall-Issue according to court precedence and in practice. Permit needed to carry open or concealed. Exceptions for peace officers and Active-Duty military members. Out of state permits not valid in Connecticut, but nonresidents may apply for a Connecticut Nonresident carry permit through the mail.
Open Carry?Partial*YesA Connecticut Permit to Carry Pistols or Revolvers allows the carry of handguns openly or concealed. Despite this, local law enforcement have been known[citation needed] to detain carriers. There have been very few actual arrests and no convictions in recent history as a result of carrying unconcealed. State law is silent on the open carry of long guns in public either with or without a permit, although some municipalities have enacted ordinances restricting or banning the practice.

Various towns and the state police as well have articulated through training memos that open carry is legal and to not harass people who carry openly without some other cause. [8]

Castle Doctrine?Yes*Yes*No duty to retreat if you are in your home or on property owned by yourself. *There is no "stand your ground law" but, courts have granted civil immunity to those with carry permits and used "reasonable force" in the past.
State Preemption of local restrictions?PartialPartialCGS 29–28State pre-emption of local ordinances not explicitly specified in state law, but established by court precedence. Most municipalities have ordinances restricting or banning the discharge of firearms.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesCGS 53–202(c)SBR, SBS, DD, suppressors are legal, provided they also comply with the assault weapons provisions, unless purchased before October 1, 1993. Machine guns are legal but, must not be select-fire unless purchased before October 1, 1993.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoCGS 29–38Federal rules observed.

Delaware[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?YesYes11 Del.C. § 1441Delaware is a "may issue" state for concealed carry, but mostly shall-issue in practice. Permits are generally issued to all applicants not barred from owning a firearm.
Open Carry?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted. Local prohibitions in effect before July 4, 1985 are not preempted. City of Dover requires a permit from police chief or a state concealed permit to open carry. This was not preempted and is the only known non-preempted carry law.
State Preemption of local restrictions?Yes*Yes*Complete preemption, except any local ordinances that were in effect before July 4, 1985 are still in effect and are not preempted.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesCivilian ownership for research purposes only.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed.

District of Columbia[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
Permit to purchase?YesYesThe firearm registration process also serves as a permitting process.
Firearm registration?YesYesAll firearms must be registered with the Metropolitan Police Department. A background check, online training, and testing of the gun owner are required.
"Assault weapon" law?YesYes"Assault weapons" and .50 BMG rifles prohibited.
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesIllegal to possess or acquire magazines of more than 10 round capacity.
Owner license required?YesYesThe firearm registration process also serves as a licensing process.
Carry permits issued?NoNoConcealed carry prohibited.
Open Carry?NoNoOpen carry prohibited.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesAutomatic firearms prohibited.
Peaceable journey laws?NoNoPossession of unregistered firearms prohibited for both residents and non-residents.

Florida[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State license to Purchase?NoNoNone
Firearm registration?NoNoChapter 790.335It is a felony under Florida law to create, maintain or publish any list, record or registry of legally owned firearms or law-abiding firearm owners.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNone
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNoNone
Owner license required?NoNoNone
Carry licenses issued?NoYesChapter 790.06, 790.25Allows concealed possession of handguns, electronic weapons or devices, tear gas guns, knives, or billies, but not long guns or machine guns per Chapter 790.06(1). Concealed carry only; no open carry of firearms allowed, even with license, except when hunting, fishing, camping, or while practice shooting and while traveling to and from those activities.
Open Carry?NoNoChapter 790.053
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesChapter 790.33
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoNone
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.
Duty to inform?NoNoNoneFlorida law does not require one to disclose their possession of a firearm on contact with Law Enforcement.

Georgia[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNone
Firearm registration?NoNoNone
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNone
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNoNone
Owner license required?NoNoNone
Carry permits issued?YesYes[9]O.C.G.A § 16-11-129Concealed or open carry allowed with permit. See also O.C.G.A § 43–38–10 which is a special permit for armed security guards.
Open Carry?YesRestrictedO.C.G.A § 16-11-126Open carry of handguns prohibited without a valid license issued under O.C.G.A § 16-11-129.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesO.C.G.A § 16-11-173Despite state preemption, several localities continue to have local gun restrictions. Recent court rulings have resulted in many of these ordinances being withdrawn.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoNone
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.
Unlicensed open carry?YesRestrictedO.C.G.A § 16-11-126A person may not carry a handgun openly in Georgia without having a valid Georgia Weapons License (GWL) unless he or she meets one of the exceptions under O.C.G.A. § 16-11-126(a)-(g). Openly carrying a handgun without a GWL in one's home, motor vehicle, or place of business is covered by the exception in section 16-11-126(a).

Hawaii[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?YesYes
Firearm registration?YesYesHRS 0134-0002Must be registered with county Police Chief within 5 days of purchase.
"Assault weapon" law?NoYesLaw bans "assault pistols" with two or more banned features. Does not apply to rifles or shotguns with a barrel length greater than 16 inches
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoYesHandgun magazines with a capacity of more than 10 rounds are prohibited
Owner license required?YesYes
Carry permits issued?NoYesHRS 0134-0009Hawaii is a "may issue" state for concealed carry. The chief of police may grant a permit "in an exceptional case, when an applicant shows reason to fear injury to the applicant's person or property".
Open Carry?NoNoHawaii is a "may issue" state for open carry. The chief of police may grant a permit "Where the urgency or the need has been sufficiently indicated" provided that the person is "is engaged in the protection of life and property".
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesMunicipalities may enact and enforce local regulations only if they are identical to, and provide the same penalty as, State law.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesMachine guns, short barreled rifles, short barreled shotguns, and silencers/suppressors are prohibited from the average citizen. Destructive devices and AOW's are allowed with proper tax stamp and NFA paperwork from the ATF
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal laws observed.

Idaho[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Concealed Carry permits issued?NoYesIdaho 18-3302]License needed to carry concealed, may carry openly in a vehicle or on foot. May carry concealed when outside the confines of a city or city limits, and not inside a vehicle while engaged in a lawful outdoor activity.[2]
Open Carry?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesCities May regulate the discharge of firearms within their confines or limits.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoPermitted as long as such possession is in compliance with all federal regulations
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed.

