Gumball 3000

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Gumball 3000: The Movie
Directed bySteven Green
Produced byDavid Green, Maximillion Cooper
StarringBurt Reynolds (as narrator)
CinematographyPaul Kirsop
Editing byChris Shaw
Release date(s)2003
Running time98 minutes
LanguageEnglish
BudgetGBP 500,000
 
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Before the start of the Gumball 3000 in Pall Mall, London, 30 April 2007

The Gumball 3000 is an annual British 3,000-mile (4,800 km) international road rally which takes place on public roads, with a different route around the world each year. Founded in 1999 by Maximillion Cooper, it sees an annual entry of 120 cars, which are mostly exotic and powerful sports cars. However, more unusual entries (such as police cars and camper-vans) have been seen. The Rally is not a serious race in the traditional sense of rally races - there are no prizes for being fastest or official timekeeping of any sort. Organizers emphasize that it is a road trip adventure and not a race.[1][2]

In 2008, the rally included a unique stopover in Pyongyang, the project having been initiated by the North Korean ambassador to Britain. Permission was initially granted to drive from South Korea through the fortified border, though in the end the stopover was without the cars.[3]

Contents

History

Often compared to the 1980s Cannonball Run films starring Burt Reynolds, the Gumball 3000 is actually not influenced by these or the stories that gave rise to those movies, but instead draws inspiration from movies such as Two-Lane Blacktop, Vanishing Point, Bullitt and Le Mans. However, there was a 1976 movie called The Gumball Rally featuring a 3000-mile race across America with exotic cars and international drivers on public roads that may be the source of the name of the race.

1999

The original rally featured 55 of Cooper's friends, and travelled from London, to Rimini, Italy and back, passing through Paris, with a stop at the Chateau d'Esclimont.[when?] Lapping the Le Mans race circuit, a checkpoint followed at the Mas du Clos Ferrari Museum, before moving on to Monaco Grand Prix circuit in Monaco, the Ferrari Factory in Maranello, the Ambras Palace in Austria and the Hockenheim Grand Prix Circuit in Germany before returning to London to cross the finish line on Park Lane. The winner drove a 1963 Jaguar E-Type. Other drivers included actors Billy Zane in a 1965 Aston Martin DB5, Jason Priestley in a Lotus Esprit V8 and Dannii Minogue in a Porsche Boxster. Just like in the original film The Cannonball Run, where a police car joins the wacky racers, entrepreneur Justin Etzin & actress Alexandra Aitken drove an original British police car in the rally, borrowed from the British TV show The Bill. The couple won the prize for the most original car of the Gumball Rally.

2000

In May 2000, the second rally began at Marble Arch in London and continued to Stansted Airport where all the cars and entrants were airlifted to a private airport in Spain. The rally then progressed through Europe via Bilbao, Cannes, Milan, Hotel Bühlerhöhe Castle near Baden-Baden, the Nürburgring GP circuit and Hamburg, before returning to London. Notable entrants included drum and bass legend and James Bond villain, Goldie, in an Aston Martin V8; 'It-girl' Tara Palmer-Tomkinson in a Jaguar XK8; Great Train Robber Bruce Reynolds in a Bentley; the indie band Placebo in a Lagonda; the Happy Mondays all crammed into a 2+2 Jaguar; and Maximillion Cooper in the famous Bentley Arnage 1WO.

2001

The third rally, held in April 2001, featured 106 cars, including Johnny Knoxville, Steve-O and Chris Pontius, the hosts of Jackass, driving a 1989 Jaguar XJ6; F1 World champion Damon Hill driving a Lamborghini; comedian Vic Reeves in a Mercedes-AMG; Lord Montagu of Beaulieu in a Blower Bentley, entrepreneurs Justin Etzin and Lord Edward Spencer Churchill in a Police Range Rover and Maximillion Cooper in an original Shelby Cobra. The rally progressed from Hyde Park Corner in London to Berlin, Malbork, Vilnius, Saint Petersburg, Helsinki, Stockholm and Copenhagen before returning to London. Kim Dotcom finished first in his Mercedes Brabus SV12 Megacar. Select portions were broadcast as an hour-long Jackass Gumball 3000 Special on MTV and received the highest viewer ratings of the year. Ruby Wax also broadcast coverage of the event for terrestrial TV in the UK on BBC1, and wrestled with Chris Pontius while the Gumballers were stuck at the Lithuanian/Latvian border.

2002

The fourth rally was held in April 2002, the first to be held outside of Europe. Beginning in New York and finishing at the Playboy Mansion in Los Angeles, the rally passed through a checkpoint at the White House in Washington DC before stopping in Memphis, Tennessee for lunch in Elvis Presley's Mansion, Graceland. After receiving a Dallas Cowboys welcome in Texas, stops were made at the Cadillac Ranch; Santa Ana, New Mexico; the Grand Canyon; and Las Vegas, Nevada before the final stop at the Playboy Mansion in Beverly Hills where Hugh Hefner and Playmates awarded trophies. Entering the contest were 175 cars, including a 1960s Corvette painted in the Stars and Stripes that received an award for best car, the 1959 Ferrari 250 GT California Spyder similar to one used in the movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off that was bought at a cost of over 1 million USD just to take part in the Gumball, as well as American muscle cars and modern day supercars. Fashion designer Donna Karan, supermodel Jodie Kidd, models Amy Wesson and Rachel Hunter, entrepreneur Justin Etzin and actor Matthew McConaughey were among the participants.

2003

The fifth rally was held in May 2003, with more than 100 cars beginning in San Francisco, California with a finish line in Miami, Florida. The rally passed through Reno, Nevada; Las Vegas; Tucson, Arizona; White Sands, New Mexico; San Antonio, Texas; Houston, Texas; and New Orleans, Louisiana. Featured entrants included Jackass' Ryan Dunn racing a rental car alongside skateboard legends Tony Hawk and Bam Margera in a Dodge Viper, Bucky Lasek, Motocross World champions Travis Pastrana and Carey Hart, and supermodel Jodie Kidd. Cars included a mix of Ferrari F50s and 360s, Lamborghini Murcielagos, a Koenigsegg CC and Jesse James' customized VW Eurovan. Alex Roy and Dave Maher won the Gumball Spirit Trophy in his Team Polizei BMW M5, outfitted with German Police equipment. Top Gear reported that the Koenigsegg CC8S holds the fastest speeding ticket in the world, which allegedly occurred in May 2003 in Texas. It was supposedly 242 mph (389 km/h) in a 75-mph (120 km/h) zone. The "Fastest Wheels" award was presented to Rob "Lonman" Kenworthy in a Porsche GT2, with the "Special Award" presented to Richard and Sue Rawlings, owners of a heavily modified Chevy Avalanche.

2004

The sixth rally was held in May 2004 in Europe, fielding 192 cars. The rally began at the Eiffel Tower in Paris and transitioned to Biarritz, Madrid, and Marbella before crossing the Mediterranean Sea to Africa. In Marrakech, Morocco, entrants were guests of the King before returning to Spain for the Barcelona Grand Prix and finishing at Cannes for the film festival. Former boxing world champion Chris Eubank drove a truck, while The Pianist Academy Award winning actor Adrien Brody favoured a Porsche, the 'Ai Ya' Boys rented a Winnebago RV, and Rob Dyrdek and Big Black drove the rally in a rental car. Gary Lutke and John Docherty won the coveted Spirit Trophy in a Citroën 2CV, and the Style Award was presented to Alex Roy's Team Polizei 144, dressed as Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Entrepreneur Justin Etzin and Model Mellissa Bradbury drove an Original NYPD Ford Crown Victoria Police Car, and were awarded most original Car of the Rally. The Safety Award was presented to Torquenstein for surviving a near fatal Dodge Viper crash in Morocco. An all woman team piloted by Allison Cornia (MTrouble) and Cassandra Dungan (Porsche 911 Turbo X50) were awarded the Technomarine Timekeeper's Award. Former Champion jockey Richard Dunwoody and journalist Clement Wilson entered in a Volvo V70R and wrote an account entitled "Our Gumball Rally" published by Virgin Books.