Illinois[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit to purchase?YesYes430 ILCS 65FOID required.
Owner license required?YesYes430 ILCS 65FOID required.
Firearm registration?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesPublic Act 098-0063: Firearm Concealed Carry ActIllinois enacted concealed carry on July 9, 2013. The State Police will begin accepting permit applications within 180 days of that date. Permits issued by other states will not be recognized, but nonresidents from states with "substantially similar" licensing requirements can apply for an Illinois nonresident CCW permit. Non-residents may carry in a vehicle if they are in possession of a permit from their home state.
Open carry?NoNo
State preemption of local restrictions?PartialPartialPublic Act 098-0063: Firearm Concealed Carry ActPreemption for the regulation of handguns, and for the transportation of firearms. Preemption for laws regulating "assault weapons", unless enacted before July 20, 2013.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoCook Co. Code of Ord. §54-211
Chi. Mun. Code §8-20-170
Cook County and the city of Chicago have separately banned the possession of "assault weapons", as have several Chicago suburbs.
Magazine capacity restriction?NoNoSome local governments have magazine capacity limits for both pistols and long guns, including Chicago (15 rounds), Oak Park (10 rounds), Aurora (15 rounds), and Cook County (10 rounds).
NFA weapons restricted?YesYes720 ILCS 5/24
720 ILCS 5/24-2
Automatic firearms, short-barreled shotguns, and suppressors prohibited. Short-barreled rifles allowed only for Curios and Relics license holders or members of a bona fide military reenactment group. AOW (Any Other Weapon) and large-bore DD (Destructive Device) allowed with proper approval and tax stamp from ATF.
Peaceable journey laws?YesYesPublic Act 098-0063: Firearm Concealed Carry ActIllinois has state preemption for the transportation of any firearm and ammunition. Non-Illinois residents are granted a limited exception to lawfully carry a concealed firearm within a vehicle if they are eligible to carry a firearm in public under the laws of their own state. Non-residents who are permitted to possess a firearm in their own state are not required to have a FOID card.

Indiana[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to carry a gunNoYesIC 35-47-2-3Shall-Issue. Officially "License to Carry Handgun"
Firearm registration?noNoNone
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNone
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNoNone
Owner license required?NoNoNone
Concealed Carry license issued?NoYesIC 35-47-2-3Shall-Issue. Officially "License to Carry Handgun"
Open Carry?YesYesIC 35-47-2-3May carry openly with license. Those who choose to open carry are often confronted or accosted by police forces.[10] The legality of this police practice is hotly disputed.[11]
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesIC 35-47-11.1-2Enacted in 2011
NFA weapons restricted?YesNoIC 35-47-5-10Federal laws observed, with the exception that short barreled shotguns are not permitted.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.
Castle Doctrine law?YesYesIC 35-41-3-2

Iowa[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes724.28A political subdivision of the state shall not enact an ordinance regulating the ownership, possession, legal transfer, lawful transportation, registration, or licensing of firearms when the ownership, possession, transfer, or transportation is otherwise lawful under the laws of this state
State Permit to Purchase?NoYes724.15Permit To Carry may be used in lieu of Permit to Acquire when purchasing a handgun
Concealed carry permits issued?NoShall-Issue724.4Accepts permits from all states, Iowa residents must have Iowa permit
Open Carry?YesYes724.7Iowa issues a "Permit to Carry Weapons" that is necessary to carry a firearm. Iowa law does not generally require that firearms be concealed.
Castle DoctrineNo (see Notes)704

707.6

Civil immunity for use of "reasonable force" in self defense
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?Yes724.1Nearly complete prohibition

Kansas[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit to purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesKansas Chapter 75 Article 7c
Open Carry?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed.

Kentucky[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit to purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Concealed Carry permits issued?NoYesKRS § 237.110
Open Carry?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesKRS § 65.870Exception: KRS § 237.115 allows the following entities to restrict concealed carry:
  • Postsecondary educational institutions
  • Any unit of government within the state in buildings that it owns, leases, or occupies – however, concealed carry is allowed in highway rest areas, public housing, and private dwellings
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed.

Louisiana[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesLRS 40:1379.3Louisiana is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted without a license, but may be restricted by local governments with laws in place before July 15, 1985.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal restrictions in place before July 15, 1985 are grandfathered in. Parishes may regulate hunting and the shooting of firearms.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesAutomatic firearms, short-barreled shotguns, short-barreled rifles, or silencers may not be possessed or transferred without permission of the Department of Public Safety, and must be registered with the Department.

Maine[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYes25 MRS §2006(2)Maine is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted. Open carry in a vehicle is permitted only with a concealed carry license.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?No*No12 MRS §11214*Some requirements if a semi-automatic firearm is used for hunting
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

Maryland[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoYesMd Public Safety Article Section 5-117.1[12]A Handgun Qualification License is required, unless exempted (Active Duty/Retired Military with identification cards, Active/Retired Law Enforcement with department credentials); training is required, unless exempted; fingerprints are required; background checks are required; does not invalidate the requirement to perform an comprehensive background check for every handgun purchase transaction.[12]
Firearm registration?NoYesThe state police maintain a permanent record of all handgun transfers. Automatic weapons must be registered with the state police.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesMaryland is a "may issue" state for concealed carry. Applicants must demonstrate a "good and substantial reason" to carry a handgun. Permits are normally very difficult to obtain.
Open carry permitted?NoYesOpen carry is technically permitted with a concealed carry license, but is not generally practiced.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesMaryland has state preemption for most but not all firearm laws.
"Assault weapon" law?No*YesMd Criminal Law Article Section 4-303*.50 BMG caliber rifles and certain other models are considered "regulated firearms". It is illegal to possess an "assault weapon" or a "copycat weapon" with two or more specified features (folding stock, grenade/flare launcher, flash suppressor) unless registered before 10/1/13.[12]
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesIllegal to purchase, sell or manufacture magazines with a capacity of greater than 10 rounds within Maryland. However, possession of magazines greater than 10 rounds is legal if purchased out of state. These may not, however, be transferred to a subsequent owner.
NFA weapons restricted?No*No**Automatic firearms, SBS's, and SBR's must be owned in compliance with federal law. Law is silent in regards to DD's, silencers, and AOW's

Massachusetts[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?YesYesFirearm Identification (FID) or license to carry required.
Firearm registration?No*No*Registration is not specifically required by law, however transfers of firearm ownership are required to be recorded with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Public Safety and Security (EOPSS) by the seller if in state or by the buyer if out of state. The Massachusetts EOPSS provides the option to register a firearm as well, although other than obtaining a firearm from out of state (a transfer of ownership), this is not required by law.
Owner license required?YesYesFirearm Identification (FID) or license to carry required.
Carry permits issued?NoYesMA Ch. 140 Sec. 131Massachusetts is a "may issue" state for concealed carry; the issuing authority is the local police chief for most jurisdictions. There are several different types of concealed carry licenses. CCW issuance varies within the state. Counties closer to large cities (like Boston) are de facto no-issue, whereas more rural (and some suburban) counties have shall/reasonable issuance policies[citation needed]. Restrictions can be put on any type of permit however, such as only while target shooting and hunting. Permits are valid state wide as long as you are carrying in the manner you are allowed to.
Open carry permitted?NoYes**Open carry is legal in some rural areas but only with a concealed carry license.[citation needed]
State preemption of local restrictions?NoNoThere is limited preemption for some laws.
"Assault weapon" law?YesYesA two point "banned features" system is what defines an "assault weapon". These "assault weapons" are prohibited unless lawfully owned on or prior to September 13, 1994. Firearms that do not have two or more "banned features" are legal to purchase with an LTC-A, LTC-B or in some cases a standard FID so long as magazine restrictions are followed to what your license allows.
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesIllegal to possess magazines of over 10 rounds capacity unless manufactured prior to 09/13/1994, and one has a LTC-A . Does not apply to tubular magazines.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesThe possession of automatic firearms is only allowed with a permit, which is rarely granted[citation needed]. Silencers are restricted only for law enforcement. Some destructive devices are banned at the state level, while others are banned at a local level. DD's can be completely illegal or legal depending on what county you live in. SBR's, SBS's, and AOW's are allowed with proper approval from the ATF, provided they comply with the current assault weapon law and local restrictions.

Michigan[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo*MCL 28.422*Permit required for purchase from an individual if, not processed through a FFL dealer.
Firearm registration?NoYesMCL 28.422]Handguns must be registered with the city chief of police or county sheriff.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesMCL 28.452bMichigan is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted. Open carry in a vehicle is permitted only with a concealed carry license.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal governments may restrict the discharge of firearms.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?YesNoShort barreled shotguns and short barreled rifles are prohibited. Automatic weapons, AOW's, and silencers/suppressors are allowed if in compliance with federal law

Minnesota[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoYes§624.7131Permit to purchase required to transfer/purchase "military-style assault weapons" and handguns through FFL dealers. A permit to carry also acts as a permit to purchase for Minnesota residents. Traditional rifles and shotguns may be purchased without a permit. A permit is not required for private transfers between individuals. (See https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/?id=624.7132 Subd. 12., Sec (1))
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo§624.7131Persons under the age of 21 prohibited from purchasing handguns. Persons 18 and older may purchase "assault weapons" with a permit to purchase (or permit to carry for persons 21 and older).
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYes§624.714Shall Issue. Minnesota Permit to Carry a Pistol required to carry handguns. Concealment is permitted but not required, but only handguns may be carried concealed.
Open Carry?YesYes§624.7181May carry openly with permit to carry. A carry permit also allows for open carry of long guns.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes§471.633Municipalities may regulate the discharge of firearms within their borders.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYes§609.67Machine guns and short-barreled shotguns, unless designated Curios & Relics, are prohibited in most cases. Sound suppressors and some destructive devices are prohibited in most cases.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed.

Mississippi[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesMS Code Sections 95-3-1, 45-9-101, 97-37-7, House Bill 506 of the 2011 Mississippi LegislatureThe Mississippi Department of Public Safety shall issue a license to carry a concealed pistol or revolver to a qualified applicant within 45 days. The license is valid for five years. Concealed carry is not allowed in a school, courthouse, police station, detention facility, government meeting place, polling place, establishment primarily devoted to dispensing alcoholic beverages, athletic event, parade or demonstration for which a permit is required, passenger terminal of an airport, "place of nuisance" as defined in Mississippi Code section 95–3–1, or a location where a sign is posted and clearly visible from at least ten feet away saying that the "carrying of a pistol or revolver is prohibited". With an enhanced carry permit per Mississippi Code section 97-37-7(2) as amended by House Bill 506 of the 2011 Regular Session,[13] the prohibited locations to carry concealed are as follows: any police, sheriff or highway patrol station; any detention facility, prison or jail; courtrooms during a judicial proceeding; any "place of nuisance"; and (not listed in the Mississippi statutes, but still relevant) any place where the carrying of firearms is prohibited by federal law. A license to carry a pistol or revolver is NOT required for open carry. A license is not required for transporting a concealed or visible firearm in a vehicle.
Open Carry?YesYesHouse Bill 2 of the 2013 Mississippi LegislatureThe "HB2" Unlicensed Open Carry Law went into effect July 1, 2013. An injunction, declaring the definition of "concealed handgun" unconstitutionally vague, was initially put in place by a Circuit Court Judge in Jackson, MS. The injunction was vacated August 29th, 2013 by the Mississippi Supreme Court.[14]
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesNo county or municipality may adopt any ordinance that restricts or requires the possession, transportation, sale, transfer or ownership of firearms or ammunition or their components. However, local governments may regulate the discharge of firearms, the carrying of firearms at a public park or public meeting, or the use of firearms in cases of insurrection, riots and natural disasters.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoPermitted as long such possession is in compliance with all federal regulations
Peaceable Journey laws?