2005

The seventh rally originated at Trafalgar Square on May 14, 2005, and progressed 3000 miles from London to Brussels, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, and onto to Dubrovnik in Croatia. The cars then were transported by ferry to Bari, Italy, followed by a transit of the Targa Florio circuit in Sicily, before heading north to Rome and Florence. The finish line was in Monaco's Casino Square prior to the F1 Grand Prix. Participants included Daryl Hannah, rock stars and supermodels driving vehicles ranging from the Dukes of Hazzard General Lee to Ferrari Enzos and Mercedes-Benz SLRs. The Spirit Trophy was awarded to Sue Bellarby and Kathy Huddart, whose Caterham 7 broke down just shy of the finish line. The two were transported to the finish line by Gumball legend Alex Roy in his "Guardia Civil" Team Polizei BMW M5 who finished 2nd dressed as a Spanish cop. The year's unofficial winners were Greg and "Kalbas" in a 2004 Mercedes CLK-DTM, who edged out a week-old Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren because a tire was destroyed just short of the finish line. YouTube sensation and rally car driver Ken Block also attended with his DC Shoes associates in three modified 2004 Subaru WRX STi's sponsored by DC Shoes.

2006

2006 start in London

The 2006 rally was the most ambitious of any Gumball 3000 race, starting in London and finishing in Los Angeles just 8 days later. The organisers flew all 120 cars from Europe to Asia and on to the USA in three Antonov An-124's and an Icelandair passenger Boeing 757. The rally began on April 29, 2006, in Pall Mall, London, and continued on to Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade. The drivers then boarded a plane in Serbia and landed in Thailand for the rally's second leg between Phuket and Bangkok. The final leg occurred in the United States between Salt Lake City to Los Angeles, via Las Vegas, where Snoop Dogg performed live at the Gumball party. Entrants included Jackass stars Ryan Dunn and Bam Margera, driving Margera's Billy Idol-customized Lamborghini Gallardo; Tony Hawk, Mike Vallely, and Rooftop Escamilla in a Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT8; blink-182's Travis Barker drove his Rolls Royce Phantom[disambiguation needed] with Swizz Beatz; Dirty Sanchez used a Japan-Tuning style Nissan 180SX; Dan Joyce, Matthew Pritchard, and Love Actually star Martine McCutcheon drove a pink Range Rover; and American television host Matt Johnston drove his custom 2006 Dodge Charger, among Gumball's regular assortment of eccentrics, celebrities, millionaires and billionaires from all over the world. Team Polizei's Alex Roy and Michael Ross dominated Gumball 2006, arriving first in Belgium, Vienna, Budapest, Furnace Creek and Beverly Hills, even beating Gumballers who skipped the intermediate checkpoints. Team Polizei, suffering from both Ed Leigh's sabotage and accident damage in Thailand, did not participate in the Thailand leg and made a surprise visit to the Burmese border, where pictures were taken with border guards who thought Team Polizei were UN inspectors. Torquenstein returned despite his serious accident in the 2004 event, driving a rally-ready Ford GT. Modifications included a smoke screen, laser jammers, radar surveillance and three GPS units. Torquenstein arrived second in Belgrade, eighth in Thailand and arrived simultaneously to finish on the final stage with the Team Polizei Bentley driven by Roy and Ross. The Spirit Trophy was won by Damian Williams, Richard Blackburn and Ezra Chapman of Team 15, who crashed a camouflage Rolls Royce Phantom at approximately 160 mph just north of Belgrade. The team allegedly rode 500+ miles in a cab across Thailand, then received a brand-new Rolls Royce Phantom in Salt Lake City and drove to the Beverly Hills finish line. Upon arriving at the Playboy Mansion with the twisted grille from the first Phantom, Hugh Hefner presented the duo with a fitting trophy, a gumball machine.