Missouri[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesMissouri is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?NoYesOpen carry is generally permitted, but may be restricted by local governments.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal governments may regulate open carry and the discharge of firearms.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable journey law?YesYes

Montana[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Concealed Carry permits issued?NoYesMontana 45-8-321Montana is a "shall issue" state. Concealed carry without a permit is generally allowed outside city, town, or logging camp limits.
Open Carry?YesYesMay carry openly without permit/license.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesM.C.A 45-8-351Complete state preemption of firearms laws except localities may regulate the carrying of concealed or openly carried firearms to a public assembly, a publicly owned building, a park under its jurisdiction or a school. Localities may also regulate the possession of firearms by felons, minors, illegal aliens, or the mentally incompetent.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoPermitted as long such possession is in compliance with all federal regulations.
Peaceable Journey laws?YesYes

Nebraska[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoYesA handgun certificate or a concealed carry permit is required for the purchase of a handgun.
Firearm registration?NoNoThe city of Omaha requires the registration of all handguns.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesNebraska is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?NoYesOpen carry is generally permitted, but may be restricted by local governments. For open carry in a vehicle, the firearm must be clearly visible.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesNebraska has state preemption for most but not all firearm laws.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

Nevada[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNoClark County requires the registration of handguns.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesNRS 202.3657Nevada is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted. For open carry in a vehicle, the firearm must be clearly visible if upon the person.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal authorities may regulate the discharge of firearms. Handgun registration in Clark County is grandfathered in.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

New Hampshire[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNHRS XII §159:14
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry License issued?NoYesNHRS XII §159:6License is shall-issue.
Open carry?YesYesNHRS XII §159:6
NHRS XVIII §207:7
Handgun open carry without license except in a motor vehicle. Loaded long guns prohibited from motor vehicles.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesNHRS XII §159:26Includes knives.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNo

New Jersey[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State permit to Purchase?YesYesA lifetime purchaser identification card is required for any firearm purchase. An additional permit is required for each handgun purchase. Only one handgun can be purchased within a 30 day period.
Firearm registration?NoYes*The NJ State police maintains a record of all handgun transfers, except for inherited firearms willed to the transferee. Firearm registration is voluntary, but since handgun purchase permits are also a form of register, there is de-facto mandatory handgun registration for handguns purchased in-state. *However, handguns purchased out of NJ are not required to be registered, not withholding banned weapons and local restrictions.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesN.J. Admin. Code § 13:54New Jersey is a "may-issue" state for concealed carry. Permit applicants must "specify in detail the urgent necessity for self-protection, as evidenced by specific threats or previous attacks which demonstrate a special danger to the applicant's life that cannot be avoided by means other than by issuance of a permit to carry a handgun." As a result of this tough standard, New Jersey is effectively a "no issue" state unless one is a retired law enforcement officer. Armed security typically gets restricted permits limited to carry while on duty only. A letter of need from the security company is required.
Open carry?NoYesOpen carry is allowed only with a concealed carry permit, and is generally not practiced.
State preemption of local restrictions?NoNoThere is limited state preemption for some firearm laws.
"Assault weapon" law?YesYesNJCC Title 2C:39-1New Jersey prohibits the possession of certain named firearms or "substantially identical" firearms deemed to be "assault firearms", including possession of parts from which an assault firearm may be readily assembled. Firearms classed as assault firearms but acquired before May 1, 1990 and registered with the state are legal to possess. Police officers may possess "assault weapons" for duty purposes and may possess personal assault weapons with recommendation by their agency.
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYesMagazines limited to 15 rounds. Police officers may possess "standard capacity magazines" for duty purposes and may possess personal "standard capacity magazines" with recommendation by their agency.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesPossession of automatic firearms is prohibited without a state license, which is generally not granted.

New Mexico[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit to purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesNMSA 29–19–4Shall-issue, with completion of 15-hour handgun safety course that includes live-fire instruction. Permit required to carry concealed loaded firearm on foot. No permit needed for open carry, concealed carry of an unloaded firearm, or transport of a loaded firearm either concealed or openly in a vehicle. Unlawfully carrying a concealed firearm is a petty misdemeanor that is punishable by up to 6 months in a county jail and/or a fine of up to $500.
Open carry permitted?YesYes
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
State pre-emption of local ordinances?Yes*Yes*As stated in Article 2, Section 6 of the New Mexico Constitution. *Tribal laws on Native American reservations not pre-empted. Additionally, some local jurisdictions have enacted ordinances restricting or banning the discharge of firearms within their boundaries.
Castle Doctrine law?No*No*There is no law that specifically address Castle Doctrine or Stand your Ground in New Mexico. However, Castle Doctrine has been established in practice by a 1946 New Mexico Supreme Court ruling, which states that when a person reasonably feels "threatened with an attack need not retreat. In the exercise of his right of self defense, he may stand his ground and defend himself."[15] Currently, neither law nor court precedence provides the defender immunity from lawsuits arising from the use of lethal force in self-defense.
"Opt-Out" statute?YesYesNMSA 29–19–12; NMSA 30–14–6Property owners may prohibit the carrying of firearms onto property they lawfully possess by posting signage or verbally notifying persons upon entering the property. Violating these "gun-free" establishments is a 4th-degree felony punishable by up to 18 months imprisonment and/or a fine of up to $5,000.
Peaceable journey laws?NoNoFederal rules observed. Federal law pre-empts Native American reservation laws