2007

Alex Roy's Team Polizei 144 BMW M5 with 2007 Gumball 3000 decals

The 2007 route was scheduled to travel from London to Istanbul, via Amsterdam, Munich, Tirana, Dubrovnik, and Athens. Over 100 contestants were scheduled to drive through 16 countries in 8 days. The entrance fee for the 2007 rally was GB£28,000 (US$55,060) for first-time drivers.[4] Upon arrival on April 29 in the Netherlands, the Dutch Police met the participants with 14 police cars and 7 unmarked cars. Seven drivers including rapper Xzibit lost their drivers' licenses for speeding 50 km/h over the legal limit and two cars were confiscated. The Dutch government has forbidden streetraces by law, although rallies that are performed within the law (i.e. participating in a rally without a competitive element) are not forbidden.[5][6] The next day, the German police escorted all vehicles to the Frankfurt airport where the cars and participants were flying to Turkey. A police spokesman told the media that the information about the route had been available on the official Gumball 3000 website.[7] After Germany, the rally was due to continue from Istanbul. The participants were flown to Istanbul, but the Antonov planes carrying their vehicles were diverted to Athens.[8] The drivers were flown on to Athens, though four teams (Team Polizei, Team Turkish Taxi, Team Aytac, and Team 15) chose to drive the distance in other vehicles.[9]

On May 2, a traffic accident occurred near the town of Struga, Republic of Macedonia. The Techart Porsche 911 Turbo of Nick Morley and Matthew McConville hit an oncoming Volkswagen Golf; in court, the prosecution alleged a speed of 161 km/h[10] (other reports contend a speed of 200 km/h or more, while others doubt such a speed would be practical given the poor road conditions).[11] According to media reports, they fled[12] in a BMW M6 with Russian plates to a nearby border post, where they were arrested by the police. The casualties reported in the accident were the 67-year-old driver of the other vehicle, Vladimir Chepunjoski, who died on his way to the hospital, and his wife, Margarita Chepunjoski, who died in hospital from injuries sustained in the crash on May 4.[13][14][15] The organisers initially continued the rally despite the incident, but in a later official statement stated that the clear details of the incident and confirmation of a fatality didn't occur until some hours after the briefing, at which point the decision to cancel the remainder of the rally was made.[16] The subsequent court hearing found Morley guilty and convicted of "endangering traffic, leading to death"[17] and was released from custody after receiving a two-year suspended sentence. After the verdict Morley's family released a statement[18] detailing its own expert's findings, which contradict those of the prosecution's expert. The statement also claims that the defence were denied the opportunity to present their expert's findings, which could contravene article 6 of the European convention on human rights, the right to a fair trial. However, he did not appeal the verdict.

2008

David Hasselhoff waving the checkered flag at the 2008 Gumball 3000

The 2008 10th Anniversary Gumball 3000 Rally took place in August. Cars which neutralized their carbon emissions were preferred and proof was required. The entry fee was £60,000 ($120,000US). The start line was in San Francisco, and proceeded through checkpoints in Los Angeles, San Diego, Las Vegas, a flight to Nanjing (with drivers stopping over in Pyongyang), Shanghai, and finally Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games.

2009

The 2009 event was a "Coast to Coast' road trip adventure from Los Angeles to Miami from May 1 - 8th. The event also included a free music concert in Santa Monica and car displays in Santa Monica, Las Vegas, Santa Fe, Dallas, New Orleans and Miami. The 2009 Gumball officially partnered with the Wounded Warrior Project, a non-profit organisation benefiting and raising awareness for the needs of severely injured United States Service men and women. Wounded Warrior Project representatives participated in the rally and were present throughout.