New York[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoYesS 265.20, S 265.01No NYS permit is required for long guns. NYC residents must apply for and receive a rifle/shotgun permit from the NYC police department, must register every long gun purchased with said permit with the NYC police department and purchases are limited to one long gun per ninety day period. Handguns require a permit. Permits are issued by County or State Supreme Court judges/justices outside of New York City, Nassau and Suffolk Counties, with a background check. Permits for those wanting to carry concealed are issued on a "may issue" basis, whereas permits to merely purchase and possess handguns in the home are issued on a "shall issue" basis. There is an application fee for each Permit, as well as an amendment fee for each handgun added to the permit.
Firearm registration?No*YesS 700.00, S 265.01No registration for long guns. All handguns must be registered under a license. There is a $3 registration fee. Handguns are registered with purchase permit. The serial number and sale is noted down. It is illegal to possess any un-registered firearm. Antique weapons are exempted from this. All handguns must travel in the manner one's license is issued. No record is needed of previously owned handguns with laws enforcement. *All rifles classified as "assault weapons" must be registered with the state by January 15, 2014.
Owner license required?NoYesS 265.20, S 265.01No license is required for long guns. New York State has a handgun ban in place. Exceptions are to those who own a license. They are normally restricted to three types, residence or business premises permit (must issue generally), Target & Hunting and Unrestricted Carry. Target and hunting allows carry while engaged in those activities. Unrestricted allows carry at anytime. All permits issued outside of New York City are not valid in New York City, EXCEPT for retired police and federal law enforcement officers with that status marked on their permit, and for armored car guards on duty. The minimum age to be issued a handgun license is 21 unless you are a former or current member of the armed forces or law enforcement.
Carry permits issued?YesYesS 265.20, S 265.01New York issues CCWs on a "may issue" basis. CCW Issuance is different by county. Generally it is harder to obtain a permit in counties closer to large New York cities. Most Counties that aren't a part of downstate New York have shall/reasonable issuance policies, but may administratively restrict where you can carry your weapon (such as only for target shooting or hunting). It is not a crime to carry a weapon under a Target or Hunting permit for other purposes, but if caught or reported the permit will likely be revoked. Concealed carry without any kind of permit must be charged as a felony unless the weapon is unloaded and no ammunition for it is in possession of the person carrying.
"Assault weapon" law?YesYesS 265.00, S 265.02Possession of assault weapons is prohibited, except for those legally possessed on January 15, 2013 and registered with the state by January 15, 2014. New York City, Buffalo, Albany, and Rochester have enacted their own assault weapon bans. Law enforcement and retired law enforcement are exempt from the "assault weapons" ban.
Magazine Capacity Restriction?YesYes§ 265.02Magazine size limited to 10 rounds however, it is illegal to load more than 7 rounds into a magazine except when at shooting range, hunting, or in one's dwelling. Even if you have a concealed carry license you are only allowed to have only 7 rounds in a magazine. .22 caliber tubular magazines are exempt from the law. Law enforcement and retired law enforcement are exempt from the 10 round and 7 round limit.[16]
Title II (National Firearms Act) weapons restricted?YesYesS 265.02, S 265.02Ownership of machine guns, suppressors, SBR, and SBS are prohibited to the average citizen. DDs are permitted except for rockets with greater than 3 ounces of propellant, which are prohibited.
Open Carry?No*No*S 265.35, S 265.01Open carry is effectively banned under state law. *However some counties (such as Delaware County) will issue permits to open carry, but not concealed carry. Licensed handgun owners have been known to open carry in that county
Castle Doctrine Law?Yes*Yes*§ 35.20*New York has a castle doctrine law. It allows self defense against home invasion.
State Preemption of local restrictions?No*No*NoneNew York preempts only handgun licensing.[17][17] Places such as Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, and most notably New York City have put in more restrictive gun laws, such as licensing of long guns and 5 round magazine limits.
Peaceable Journey laws?YesYesS 265.10With certain restrictions (see below), most notably magazines are not exempt.

North Carolina[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoYesFor handguns, a permit to purchase or a concealed handgun permit is required.
Firearm registration?NoNo**Durham county requires registration of handguns. The county sheriff must keep a record of handgun purchase permits.
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesNorth Carolina is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted, but may be limited by local governments.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesNorth Carolina has state preemption for most but not all firearm laws. Durham county's registration requirement is grandfathered in.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesA permit to possess an automatic firearm may be issued at the discretion of the county sheriff. All other NFA weapons and silencers/suppressors are allowed, as long as federal rules are followed

North Dakota[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesNorth Dakota is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry of long guns is generally permitted. Open carry of a loaded handgun is permitted only by individuals with a valid concealed weapons license. Non permit holders may carry one hour before sunrise till one hour after sunset provided the firearm is unloaded and in plain sight.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoNFA-compliant automatic firearms must be registered with the county sheriff and the state Bureau of Criminal Investigation.

Ohio[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNone
Firearm registration?NoNoNoneNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNoneMagazines holding over 31 rounds makes the weapon an "automatic firearm" subject to law accordingly
Owner license required?NoNoNoneNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesO.R.C. 2923.125Shall Issue – 12 hour training required
Open carry?YesYesO.R.C. 2923.16Traditional open carry state. Restrictions in motor vehicle.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesO.R.C. 9.68Full Preemption – Affirmed by City of Cleveland vs. State of Ohio
NFA weapons restricted?PartialPartialO.R.C. 2923It is a violation of state law to possess NFA weapons except as permitted by federal law.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.

Oklahoma[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo-Private sales legal, no waiting period.
Firearm registration?NoNoNone
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNone
Owner license required?NoNo§21-1273, §21-1276, §21-1283,None
Carry permits issued?NoYes§21-1277, §21-1272, §21-1278, §21-1290.5Concealed carry of loaded handguns permitted; open carry became lawful with permit as of November 1st, 2012. Unlicensed public carry of unloaded handguns and long arms by persons eligible to possess firearms is allowed under some circumstances.
Open carry permitted?NoYes§21-1290Open carry is permitted with a handgun carry license.[18]
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes§21-1289.24
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo§21-1289.18Short barreled rifles and shotguns are illegal to possess under state law unless registered under the NFA, ownership and possession of automatic firearms is legal under state law.