2009 Prize Winners

The 2009 “Spirit of the Gumball”: Danny Kass & The Dingo – 2006 Chevrolet Fun Mover

The 2009 “Ambassadors Award”: Sheikh Moe, Matt & Mothman – 2008 Rolls Royce Phantom Drophead

The 2009 Monster Energy Award for “Bad Behaviour”: Tom Clarke & Tom Boddy of The Enemy – 2009 Jaguar XKR

The 2009 Incipio “Navigators Award”: Samantha Styles – 2008 Nissan GTR

The 2009 Incipio “Enthusiast Award”: Caleb ‘Stuntman’ Garrett – 2007 Porsche Techart TT 800HP

The 2009 Recaro “Back Seat Driver Award”: Ellen Foster-Taylor – 1961 Jaguar Mk2

2010

The 2010 event travelled between London and New York. The rally began in London on the first of May, taking in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Boston, Quebec City, Toronto and Niagara Falls before finishing in New York.

On 20 April, professional skateboarder Tony Hawk announced on his Twitter page that he was entering the rally in the A-Team van, as used in the 2010 movie. Other celebrity participants included rapper Xzibit in a Porsche Cayenne and Eve in a Bentley Continental GT. Actor Idris Elba took part in an Aston Martin DB9. Michael Madsen quit the rally after he was stopped by the police for speeding.[19]

On Saturday, May 1, before the start of 2010's Gumball Rally on Pall Mall, London, dancers and performers, organised by Talent Expo, gave a flashmob performance of Michael Jackson's Smooth Criminal. The performers, choreographed by professional Choreographer for the BBC, Richard Marcel, and former Michael Jackson feature dancer Patrick Alan, came from among the crowd viewing the cars on static display, and performed an adaption of the iconic Smooth Criminal choreography, adapted from the routine made famous in Michael Jackson's 1988 film Moonwalker.

2011

In an email exchange between Maximillion Cooper and the 2010 rally drivers, the route for 2011 was released. In accordance with the email: "So to officially announce next years adventure….its an amazing 3000 mile route full of cultural contrasts and additional highlights to enjoy. We’re going from London to Istanbul in 7 days, via Paris…Barcelona…Cannes Film Festival…The Monaco Grand Prix…Venice…Belgrade…Sofia and Istanbul! Incorporating the Cannes Film Festival and the Monaco Grand Prix will be HUGE!".[20] On February 24, 2011, it was announced that the Rally will have its pre-Rally party on 25 May before leaving London on May 26, 2011. It was also revealed that the 2011 rally would cost £25,000 to take part in.[21]


2012

The 2012 rally ran from New York City to Los Angeles, via Toronto, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Santa Fe, and Las Vegas. The rally was held from May 25-31. The rally included stops at Niagara Falls, Indianapolis 500, Windsor, Ontario, Detroit, St Louis, Route 66, the Grand Canyon and Death Valley. Maximillion Cooper and Eve had trouble with their Shelby Cobra, so when Cooper asked his mate Romuald Clariond if he and his team could help fixing in St Louis, Clariond offered them to take the second Rally Fighter he had on support truck. With two exemplaries on the rally, Local Motors' Rally Fighter really made a splash on 2012 rally. Romuald Clariond and his team Gumball Rally Fighters (with Saba Aberi, and support vehicle made of Buddy Crisp and Adam Keiser) have been awarded of 'Help Max Award' in Los Angeles.

Participants

Drivers from 1999 to 2011 include:

Action sports stars:

  • Trigger Gumm
  • Mike 'Rooftop' Escamilla
  • Felix Arguelles
  • Dave Mirra

Musicians and performers:

Spirit of the Gumball Winners

The accolade of 'Spirit of the Gumball' Trophy is awarded to the driver(s) each year that embody the fun freedom of spirit and adventure that the event strives for. The Spirit of the Gumball award is often awarded to the drivers of the vehicle that has perhaps been regarded as an 'underdog' (such as the Citroen 2CV, a Ford Transit ice-cream van, or 1963 VW Campervan) - or to the participants that have completed the 3000 miles against all odds, such as fixing their broken vehicle, or getting lost en route.