Oregon[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
State permit to purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNoThe Oregon State Police may maintain a record of firearms sales from Federal Firearm Licensees for a period up to seven years.
"Assault Weapon" law?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesORS 166.291Oregon is a "shall-issue" state. Though Sheriffs "may issue" licenses to residents of contiguous states on a discretionary basis. In practice most county sheriffs either adopt restrictive criteria for issuing licenses to non-residents or simply refuse to issue licenses to non-residents.
Open carry?YesYesOpen carry of firearms is legal. However cities and counties may regulate the open carry of loaded firearms in public places. Localities that prohibit open carry of loaded firearms in public places include: Astoria, Beaverton, Independence, Newport, Oregon City, Portland, Salem, Tigard, and Multnomah County.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal regulations do not apply to licensed open carry.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoAllowed as long as such items including machine gun lower receivers/ automatics sears, short barreled rifles, short barreled shotguns, and suppressors are in compliance with federal law and registered to the NFA.
Peaceable journey laws?YesYes

Pennsylvania[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant statutesNotes
Constitutional Right to Bear ArmsYesThe right of the citizens to bear arms in defence of themselves and the State shall not be questioned. Art. 1, § 21 (enacted 1790, art. IX, § 21).
State permit to purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?YesYes18 Pa.C.S. § 6109License to Carry Firearms issued on a "shall-issue" basis.
Open carry?YesYesUnlicensed open-carry everywhere except Philadelphia or in/on a vehicle.
Castle Law/Stand Your Ground?YesYes[1]Castle Law. No duty to retreat inside castle. No duty to retreat outside castle if confronted with a deadly weapon.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes18 Pa.C.S. § 6120
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo
Peaceable Journey laws?YesYes

Rhode Island[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–35All purchasers of handguns must complete and pass a safety exam managed by the RI Department of Environmental Management, at which time they will receive a DEM issued "blue card" allowing purchase. Exempt are active duty military members, law enforcement officers, and retired law enforcement officers.
Firearm registration?NoNoRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–41
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNone
Owner license required?NoNoNone
Carry permits issued?NoYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–11
RI Gen. Stat. 11–47–18
Rhode Island is a hybrid "shall issue" and "may issue" state for carry. Licenses may be granted either by local authorities or by the state's attorney general's office. Licenses granted by local authorities are "shall issue" while those issued by the attorney general's officer are "may issue" under state law. However, most local authorities defer to the attorney general which effectively blocks most issuance, unless one is a retired LEO.
Open carry permitted?YesYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–18Open carry of handguns is permitted for only those with a carry permit issued by the attorney general. Open carry not permitted for those who's handgun carry permits were issued by local authorities. Long gun open carry is not prohibited by law.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–58
Castle Doctrine Law?YesYes[2]No duty to retreat if you are in your home
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–8
RI Gen. Stat. 11–47–20
It is a violation of state law to possess any NFA weapon or silencers with the exception of Class III FFLs.
Peaceable Journey laws?NoYesRI Gen. Stat. 11–47–8State law mirrors Federal law to a limited degree but does not make any provision for transport of rifles and explicitly states that an individual transporting a weapon must have a valid permit in another state. The State may also adhere to federal law but this is unclear and there does not appear to be any statewide policy. The Firearms owners protection act preempts this however, and the only known weapons that are illegal are NFA weapons.

South Carolina[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesSC Code 23-31-210South Carolina is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?NoNo
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoSC Code 16-23-210 through 16-23-250Permitted if registered in accordance with federal laws. State law makes possession, storage, and transfer illegal but then grants an exception for "any person authorized to possess these weapons by the United States Department of the Treasury, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or any other federal agency empowered to grant this authorization".

South Dakota[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesSD 23-7-7South Dakota is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry is generally permitted. For open carry in a vehicle, the firearm must be clearly visible.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

Tennessee[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNoneNo
Firearm registration?NoNoNoneNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNoNoneNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNoNoneNo
Carry permits issued?No*YesTCA 39-17-1351Permits are "shall-issue". Concealed or open carry of a handgun is allowed with permit. *Loaded long gun carry is generally illegal. Those with a Handgun Carry Permit(HCP) holders may have loaded long guns in a private vehicle so long as there is not a round in the chamber 39-17-1307(e) There are also other exceptions (like for hunting) listed in 39-17-1307
Open carry permitted?YesYes§ 39-17-1307, 39-17-1308Open carry of loaded handguns is permitted for those who have been issued a license to carry. Long guns may only be carried unloaded.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes39-17-1314Tennessee is an anomalous State. The Legislature made a loop hole for cities and municipalities with laws in effect prior to April 8, 1986. The local ordinances in effect before April 8, 1986 pre-empt State law see TCA 39-17-1314(a). Local governments may post signs per 39-17-1359 to prohibit carry on government property, just like private property owners.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoNoneOn July 1, 2003 public chapter 275 is in effect. It requires the CLEO, chief law enforcement officer, to sign NFA paperwork in 15 days if the applicant is not prohibited from possessing firearms. see TCA 39-17-1361 .
Peaceable Journey laws?NoNoNoneFederal rules observed.
Self-Defense LawYesYes39-11-611There is not duty to retreat before using deadly force, as long as you are acting lawfully and are in a place you have a right to be in. It is presumed you had a reasonable fear of imminent death or serious bodily injury if someone unlawfully and forcibly enters a residence, business, dwelling or vehicle.

Texas[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNoNone18+ to generally own a firearm
Concealed Carry on College Campus?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNoNone
"Assault" weapon law?NoNoNone
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNoNone
Carry permits issued?NoYesGC Ch. 411.172Concealed carry of a handgun requires a "shall-issue" permit, and is subject to specific laws governing trespass while armed. Open carry of a handgun is prohibited with some exceptions (hunting, on one's own property).
Open Carry?Partial*NoPC 46.02*Long gun open carry is not explicitly forbidden by law, however in most urban areas it may be cited as disorderly conduct. Open carry of a long gun is generally allowed in rural areas.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLGC §229.001.FIREARMS; EXPLOSIVES. (a) A municipality may not adopt regulations relating to the transfer, private ownership, keeping, transportation, licensing, or registration of firearms, ammunition, or firearm supplies.