Official Spirit of the Gumball Trophy Winners

YearWinnersCar
1999Luke Craft & Dylan Murray1999 Light Car Company Rocket
2000Tom & Barbara Brudenell Bruce2000 Ferrari 550
2001Team Bridger (cit. The Italian Job) Daniel Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden & Liam ThorntonBullet & Bomb Proof Ambassadors Mercedes-Benz
2002Mark Croker & Rory SweetFerrari F50
2003Alex Roy & David Maher (Team Polizei)2000 BMW M5
2004Gary Lutke & John DochertyCitroën 2CV
2005Sue Bellarby & Katie HuddartCaterham 7
2006Damian Williams, Richard Blackburn & Ezra ChapmanRolls Royce Phantom
2007Kemal Sadikoglu & Alikonur YarsuvatTurkish Taxi
2008Yo Esbensen & Jasper Watts (US Stage Spirit Award)2008 Scion xB X Rogue Status edition
2008David Carrington & Philip Wright (Overall Spirit of the Gumball 10th Anniversary Winners) Presented in Beijing1963 VW Samba T1 21-window split screen campervan
2009Danny Kass & The Dingo - presented in Miami2006 Chevrolet Fun Mover RV
2010Fahad Alturki, Rami Alturki, Ziad Alturki & Richard Bramall (Team Pavo)2009 Mercedes-Benz ML63 AMG & 2007 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti
2011The Dudesons2010 Cadillac Escalade converted into an ambulance
2012Charles & Kira Morgan2012 Morgan Threewheeler

Gumball 3000: The Movie

Gumball 3000: The Movie
Directed bySteven Green
Produced byDavid Green, Maximillion Cooper
StarringBurt Reynolds (as narrator)
CinematographyPaul Kirsop
Editing byChris Shaw
Release date(s)2003
Running time98 minutes
LanguageEnglish
BudgetGBP 500,000

Gumball 3000: The Movie is a 98-minute 2003 film feature directed by Steven Green and narrated by Burt Reynolds and a reminder of the 1970s Cannonball Run movie called Gumball 3000. The film is narrated by the Burt Reynolds, and features Maximillion Cooper, The Cuban Brothers, Ryan Dunn, Dimitry Elyashkevich, Tony Hawk, Lady Victoria Hervey, Jodie Kidd, Alexander Roy and others and also Simone Bargetze as a TV reporter. It focuses on a 3000 mile race from San Francisco to Miami that took place in the Spring of 2003.

Video Game

In 2002, SCi developed a Gumball 3000 video game for the Sony PlayStation 2.[23]

Gumball 3000 Apparel

Gumball 3000 Apparel was launched in 2006 as a streetwear label as a result of the brand's increasing recognition. Maximillion has designed for and collaborated with designers and labels including Puma AG, Adidas Originals, DC Shoes, Royal Elastics, Rogue Status, Famous Stars and Straps. Inspired by the worlds of action sports as well as the motorcar, Gumball 3000 Apparel showcased its AW09 collection at Bread and Butter fashion Expo in Barcelona.

See also

Scumrun - an annual charity event based at the opposite spectrum of vehicles, with a maximum purchase price of £500