Municipal governments can enact regulations on the discharge of firearms (such as noise, nuisance or public safety ordinances); however, those laws are subject to and cannot preempt State law concerning justified use of a firearm.

NFA weapons restricted?NoNoPC 46.01(9), PC 46.05State law prohibits ownership outside of NFA compliance, calling possession while in compliance "a defense to prosecution."
Peaceable Journey laws?YesYesPC 46.02, PC 46.15A person may carry a loaded handgun without a permit while in or heading directly to a motor vehicle or watercraft they own or control. The statute does not specifically state the handgun must be concealed while heading to the vehicle or watercraft, and 46.02, which requires concealment of a handgun while in a motor vehicle or watercraft, is not applicable to a person while the person is traveling, pursuant to said activites. 46.15(b)(2).
Castle Doctrine/ Stand your ground law?YesYesPC 9.32A person is presumed justified in using deadly force to protect themselves against an unlawful, forceful intrusion into their dwelling, or to prevent an unlawful, forceful attempt to remove a lawful occupant from the dwelling, or to prevent certain serious felonies such as burglary or arson. There is no duty to retreat from any place where the shooter has a legal right to be.

Utah[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State permit to purchase?NoNoPrivate sales are legal. No waiting period.
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault Weapons" law?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?YesYesUT 53-05-0704Open carry allowed without permit and concealed carry of loaded firearm allowed with permit.
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry of unloaded handguns and long guns is generally permitted without a permit.
State pre-emption of local restrictions?YesYesMunicipalities may regulate the discharge of firearms.
NFA weapons restricted?NoNoPossession of NFA firearms in violation of federal law is a third degree felony under state law. However, possession and ownership of NFA firearms and items is legal under state law if federal requirements and laws are followed.
"Peaceable Journey" law?YesYes76-10-523Persons exempt from weapons laws.

"(g) a nonresident traveling in or through the state, provided that any firearm is: (i) unloaded; and (ii) securely encased as defined in Section 76-10-501." Handguns may be loaded in any vehicle under the person's control.

"Castle Doctrine" law?YesYes76-2-405Force in defense of habitation.

"(1) A person is justified in using force against another when and to the extent that he reasonably believes that the force is necessary to prevent or terminate the other's unlawful entry into or attack upon his habitation; however, he is justified in the use of force which is intended or likely to cause death or serious bodily injury only if: (a) the entry is made or attempted in a violent and tumultuous manner, surreptitiously, or by stealth, and he reasonably believes that the entry is attempted or made for the purpose of assaulting or offering personal violence to any person, dwelling, or being in the habitation and he reasonably believes that the force is necessary to prevent the assault or offer of personal violence; or (b) he reasonably believes that the entry is made or attempted for the purpose of committing a felony in the habitation and that the force is necessary to prevent the commission of the felony. (2) The person using force or deadly force in defense of habitation is presumed for the purpose of both civil and criminal cases to have acted reasonably and had a reasonable fear of imminent peril of death or serious bodily injury if the entry or attempted entry is unlawful and is made or attempted by use of force, or in a violent and tumultuous manner, or surreptitiously or by stealth, or for the purpose of committing a felony."

"Stand Your Ground" law?YesYes76-2-405Force in defense of person -- Forcible felony defined.

"(1) (a) A person is justified in threatening or using force against another when and to the extent that the person reasonably believes that force or a threat of force is necessary to defend the person or a third person against another person's imminent use of unlawful force. (b) A person is justified in using force intended or likely to cause death or serious bodily injury only if the person reasonably believes that force is necessary to prevent death or serious bodily injury to the person or a third person as a result of another person's imminent use of unlawful force, or to prevent the commission of a forcible felony."

Vermont[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?nono
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo-
Magazine restriction?NoNo-
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoNoVermont Firearm LawsMay carry open or concealed without permit as long as you are a citizen of the U.S. or a lawfully admitted alien.
Open carry?YesYes-
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes-
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo-All NFA weapons are allowed with the exception that silencers may not be sold or possessed.

Virginia[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?No*No**Automatic firearms are required to be registered with the state police.
Owner license required?No*No**Proof of age and citizenship required for the purchase of "assault weapons".
Carry permits issued?NoYes§ 18.2-308Virginia is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?YesYes§ 18.2-287.4. & § 18.2-282.Open carry is permitted with the exception of "assault weapons" and shotguns with a 7+ round magazine in the cities of Alexandria, Chesapeake, Fairfax, Falls Church, Newport News, Norfolk, Richmond, and Virginia Beach and in the Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Henrico, Loudoun, or Prince William. These restrictions do not apply to valid concealed carry permit holders. For open carry in a vehicle, the firearm must be clearly visible.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYes§ 15.2-915Virginia has state preemption for most but not all firearm laws.
"Assault weapon" law?No*No**Proof of age (18+ for long arms, 21+ for pistols) and proof of citizenship (or permanent residence license) are required for the purchase of "assault weapons". "Assault weapons" are defined as a semi-automatic, centerfire, firearm equipped with a folding/adjustable stock, or equipped at the time with a magazine capable of holding 20+ rounds, or capable of accommodating a silencer/suppressor.[19]
Magazine restriction?No*No**Magazines capable of holding 20+ rounds are legal but, they make the firearm an "assault weapon", subject to law accordingly.
NFA weapons restricted?YesYesAutomatic firearms must be registered with the state police. Plastic firearms and SOME destructive devices (such as the striker 12 shotgun) are prohibited outside law enforcement. SBS, SBR, AOW's, and silencers are legal with NFA paperwork.

Washington[edit]

Subject/LawRelevant Statutes for Long guns / HandgunsRevised Code of WashingtonNotes
State Permit to Purchase?No / No
Firearm registration?No / Partial

RCW 09.41.110(9)(a) and (b)

Retail dealers must record and report all retail pistol sales to local police/sheriff and to state department of licensing.
Owner license required?No / No
"Assault weapon" law?No / No
Constitutional Right to Bear Arms?Yes / YesWA Constitution art. 1 sec. 24
Carry permits issued?No / Yes

RCW 09.41.050 CCW Reciprocity

Washington is a "shall-issue" state and will grant concealed carry permits to all applicants that meet the criteria. There are no training requirements.
Open carry?Yes / YesRCW 09.41.050 (in vehicle)Open carry is lawful in Washington without any permit. Open carry of a loaded handgun in a vehicle is legal only with a concealed pistol license. Open carry of a loaded long gun in a vehicle is illegal, regardless of CPL possession.
State Preemption of local restrictions?Yes / Yes

RCW 09.41.290 RCW 09.41.300

State Law does not allow more restrictive local laws.
NFA weapons restricted?Yes / Yes

RCW 09.41.190 RCW 09.41.220 RCW 09.41.225 RCW 09.41.250(1)(c)

Machine guns and short-barreled rifles or shotguns are illegal for non-law-enforcement possession. Silencers are lawful to possess and use if registered properly with ATF.
Peaceable Journey laws?No / No

RCW 09.41.050 RCW 09.41.060 18 USC § 926A CCW Reciprocity

Federal travel-with-a-firearm laws apply. Some out-of-state CCW licenses valid, otherwise carry must be open or, in a vehicle, unloaded.
Castle Doctrine / Stand your ground law?Not defined - de factoRCW 9A.16.050, RCW 9A.16.110The Washington State Supreme Court ruled "that there is no duty to retreat when a person is assaulted in a place where he or she has a right to be."[20][21]

West Virginia[edit]

Subject/LawLong GunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Permit to purchase required?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?NoYesWV Code §61-7-4West Virginia is a "shall issue" state for concealed carry.
Open carry permitted?NoYesOpen carry is generally permitted, but some local restrictions are grandfathered in.
State preemption of local restrictions?YesYesLocal laws in place before June 1, 1999 are valid.
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

Wisconsin[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
Constitutional Right to Bear ArmsYes1:25"The people have the right to keep and bear arms for security, defense, hunting, recreation or any other lawful purpose."
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes66.0409
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo175.3548 hour waiting period on handguns
Concealed carry license issued?NoYes175.60Permit is given on a shall-issue basis. May carry openly without a license (except in taxpayer-owned buildings & school zones).
Open carry permitted?YesYesOpen carry of loaded handguns and long guns is permitted without a license. If carrying openly in a vehicle, it must be "visible to ordinary observation" in order not to be considered concealed (needing a license).
Castle Doctrine/Self Defense StatutesYes895.62Immunity from prosecution and civil damages in the home, with conditions and exceptions
939.48No duty to retreat in the "dwelling" or owned/operated place of business. No deadly force solely to protect property. 3rd party protection. If attack is provoked, self defense may only be used if reasonable belief of imminent death or great bodily harm. If attack is provoked deadly force only allowed if all other reasonable means of avoidance exhausted.
940.01"the state must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the facts constituting the defense did not exist in order to sustain a finding of guilt"
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine restrictions?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo941.29
NFA weapons restricted?Machine Guns restricted, exceptions apply941.298

941.26

Silencers, SBR, and SBS allowed if NFA rules followed, otherwise felony

Wyoming[edit]

Subject/LawLong gunsHandgunsRelevant StatutesNotes
State Permit to Purchase?NoNo
Firearm registration?NoNo
"Assault weapon" law?NoNo
Magazine Capacity Restriction?NoNo
Owner license required?NoNo
Carry permits issued?YesYesResidents may carry open or concealed without a permit however, permits are issued to those who wish to have them. Non-residents are required to have a CCW permit from a state Wyoming recognizes if they wish to carry concealed.
Open carry?YesYesNo permit required for both residents and non-residents.
State Preemption of local restrictions?YesYes
NFA weapons restricted?NoNo

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms Provisions, UCLA School of Law". University of California, Los Angeles. December 31, 1991. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  2. ^ "New York Civil Rights – Article 2 – § 4 Right to Keep and Bear Arms". Law and Legal Research. March 30, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  3. ^ June 28, 2010 09:09 (June 28, 2010). "Victory for the Second Amendment". Gun Owners of America. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Concealed Carry Reciprocity Map on". Usacarry.com. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997)". FindLaw. Retrieved November 23, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Printz v. United States". Stephen P. Halbrook. Retrieved March 28, 2010. "Congress may not require the States to administer a federal regulatory program" 
  7. ^ Arkansas AG says new gun law doesn't allow open carry KAIT TV, July 8, 2013
  8. ^ Connecticut Carry's Article on open carry citing state and town evidence
  9. ^ Georgia's firearms weapons permit statute contains an important exception to its "shall issue" language which allows a local judge to deny issuance based solely on a determination that the applicant "is not of good moral character". See O.C.G.A. § 16-11-129(c)(4)
  10. ^ http://iot.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/2192
  11. ^ http://www.paulhager.org/why004.htm
  12. ^ a b c http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2013RS/bills/sb/sb0281e.pdf (PDF). Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  13. ^ "House Bill 506" (PDF). Retrieved June 13, 2013. 
  14. ^ http://courts.ms.gov/Images/Orders/700_80585.pdf
  15. ^ New Mexico Has Stand Your Ground for Certain Juries, Albuquerque Journal, July 29, 2013
  16. ^ http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2013/07/gov_andrew_cuomo_signs_amendment_to_ny_safe_act_allowing_exceptions_for_retired.html
  17. ^ a b http://www.volokh.com/2010/12/31/victory-for-firearms-preemption-in-new-york/
  18. ^ https://www.sos.ok.gov/documents/legislation/53rd/2012/2R/SB/1733.pdf
  19. ^ "LIS > Code of Virginia > 18.2-308.2:01". Leg1.state.va.us. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 
  20. ^ 137 Wn.2d 533 State of Washington v. Studd; Decided 1999/04/01.
  21. ^ 150 Wn.2d 489 State of Washington v. Reynaldo Redmond; Decided 2003/12/06.

External links[edit]