References

  1. ^ "Gumball: 'It's not a race, it's a rally'". Budapest Sun. May 12, 2005. http://www.budapestsun.com/news/56488. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  2. ^ "It's not a race, it's a rally". IMV Films. April 30, 2003. http://www.imvfilms.com/itsarally.php. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
  3. ^ "Race Car Tour Stops to Party in N Korea". ABC News. http://a.abcnews.com/m/screen?id=5590780&pid=76.
  4. ^ "Gumball rally kicks off". Metro. April 30, 2007. http://www.metro.co.uk/fame/article.html?in_article_id=47234&in_page_id=7&in_a_source=. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  5. ^ "Cars seized as Gumball 3000 hits Holland". Dutchnews.nl. 1 May 2007. Archived from the original on May 4, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070504004417/http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archives/2007/05/justice_ministry_seeks_to_ban_road_rallys.php. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  6. ^ "Justitie wil autorally's verbieden" (in Dutch). nu.nl. 2007-04-30. http://www.nu.nl/news/1061266/61/rss/Rapper_Xzibit_verliest_rijbewijs_tijdens_rally.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  7. ^ "Polizei stoppt 70 Luxuswagen bei illegalem Autorennen" (in German). FAZ.net news. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 2007-04-30. http://www.faz.net/s/Rub21DD40806F8345FAA42A456821D3EDFF/Doc~E1CF8C8600FE74B29B9C4EADEB4FFA9AE~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  8. ^ "Gumballers arrive in Athens". GTspirit.com. 1 May 2007. http://www.gtspirit.com/2007/05/01/gumballers-arrive-in-athens/. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
  9. ^ "Team Polizei driving to Athens". GTspirit.com. 1 May 2007. http://www.gtspirit.com/2007/05/01/team-polizei-driving-to-athens/. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
  10. ^ "Opposing forensics reports confronted at Morley's trial". MakFax Online. 4 June 2007. http://www.makfax.com.mk/look/novina/article.tpl?IdLanguage=1&IdPublication=2&NrArticle=70219&NrIssue=363&NrSection=10. Retrieved 2008-08-31.[dead link]
  11. ^ "Fast as a Shark: East of Eden: The Fall of the Gumball 3000". jalopnik.com. 5 May 2007. http://jalopnik.com/cars/commentary/fast-as-a-shark-east-of-eden-the-fall-of-the-gumball-3000-258147.php. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
  12. ^ Ray Wert (May 3, 2007). "Gumballers Nick Morley And Matthew McConville Arrested After Hit-And-Run Fatality". Jalopnik. http://jalopnik.com/cars/gumball-3000/gumballers-nick-morley-and-matthew-mcconville-arrested-after-hit+and+run-fatality-257447.php. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
  13. ^ "Gumballers Nick Morley And Matthew McConville Arrested After Hit-And-Run Fatality". Jalopnik. 3 May 2007. http://jalopnik.com/cars/gumball-3000/gumballers-nick-morley-and-matthew-mcconville-arrested-after-hit+and+run-fatality-257447.php. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  14. ^ "Briton reported for accident near Struga gets 30-day temporary detention". MakFax. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on September 4, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070904185939/http://www.makfax.com.mk/look/novina/article.tpl?IdLanguage=1&IdPublication=2&NrArticle=66001&NrIssue=336&NrSection=10. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  15. ^ "Релито „Гaмбл 3000“ ја зеде и втората жртва во Македонија" (in Macedonian). MakFax. 2007-05-04. Archived from the original on Sep 28, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070928044415/http://www.makfax.com.mk/look/novina/article.tpl?IdLanguage=10&IdPublication=2&NrArticle=66191&NrIssue=337&NrSection=10. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  16. ^ "A Statement from Maximillion Cooper". Gumball 3000 Official website. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070513183951/http://www.gumball3000.com/. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
  17. ^ "Gumball Rally Death Driver Sentenced". June 8, 2007. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Sky-News-Archive/Article/20080641269671. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
  18. ^ "Morley Family Releases Statement Post-Gumball Verdict". June 11, 2007. http://jalopnik.com/cars/near-to-the-east%2C-in-a-part-of-ancient-yugoslavia/morley-family-releases-statement-post+gumball-verdict-267750.php. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
  19. ^ "Film star Madsen leaves Gumball Rally in Belgium". BBC News. 2010-05-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8657854.stm. Retrieved 2011-06-20.
  20. ^ "Gumball 3000- Route for 2011! – Jon Olsson - Official homepage and blog". Jon-olsson.com. 2010-05-19. http://www.jon-olsson.com/?p=1695. Retrieved 2011-06-20.
  21. ^ "2011". Gumball3000.com. http://www.gumball3000.com/history/2011. Retrieved 2011-06-20.
  22. ^ "Bam Margera and Dunn in Gumball 2006". GTspirit.com. 2006-04-12. http://www.gtspirit.com/2006/04/12/bam-margera-and-dunn-in-gumball-2006/. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  23. ^ [Gumball 3000 history: 2002]

External links